And a combination of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen can be used in aqualung devices.Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at a very low temperature.Liquid nitrogen is a colourless clear liquid.Many gases can be put into a liquid state at normal atmospheric pressure by simple cooling; a few, such as carbon dioxide, require pressurization as well.In the first approach, the application of pressure alone is sufficient to cause a gas to change to a liquid.
1349 words (3.4 pages)
If the flask were too full, the distillation process would also be slow as there would be little surface area for rapid evaporation of the boiling liquid.Sometimes mixtures may boil off a vapor which has the same ratio of constituents as the liquid mixture which means the chemical composition stays the same in both the liquid and vapour form.Vapourization involves the exciting of the atoms and as they reach the surface of the liquid they must overcome the pressure and attractive forces to become vapour.The cooling water within the condenser must enter to bottom and exit the top because the water must be circulating and the theory of condensing requires a vapour to cool to become liquid.It is dangerous to heat a liquid in a distilling app...
1058 words (2.6 pages)
The ‘Communalities’ table shows the communalities value for each of the 35 items in the AIO questionnaire.The AIO approach is one of the most common approach use by scholars to measure consumers’ lifestyle (Li 2004).Appendix 1 shows the AIO questionnaire.When testing for normality on the AIO items, most of the AIO items seem to be normal with the exception of AIO8, 10,11,14,25,31,32,38.These 11 extracted factors can explain 65.518% of the variances in the AIO questionnaire items.
4267 words (10.7 pages)
The impeller rotates and the curved blades draw liquid cooling from the bottom of the radiator and force it to flow through pump outlets and water jackets.It a system that uses liquid as a cooling agent and is used in a multi-cylinder engine such as cars and trucks.Engine cooling system is a system that responsible for cooling the engine by releasing heat through the cooling fins so that the carâ€™s engine is not too hot or not too cold.It is not recommended to use only water as a liquid cooling because it would freeze if the temperature drop below 0oC.Select the type of liquid cooling and thermostat that will be used.
5186 words (13.0 pages)
The liquid was decanted from the mixture and the resulting crystals were dried on filter paper.Once recrystallization has occured, comparison by melting point confirms the purification.The crystals were allowed plenty of time to fully cool.Cooling the mixture in an ice bath ensures that all crystals have formed, and drying removes any remaining solvent.The melting point of the product confirmed the high level of purity, and the difference between the crude and recrystallized products could be easily observed.
1069 words (2.7 pages)
Position beaker 2 under the funnel and pour the mixture through the filter, first decanting most of the liquid into beaker 2 and then transferring the wet solid into the funnel.Collect all the liquid in beaker 2.5) Evaporation: involves the process of heating a mixture in order to separate a volatile liquid in the form of a vapor, while the remaining component dry.Rinse beaker 1 with 5-10-mL of water, pour over the residue in the funnel and add the liquid to the filtrate.The NaCl dissolved in the water, and by decantation, the process of separating a liquid from a solid by gently pouring the liquid from the solid so as not to disturb the solid, the NaCl solution was separated from the SiO2.
1740 words (4.4 pages)
This is due to either (a) the chains are strong to resist the stress; or (b) the force applied is excessive for the motionless polymer chains to overcome, so the polymer sample will just break or shatter.The differences are outlined in the table below: .It is soft and pliable at body temperature, characteristic of an amorphous solid in its elastic, rubbery condition.Example of this behavior is the glass transition of chewing gum.Melting is a transition that occurs in crystalline polymers when these chains are disoriented from the crystal structures and become liquid.
452 words (1.1 pages)
The vapour pressure of the sealant liquid into the Liquid ring pump plays an important role in determining the pump capacity.The liquid ring pump must then be partially filled with a liquid which will act as the sealant and results in forming a vacuum.The liquid ring pump operates as a vacuum pump using liquid as a compressing agent.This will cause the impeller blades closest to the wall to be completely submerged in the liquid sealant and the impeller blades furthest away from the wall create a void space with the liquid ring.This creates a suction force which draws gaseous fluid into the pump inlet, as the impeller carries on rotating anti-clockwise from the bottom to the top the liquid is forced closer to the impeller compressing the ...
4956 words (12.4 pages)
It is a highly stable, long-lasting silicone fluid designed for high temperature liquid phase operation.kf = liquid thermal conductivity, Wm-1â„ƒ-1 .Equations (liquid in jacket) heat input to reactor at T = heat loss by utility liquid with inlet temperature T1 and outlet temperature T2 .To develop a batch cooling crystallization process, various operation strategies need to be investigated in relation to seeding, cooling, mixing, fines dissolution, and so forth.The rate of temperature change of the liquid inside the vessel is given by .
1520 words (3.8 pages)
For example: when the surface area increases the rate of cooling decreases and when the surface area decreases the rate of cooling increases.Therefore it is clear through my results, that rate of cooling and surface area, are directly proportional to each other when using water.One of main problem was that I had to estimate how much water to put into the beaker before heating; this was not easy as the water evaporated off and on several occasions we were left with not enough liquid in the beaker.This is because there is not much energy left in the liquid.To keep an accurate measurement I will use the same thermometer and end the experiment when the liquid reaches 50oC.
