Biological Positivism Essays

Found 16048 essays.

Biological and Psychological Theories of Crime

These biological factors are inclusive of the ones talked about in the first paragraph, but also of other biological explanations, such as research that examined genetic factors.In order for the biological perspective to be fully evaluated, four things must be accomplished: the estimation of the extent of the biological disorders in the antisocial population, the identification of causal mechanisms, the assessment of the biological and environmental factors, and lastly, the determination as to whether therapy works.In conclusion, individual (biological) positivism places an emphasis on determinism – an individual’s subjectivity to external forces and the problem that arises from it of under socialisation and the subsequent difference of ...

1314 words (3.3 pages)
Positivism Theory Essay

Causes have to be material and observable – biological positivists look at biological observables such as anatomical abnormalities, identifiable genetic or gene patterns, bodily movements etc.Many modern scientists have virtually discredited positivism in favour of what we call the hypothetico-deductionist approach or a falsficationist approach.Thus, so-called abstract views of human nature such as that they are rational and use reason in making choices about their actions have to be discarded as a cause of behaviour in favour of non-rational causes such as determination by such things as biological inheritance or forms of social conditioning or, in many cases, a combination of both (as in Eysenck).Positivism is an epistemological positi...

730 words (1.8 pages)
Positivist Theory – Crime Essay

Biological positivists generally look for biological causes generally in genetic inheritance.Positivism is a theory of knowledge which states that science is based upon theories that have been derived solely upon empirical evidence.The positivist theory approach to crime consists of three major features which include biological, psychological and social positivism.The biological perspectives is overviewed in the reading by Fishbein.Biological: The biological component of positivism seeks to examine data from sources such as twin studies, family studies, genetic patterns and biochemical aspects in an attempt to conjure an explanation for a particular behaviour.

920 words (2.3 pages)
After a century of criminological theory, why does crime still exist Essay

In essence the positivist perspective argues that individuals are not actually in control of their behaviour but rather at the mercy of the various biological and or psychological determinants influencing them.Specifically positivists attribute three strands which underlie criminal activity: biological factors, psychological factors and biosocial factors.Positivism places its focus on the importance of external and internal determinants of crime and criminality.From this point of view behaviour can be seen as the product of nature vs. nurture, Eysneck (1984) suggested the idea that behaviour can be explained by the combination of biological and environmental influences.Similarly Fishbein (1990) and Anderson (2007) emphasise that biologic...

1887 words (4.7 pages)
Traditional Classical Theory Verses Positivist Theory

Rejecting Classical Theories, Biological Positivism focuses on empirical evidence from the study of twins, families and genetics to emphasise the biological determinants of criminology(Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1990).Eysenck focused on both biological determinants for characteristic types and behaviour determinants as an explanation for crime where a lack of developed morals and conscience cause a criminal to not feel guilty.Lombroso used biological explanations for crime, describing the characteristics or stigma of an atavistic criminal.This forgoes individual choice and holds biological and psychological predisposition responsible, giving a new consideration for judges because of a new understanding on criminal behaviour(Padhy, 2006)....

2302 words (5.8 pages)
The Principles Of Classicist And Positivist Criminology Criminology Essay

Classicism and Positivism are both very influential theories that relate to crime and deviance.To conclude, the main difference between classism and positivism is that classicists look at punishment and positivism looks at treatment and causes of crime.Biological positivism came from the work of Lombroso, whereby he tried to identify different types of individuals.Classicism and Positivism oppose with each other on the response to crime, classicism focuses on punishing the offender for the crime they have committed whereas positivism focuses on trying to give treatment to the offender and reform, both theories response to crime differ.Classicism and positivism oppose each other to quite an extent, they have some similarities however the ...

2531 words (6.3 pages)
The contribution that positivist criminology have made to the understanding of the causes of crime

Sociological positivism was shown as viewing crime as normal while individual positivism claims it’s abnormal, therefore effecting how each reacted to, and viewed crime, with sociological side even seeing crime as performing a positive function.The perspective views crime as being generated by forces located within the individual, such as biological and psychological drives i. e. personality theories.Biological positivism highlights the impact of nature but was unable to identify what was transmitted.More recent research was conducted by Mednick et al (1987) who showed a possible link between adopted children and their biological fathers.Eysenck’s theory combines biological determinism with social conditioning in producing personality.

