The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize insulin activity and blood glucose levels to reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications.• Exercise • Monitoring – Use of a glucose meter and watching their numbers.For both types of diabetes the main feature is chronic high blood glucose (sugar) levels (Ignatavicius, 2006).The study dealt with the Cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) which is the capacity of cerebral arteries and arterioles to dilate, thus increasing blood flow in areas of decreased perfusion pressure (WJ, 1991).During fasting periods (between meals and overnight), the pancreas continuously releases a small amount of insulin (basal insulin); another pancreatic hormone called glucagon (secreted by the alph...
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The meters were recalled because they may be “reporting incorrect low blood glucose reading” (MHRA).Diabetes UK (2014) and the FDA (2014) encourage patients to check accuracy of home glucose meters by comparing to results of blood processed in a laboratory (Collazo – Clavell, 2012).Overall, the blood glucose values obtained in this study were clinically useful (Alto et al, 2002).Incorrect blood glucose readings may occur with blood glucose meters due to software issues but may also occur due to operator errors, effects of oxidized uric acid and abnormal haematocrit levels (ADDE, 2013, Bode, 2007, and FDA, 2014).The MHRA in April 2013 issued a Medical Device Alert (MDA/2013/022) about “Home Use Blood Glucose Meters”.
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Additionally a patient can become distressed when a nurse has to prick their finger again, due to the lack of blood flow present to the tip of the patients’ finger because there might not be enough blood in the droplet in order for the blood glucose device to initiate a reading.Hackett (March 1994), states that most blood glucose monitoring devices consist of glucose test strips and a reflectometer to determine glucose concentrations in whole blood.One perspective in regards to the blood glucose device is that many patients find blood glucose testing to be very painful.Glucose levels in plasma are generally 10%–15% higher than glucose measurements in whole blood.Blood glucose tests are used to measure blood glucose and if blood glucose i...
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It has been found that the method of analysing salivary glucose has a large impact on the likelihood of there being a correlation between blood and salivary glucose levels.When measuring blood glucose levels glycosylated haemoglobin (A1C or HbA1c) shows the average blood glucose levels in the preceding 3 months.This is supported in theory by the fact that the use of a Beckman glucose analyser, which utilises the glucose oxidase method, found no association between blood and salivary glucose (Forbat et al.Whilst current research doesn’t always agree on the significance of salivary glucose measures, it does seem as if it is a useful measure for glucose handling in diabetes, with a linear relationship between salivary and blood glucose leve...
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My mother has to take medication daily and check her blood sugar regularly.The body still gets glucose from the food but glucose can’t get into the cells where it is needed.Definition: According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by high blood glucose levels that result from defects in the body’s ability to produce and/or use insulin.You must prick your finger with a lancet to draw out a tiny drop of blood, then place it on the meter strip and wait for your reading.If your blood sugar levels are above 200 mg/dL then you may have diabetes.
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Diluted the milk solution by adding water to milk until a point, where a suitable glucose concentration is reached- in reading range of the meter.There should have been no change in glucose concentration in this milk solution because it is lactose-free, which means no lactose would have been broken down by the enzyme – no glucose made.A negative result of 0 mmol/l proved that the meter only measured glucose in milk.Glucose concentration .The glucose concentration kept fluctuating.
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NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: [pic]Assess patient routinely for epigastric or abdominal pain and frank or occult blood in the stool, emesis, or gastric aspirate .Action Therapeutic Effects: Decreased blood pressure and heart rate.Classification: anti-infectives (1st gen cephalosporin’s) // Dextrose Action: Bind to bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death // Dextrose a monosaccharide, provides glucose K-cal for metabolic needs.Report any significant changes in heart rate or blood pressure, or increased ventricular ectopy or angina to physician promptly.NURSING CONSIDERATIONS: [pic]Monitor blood pressure, ECG, and pulse frequently during dose adjustment and periodically during therapy .
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If you think you are having a low blood sugar reaction, check your blood sugar.Testing your blood sugar at certain times of the day will help determine if your exercise and eating patterns are keeping your blood sugar levels in control, or if you need extra insulin to protect your developing baby.Your doctor will check your blood sugar levels after your baby is born to make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal.In addition, when fetal over-nutrition occurs and hyperinsulinemia results, the baby’s blood sugar can drop very low after birth, since it won’t be receiving the high blood sugar from the mother.Bilirubin is a pigment that causes jaundice and is released when extra red blood cells build up in the blood and can’t be pr...
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However, the introduction of testing strips and blood glucose meters, which were usually strapped to a patient’s wrist, made that procedure archaic and provided greater convenience to diabetic patients.For example, in the past, diabetic patients had to check whether or not there was sugar in their urine to monitor their blood glucose.The patient may have more of the bad cholesterol than the good cholesterol or vice versa, but he or she will never know unless his or her blood is tested in an actual laboratory.The original blood glucose monitoring machine was enormous in size and had to be strapped to a person’s back.For example, the results of the home testing for blood cholesterol levels only gives patients the over-all amount of cholest...
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Insulin is a hormone – produced by the pancreas – that regulates glucose levels in the blood.Pancreas produces insulin, body cells absorb glucose, blood glucose reduced.They can help to control their blood glucose level by being careful with their diet (eating foods that will not cause big spikes in their blood sugar level) and by exercising (which can lower blood glucose levels due to increased respiration in the muscles).Normal levels, insulin not produced by pancreas, less glucose absorbed, blood glucose remains same.Diabetes is a condition in which the blood glucose levels remain too high.