964 words (2.4 pages)
In addition, solid scrap does not remain within the vessel after converting it to liquid.And with the fulfillment of these needs, new processes will develop that will continue to improve the way steel is produced using oxygen.Like the bottom-blown processes, the combined blowing processes suffer from the need to change out the bottom refractories and tuyeres at a greater rate than the other refractories.This modified top-blown configuration results in a lower operating cost due to stirring of the liquid steel from the bottom.They also suffer from the top-blown process’s need for larger vertical space due to the oxygen lance height.
1336 words (3.3 pages)
To study the effect of water cooling on thermoelectric device in terms of peltier cooling.In spite of this cooling application are expensive and do not easy for use / fabricate, example, air conditioner, refrigerator, cooling device are produce one device and the size is not much small.One of the methods in achieving the best cooling capacity of peltier module is to remove the temperature of the hot side of the peltier plate in a very effective way so that the temperature difference between the hot side and the cold side can shift or concentrated on the cool side.The thermoelectric cooling (Peltier cooling), are generally much less performance than the mechanical refrigerant.From the research data for the thermoelectric cooling, the heat...
3920 words (9.8 pages)
The vapor at the top of the column then passes into the water-cooled condenser, where it condenses into a liquid.When a liquid mixture 1 propanol and 2 propanol is heated so that it boils, the evolved vapor will have a higher concentration of the more volatile 2 propanol (i. e. , lower boiling point) components than the liquid mixture from which it evolved.Used Peng Robinson model Inside the column, the downflowing reflux liquid provides cooling and condensation of the upflowing vapors thereby increasing the efficacy of the distillation column.Some of the vapor cools and condenses on the glass platforms (known as plates or trays) inside the column and runs back down into the liquid below, thereby refluxing the upflowing distillate vapor....
620 words (1.6 pages)
Convection is heat transferred by a gas or liquid.Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher.The more dense cold liquids and gases sink down through the less dense warm liquids and gases.Radiation is quite different from conduction and convection.It is not a matter of something hot carrying the energy itself, or of atoms handing the energy on from one to the next.
406 words (1.0 pages)
Is glass liquid or solid?all solids, and to consider it a liquid would to go against the one .A liquid has viscosity, which is a measure of its resistance to flow.physicists would consider it a liquid because of its thermo molecular .Another way to decide where glass is a liquid or solid is to .
769 words (1.9 pages)
The Nernst coefficient of partitioning, arranged for iron substitution is the ratio of the products of the % (per cent) weights of the elements substituted.Leaving the mantle, and entering the crust of the earth, the melts can either be intrusive or extrusive, yet the fundamental pressure temperature relation for sulphide solubility, from mantle to the crust in liquid state, remains the same.The increase in sulphur content with increase temperature is reinforced by the experiments of Haughton et al 1974 and Shima and Naldrett 1975, for which, although the figures are of different nature for direct comparison, the fact remains that the sulphur content actually increases with temperature, making this a control of sulphur solubility in the ...
1479 words (3.7 pages)
Some types of liquid remain uncrystallized in these conditions depending on there properties and retain the physical properties of a liquid (Wowk, 2010).When the liquid is cooled sufficiently it becomes viscous in a glass like state or a non moving liquid, molecular diffusion stops and ice formation is insignificant.There are three main approaches to vitrification: ultra-rapid cooling, pre-freeze the addition of cryoprotective agents, freeze the cryoprotective agent during slow cooling.To eliminate this problem the solution is not to drastically reduce the cooling rate as if the cooling rate is slow damage can occur as complete dehydration takes place and the physical strain caused to the cell can cause damage (Ryan, n.d.).When the solut...
4972 words (12.4 pages)
On the Orientation pour tous website: The Youth Information network .Website of the Youth Information and Documentation Center: CIDJ .Access to information must be considered a real right for all young people, without any discrimination.Website of the National Union of Youth Information - Info Jeunes France: InfoJeunesFrance.org .The subjects which encourage users to consult the resource centers of the Youth Information Network are for more than 50% studies, training, employment then come to 25% social themes and of practical life.
232 words (0.6 pages)
When a structure is heat treated, its cooling process helps retain its structure.Basically glass transition is the time in which a steady transformation occurs from the liquid state to a slightly rubbery state and then to the final more rigid solid material.L symbolizes the temperature needed for the solution to become a liquid.When the temperature is below this value, the material is in a ceramic from and directly above this point the material is considered a supercooled liquid.Polymers exhibit viscoelasticity at temperatures between where elastic and liquid like behaviors are prevalent.
3728 words (9.3 pages)
Cooling Curve Cooling curve is a graphical representation of the changes of states of substances as heat is uniformly removed from it.From our basic chemistry, we taught about the change of state or phase of matter wherein soli becomes liquid and liquid turns to gas and vice versa.As oppose to supercooling, superheating also occurs where liquid is heated to a temperature above its boiling point without evaporation.At t2 – t3, the average KE of the liquid particles decreases and the temperature reaches low level until t3 where the liquid starts to solidify.This time, the amount of liquid decreases and the amount of solid increases until reaching t4 when sufficient heat has been removed thus converting all the liquid into solid.