2034 words (5.1 pages)
Examining The Historical Development Of Criminology Criminology Essay

One key writer in biological positivism is Cesare Lombroso – who suggested a criminal was not made by society but rather born that way (i.e.Treatment in positivism should be immediate and should fit the needs of the offender.Whereas classical theory looks at the offense, and positivism focuses on the offender, social constructionist theory looks at the social reaction to deviance.If biological theories are considered along with psychological and sociological theories, then they can help explain criminality.Sociological positivism explains criminality with reference to social circumstances and factors external to the individual, so moves away from pathology.

1759 words (4.4 pages)
Biological Positivism and Crime | Dissertation Proposal

Research into contemporary biological explanations, including twins studies and hormones, has led to the conclusion that criminality in a minority of offenders is solely caused by biological factors (Hopkins Burke, 2009).After researching into biological positivism, the use of biological theories in the current criminal justice system are identifiably lacking with more emphasis on environmental factors being seen as the causes of crime.A biosocial, multi-factor, approach has been formed over the recent years incorporating environmental, social, and biological factors (Hopkins Burke, 2009) nevertheless there seems to be an ignorance of biological factors.It is the purpose of this dissertation to assess the relevance of biological positivi...

2011 words (5.0 pages)
Theories of Crime | Introduction

There are many theories in biological positivism which all state that individuals are compelled to commit crime as it is part of their biological make-up, such as physical factors, theories related to the body, chromosomal anomalies, etc.The main limitations in biological positivism occur throughout all the categories even biochemical explanations such as hormone imbalances and substance abuse which has not been discussed in detail.Furthermore, to support the statement that biological positivism is a weak theory, Sheldon’s work was follow up by a Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development and found there was no physical difference between offenders and non offenders, therefore suggesting there is no reliability due to the inconsistency.Th...

2556 words (6.4 pages)
Josef Fritzl And Classical Theory Philosophy Essay

Upon closer inspection, the psychological aspect of the positivism theory reveals that often c .In other words, the positivism theory delves into intrinsic nature of humans themselves, often highlighting certain foul traits or attitudes.Ergo, the concept of a weak conscience in the positivism theory agrees with Fitzl’s view.While this theory agreed with the majority of Fritzl’s confession, it can also be seen that it bears it flaws and limitations, namely with the omission of external factors such as the biological and psychological side to criminal activity.This may have given rise to the ‘beast’ within him, thus reiterating the positivism theory at play.

1931 words (4.8 pages)
Criminological theories – Durkheim, Beccaria, Lombroso

Furthermore, positivism is deterministic in nature or in other words it considers that crime is outside of individual’s control.Given the assumptions of biological positivism, the only reasonable rationale for punishing offenders is to incapacitate them for as long as possible so that they no longer pose a threat to the peace and security of society, all of which is justified by a doctrine of social defense (Lombroso 2002, p.272).Lombroso, Cesare (2002), ‘Cesare Lombroso and the Origins of Biological Criminology, The Criminology Journal, vol.12, 272-275.On the other side, positivism argues that biological and psychological factors affect human behaviour but the aspect of certainty and severity of punishment is not considered (Vold et al ...

2018 words (5.0 pages)
The difference between classical and positivist understanding

Additionally, the sociological concept of positivism clarifies that crime is typically a socially assembled occurrence that requires to be controlled in a given society explains Gottfredson et al., (1990).The second modification of positivism is the mental/psychological influence, that is based on the understanding that human mind is accountable for the movements of crime thereby this develops the idea of ‘criminal mind’ (Moyer, 2001).Therefore, positivism showed a broader range of crime response and presented unknown sentences which enabled criminals to make rehabilitative development; as oppose to classical theory, which mainly trusted on fixed and determinant sentences (White et al., 2008).Equally, positivism is based on deterministic...

1755 words (4.4 pages)
An analysis of Criminology and its history

.. (7)A number of different aspects of criminal justice policy has been presented throughout the history... Due to this shift in philosophical thinking gave birth to a new paradigm of criminology, which was known as positivism.They observed that the biological, psychological, and social qualities determined the criminal behavior.The Classical School of criminology presents theories that evolved from a capital punishment type of view to more humanitarian based punishment of people.(4)Later, the positivist school of thought in the field of criminology introduces a scientific approach to the field of criminology,and they also included the biological and medical findings in this appraoch.

1703 words (4.3 pages)
The History And Background Of Positivism Philosophy Essay

Max Horkheimer, the Frankfort School director, criticised positivism, firstly it falsely represented human social action and secondly positivism being politically conservative proving as a hindrance towards political emancipation of humanity.The first criticism argues that, positivism ignored the role of the observer in the context of social reality and thereby ignores the truth that the so called “social facts” are in fact conditioned by social and historical realities.Moreover, positivism has been criticised by several philosophers on the grounds of its practicality, methodology and religious aspects.Further, positivism has been criticised on philosophical grounds that it emphasized only on the sensory experiences or empiricism, but ig...