1111 words (2.8 pages)
As the cool refrigerant vapor proceeds through the evaporator, extra heat is received to superheat the vapor. Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M.If the subcooling is caused by a heat-transfer method external to the refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant effect of the system is increased because the subcooled liquid has less enthalpy than the saturated liquid.Accomplished subcooling is by refrigerating the liquid line of the system, using a higher temperature system.The last thing to be mentioned, the more effort is needed to superheat a refrigerant by increasing the evaporator load, to remove its liquid, in greater extent the power input of the compressor would increase.
869 words (2.2 pages)
This method can also be used to cool solid objects, but the most drastic cooling in the fractions of a kelvin range are generally accomplished for low-density gases that have already been greatly cooled (around 3-4 K) .Vapor-compression refrigeration and thermoelectric cooling are macroscopic cooling methods, as these methods can effectively cool a large amount of a substance or some other relatively large object.First, the sample to be cooled (typically a gas) is allowed to touch a cold reservoir (which has a constant temperature of around 3-4 K, and is often liquid Helium), and a magnetic field is induced in the region of the sample.The most commonly used method of cooling is with vapor-compression cycles, because it is fairly easy to ...
2476 words (6.2 pages)
There is a temperature difference across the column (hot at the bottom, cool at the top).Used for diesel fuel and heating oil; starting material for making other products.•liquid Heavy Gas or Fuel oil Used for industrial fuel; starting material for making other products.•liquid Gas Oil or Diesel Distillate .The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks, or they may go to other areas for further chemical processing.
533 words (1.3 pages)
Bimettalic strips are also used as thermostats.The greater length of the coiled version gives improved sensitivity.If the gas inside the balloon condenses into a volatile liquid at or around 77 K, the volume change will be even larger.Since the container containing liquid also expands with heat therefore Real Expansion = Apparent Expansion + Expansion in a liquid of liquid of Container .Thermal Expansion – Real-life applications Engine Coolant Another example of thermal expansion on the part of a liquid can be found inside the car’s radiator.
1385 words (3.5 pages)
Flashing a portion of the water in the tank reduces the liquid temperature.Selection of cooling medium.If the flash vapor removed from the chamber, the liquid will cool to the required temperature.The superheated vapor of refrigerant is then travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor refrigerant into a liquid refrigerant by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature.The refrigerant is then going through a condenser to remove the latent heat of condensation, thus returning the refrigerant into liquid form.
2854 words (7.1 pages)
It would appear that Titan – the only body in the Solar System other than Earth to have a ‘thick’ nitrogen atmosphere – is one of the prime candidates for exploration and investigation into the development of the early Earth.Ice has a higher albedo than water and if a large enough hole was made the decreased albedo could have caused a runaway melt.If that is the case, it could be possible that life developed on Titan before it became frozen and, if it did, it may still persist deep in Titan’s interior.Carl Sagan, for instance, has speculated that on extremely cold worlds where water is frozen, liquid ammonia may act as the necessary solvent.7 It is known that Titan is comprised mostly of ice, but early in its existence, when it resided i...
1011 words (2.5 pages)
Most of the Water and the Nitric Oxide leaves as vapour, leaving the liquid stream 6 consisting of mostly Nitrobenzene and Anthraquinone.In conclusion, the capital cost of the vapour phase is approximately £100,000 greater than the liquid phase process however the material costs of the liquid phase process exceed that of the vapour phase by about £400,000.Furthermore, the environmental and safety issues were in favour of the liquid phase.C-101 separates the solid Anthraquinone from any material in the Liquid Phase.For these reasons, the liquid phase process has been chosen.
3940 words (9.9 pages)
The primary function of the receiver-drier is to separate gas and liquid.It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and stores excess liquid refrigerant.To ensure that the valve gets liquid refrigerant, a receiver is used.This type of valve is usually located at the firewall, between the evaporator inlet and outlet tubes and the liquid and suction lines.Introduction of liquid refrigerant into a compressor can do serious damage.
4256 words (10.6 pages)
As in compression refrigerators, it is the evaporation of a liquid at low temperature which absorbs the heat of the medium to be cooled.The difference is in how you create the high and low pressure.It can be used for trigeneration for the simultaneous production of electricity, hot water and air conditioning among others.For the absorption refrigerator, it is the absorption phenomenon that creates the low pressure while the high pressure is obtained by heating.The absence of a compressor allows silent operation, which makes it particularly suitable for hotel rooms and motorhomes.
294 words (0.7 pages)
This supports my expectations and I conclude the experiment as being successful.The aim of this experiment is to find out if a steaming cup of coffee stays warm longer when leaving it untouched, or pouring cold milk into it Theory Physics informs us that large quantities of liquid take longer to cool than smaller quantities.The only major error that may have occurred is the parallax error.As the table of results shows; the beaker in which the milk was poured right after the coffee was added (beaker A), meaning it contained more liquid during the procedure of going up to the door and back, did indeed stay warmer.This may have happened during the taking down of readings from the thermometers, although great care was taken to avoid this.
518 words (1.3 pages)