2434 words (6.1 pages)
Positivist and Constructionist Theories: Basic Differences

In looking at determinism, we have biological determinism an example of which is phrenology, and social determinism an example which is anomie-strain.In the 1940’s, Merton addressed the biological aspect of deviance and determined biology cannot by itself be blamed for the nature and difference of deviance from one society to the next.The old school positivism relied on biological reasons or factors.It is based on biological determinism and looks at physical attributes.The “ism” that isn’t(why social determinism cannot mean what it says).

1190 words (3.0 pages)
Criminology Theories – Strengths And Weaknesses

As modernity has progressed so has the development of the judicial systems, if positivism was used as the main criminological thinking then these systems wouldn’t exist because positivism uses treatments to the criminal in order to solve crime.However the main weakness of the classical school of criminological thinking is that it considers all criminals to be rational and make decisions by free will, but not all individuals are rational and not all their behaviours are free, as if an individual had a mental illness or a physical defect, this may totally change the way in which they act and think.This could be why the classical school of criminology has been so influential and still is, because it protects various organisations set out to...

1716 words (4.3 pages)
Positivist Approach to Sociological Research

It is important to remember that, as opposed to biological instincts driving us to act like a shark would, a mindless automaton, (Craib 1989 p4) Thus each individual creates their own mental representation for their drives thus meaning that every persons internal world has a different geography.As quoted elsewhere, (Johnson p231) The desire for reliable, valid knowledge is of course a relevant and important sociological aim and some of the tools that positivism uses to try to reach such knowledge are useful and worthwhile.(Marshall p509) Comte, the originator of the positivist sociological methodology shifted his emphasis away from positivism in his later work, thus exposing the inherent problems and weaknesses at its methodological co...

3056 words (7.6 pages)
Applications of Positivism in Social Research

It is important to remember that, as opposed to biological instincts driving us to act like a shark would, a mindless automaton, (Craib 1989 p4) Thus each individual creates their own mental representation for their drives thus meaning that every persons internal world has a different geography.Broadly speaking structuralism is, (Johnson p646) Positivism and structuralism are generally highly complementary, positivism effectively being the scientific methodology of structuralism.As quoted elsewhere, (Johnson p231) The desire for reliable, valid knowledge is of course a relevant and important sociological aim and some of the tools that positivism uses to try to reach such knowledge are useful and worthwhile.(Halfpenny p120) In conclusi...

3025 words (7.6 pages)
Positivism And Its Influence On Studying Society Philosophy Essay

Therefore, the intension of positivism is to produce general laws that can be used to predict the behaviour (Fisher, 2007) and hence, positivism can be defined as an epistemological perspective which applies scientific reasoning to develop general laws in order to explain social phenomena in the process of knowledge construction (Henn, Weinstein and Foard, 2009; Remenyi et al., 1998).It shows two different epistemological aspects of positivism.It depicts about the possibility of knowing the society in the positivism perspective and also introduces the traditional positivism perspective i.e.In the words of Durkheim (1982: 159), ‘Since the law of causality has been verified in other domains of nature and has progressively extended its auth...

1950 words (4.9 pages)
Enlightenment And The Positivist Revolution Criminology Essay

As Stanley Cohen states positivism came to symbolise ” scientism, technology, dehumanization, rectification and the personalization of a social problems by seeing them through the lense of pathology and psychiatry” First popularised by French sociologist Augsute Comte(1798-1857) and then Lombroso(1911) who borrowed heavily from Darwinian theories on evolution and also by Enrico Ferri and Raffale Garrofalo.Institutionally the rise of positivism coincided with the emergence of the professions and the ” scientific method”.Focusing on the scientific method, not only makes it inaccessible to the general community, but completely rejects common sense notions of the majority and places criminality into hands of the medical profession, the soci...

1516 words (3.8 pages)
Application of criminology theories to movies

Moreover, it is a ‘fault’ in their biological nature, which causes them to commit crime .Psychological positivism posits that a criminal is made not born and that crime resides within the criminals mind which is in turn the result of a different manner of thinking as opposed to social conditions .Lombroso proposes that Aboriginals are born with atavism , which is defined as a biological throwback characterised by atavistic stigmata .The predominant theories throughout the film however are Biological Positivism and Marxist Criminology.Biological Positivism posits that crime is not the choice of the offender.

3092 words (7.7 pages)
Positivism and study of society

Comparing with empiricism in Enlightenment, the biggest contribution of positivism is complete the methodology on empiricism and lead the positivism nearly regard to scientific spirit today (Heidegren, 2006, p92).Comparing with early positivism, logical positivism has ambition to all knowledge which cannot be verified (Smith, 2003).The logical positivism was promoted by ��Vienna Circle��, the centre of the logical positivism was still avoid any kind of metaphysics and speculative attempts (Smith, 2003).Positivism has three development stages after it was mentioned- the early positivism, the logical positivism and standard positivism (Smith, 2003, p77).Heidegren, CG (2006) Positivism before Logical Positivism in Nordic Philosophy, The Vie...

2214 words (5.5 pages)
Auguste Comte and Contribution to Sociology

“Positivism.” Changing minds and persuasion — How we change what others think, believe, feel and do.Auguste was the founder of French positivism and widely accredited with the establishment of sociology.Macionis, John J. .Auguste Comte believes that the social worlds is a science which can be studied, he also believed that positivism is an optimistic knowledgeable way of seeing the world, positivism shows the importance in reflection and the arrangement of statistics and evidence.Unknown: Prentice Hall, 2010.

1303 words (3.3 pages)
Compare and Contrast Positivism and Interpretivism

When I think of positivism (and the related philosophy of logical positivism) I think of the behaviorists in mid-20th Century psychology.Critical Positivism & Post-Positivism .In social science has two important paradigm that used for research society and event which happen in social that are positivism and interpretivism .In its broadest sense, positivism is a rejection of metaphysics (I leave it you to look up that term if you’re not familiar with it).Positivists believe that human behavior is shaped by biological, psychological or social factors and forces.

2939 words (7.3 pages)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Positivism

Further, a positivist approach in the social sciences affords a ready means of comparison and exchange of knowledge between other disciplines such law, philosophy, literature and so that employ positivism also.Claiming for themselves, in this sense, a parallel certainty of laws and predictions as and laws demanded by the natural sciences, positivism reveals to the social sciences phenomenal objects as they really are — as they are when stripped of superstitions, fallacious theories, prejudice and so on.Positivism demands a definite residue of facts and ‘truths’ that are universally applicable to social groups and communities irregardless of time, place or environment.In striving so vigorously for such ideals, positivism gives the social ...

3691 words (9.2 pages)
Aspects of Racism Essay

In addition to this social integration is the cultural imperative.At the end of my essay I would like to mention that we should all fight against racism.Cultural integration is not the complete assimilation of immigrants but can be defined as accepting of cultural differences while agreeing on a common culture (common language, common education, ...).We should also battle against it, because racism is definitely against the top human rights and it is also a danger for the whole humanity.Of course you cannot reach the one without the other.

440 words (1.1 pages)
Difference between Structured and Unstructured Observation

As a result, I have discussed the structured observation from the point of positivism and the quantity method on the one hand and the structured observation from the point of interpretivism and the qualitative method on the other hand.Furthermore, structured observations as a quantitative method in concern with positivism can be time consuming.Likewise, biological phenomena were to be viewed in the light of chemical laws and theories; and so on down the line” (Silverman et al, (2000), p.18).The link between positivism and the notion of structured observation does not necessarily mean that the idea that educational research can and should be designed to make a significant contribution to educational policy-making and/or practice.Indeed, o...

4911 words (12.3 pages)
Classical and Positive Theory Essay

edu/toconnor/301/301lect02.2) Positivist Theory What factors contributed to the intellectual heritage of positivism?Positive law can be used to change an organization based on the observable scientific data.The first indicates that man is not responsible of his action and the later concept is contrary to the moral norms and is not acceptable to a humane and free society.Positive theory as applied in the modern world could be environmental and biological and sometimes evolutionary which means that traits can be passed on through heredity.

549 words (1.4 pages)
Criminal Behavior Theories

Reasoning Criminal.Social Reaction Theory .Labels and symbols and how people interpret them and react are influenced by, and include those interpretations in their own self-image.Biological criminology focused on restricting research to biological differences in criminals only, and sociobiology acknowledged the power of heredity and biology on behavior, but concluded that these factors influenced how social behaviors turned out.This theory provides that the presence of genes and biological factors is relevant, but include that environmental, such as alcohol, drugs, and chemical contact by an individual is also relevant.

1321 words (3.3 pages)

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