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Blood glucose levels were measured each day with a OneTouch Ultra 2 blood glucose meter.I monitored my pre-change caloric intake, blood glucose, and physical exercise levels for seven days.Retinopathy is caused by the retina dying from insufficient blood flow.Know your blood sugar numbers.According to WebMD (2012), “complications from diabetes are caused by damage to the body’s blood vessels, nerves or both”.
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Throughout the days the blood sugar level of patient was very much raised due to underlying history of diabetics and stress due to hospitalisation.The patient¿½s blood glucose was checked half hourly to relieve the risk of hypoglycaemia and its complication.The physiological functions are excretion , controlling the fluids in blood , maintain ionic regulation of pH of the body fluids, it share the function of synthesising vitamin D along with skin, and it maintain red blood cell concentration.The hyperglycaemia increase blood osmolarity which in turn result in polydypsia since intracellular dehydration occurs as fluid shifts from intracellular to extra cellular space and also it result in reduced blood flow which causes complication of d...
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Actively contracting muscles obtain Adenosine Tri phosphate (ATP) from glucose stored in the blood stream and the breakdown of glycogen stored in the muscles.The fast twitch contract rapidly but fatigue easily whereas the slow twitch contract slowly but keep going longer.If this condition continues the function of the blood will become impaired and the muscles will fatigue quickly.The muscles are composed of a mixture of fibres – Fast Twitch & Slow Twitch.Lactic Acid is fatiguing metabolic of lactic acid system resulting from the incomplete breakdown of glucose.
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This will help you to stay a healthy weight and control your blood glucose levels.The test is done by taking blood from a vein in your arm or sometimes a drop of blood from a fingerprick.•Acarbose lowers your blood glucose by slowing down the rate at which some carbohydrates are absorbed by your body.If lifestyle changes and medicines can’t keep your blood glucose levels under control, you may need to have insulin injections as well as, or instead of, tablets.If you have insulin injections, you will need to monitor your blood glucose levels with a home test kit.
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Moreover Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease (angina or heart attack), strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply (claudication).Treatment for diabetes can involve various medicines, a balanced diet, and frequent exercise to control blood glucose levels and minimize symptoms with a long term aim to prevent the chronic complications of diabetes and to prolong patient’s life and reduce symptoms.Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level – diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL .These symptoms may be explained by the fact that due to the uncontrolled high levels of glucose the osmotic pressure of the blood change...
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Patients must be educated on taking her blood glucose often, usually at least four to five times per day.There has been no documented evidence that either form is better at maintaining normal plasma glucose.Understanding Pathophysiology (5th Custom Edition .If the patient is unable to maintain blood glucoses 105 mg per dL in the fasting state and 120 mg per dL two hours after meals then either insulin or oral medications are recommended.Gestational diabetes (GDM) is recognized as any glucose intolerance that is diagnosed initially during pregnancy.
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American Diabetic Association.Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.Diabetes Mellitus: Report of a WHO Expert Committee (Technical Report 310).Diabetes Care, 26, 3160-3167. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26.11.3160 World Health Organization.
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Adiponectin alters glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity .Increased tissue TG content has been reported to interfere with insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activation and subsequent glucose transporter 4 translocation and glucose uptake, leading to insulin resistance .Insulin is a major regulatory hormone in glucose and fat metabolism, vascular function, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and the somatotropic axis of growth.The investigators reported that oligofructose reliably induced laminitis and a link is established between laminitis of oligofructose models and pasture fructan content .It was hypothesised that plasma concentrations of adiponectin and insulin sensitivity would significantly change during oli...
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To give a smoother blood glucose profile and also to “fill in the gap” before the medium acting insulin becomes biologically active.During illness, puberty or emotional trauma glucose levels can become elevated and therefore insulin doses require to be adjusted and more regular blood sugar monitoring is essential.The most common is It results from an imbalance between glucose intake, endogenous glucose and glucose utilisation.Some drugs lower blood glucose levels and therefore result in a reduction in insulin.Run your blood glucose levels slightly higher than you are used to a) because of probable increased exercise and b) to reduce the risk of Hypo whilst away from home.
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As a result, your heart pumps faster, sending more oxygenated blood to your muscles per second.To keep up with these increased oxygen needs, you have to have more blood going to your muscles.Thirdly, the temperature of when the experiment took place was about 10°C which may have affected the subject’s performance.Overall this experiment ran smoothly with some problems, which can be improved as I explained above.To improve this, the experiment should have been carried out in a science lab on a treadmill so that the environment is constant and so that the heart rates are easier to measure.
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Firstly six controlled samples were tested by pouring 10cm3 (ten centimeters cubed) of the 90% glucose into the measuring cylinder then placing it into the boiling tube, next 5cm3 (five centimeters cubed) of the sulphuric acid was measured with the syringe and added to the control of 90% glucose in the boiling tube the timer was then set and 1cm3 (one centimeter cubed) of potassium permanganate was measured and was simultaneously added while the timer was started.It can be concluded that glucose was present in the samples however a substantial conclusion cannot be made because the aim of the experiment was to determine how much glucose was present in three samples via comparing it to the controls in the experiment, due to the precautions...
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Hypertension (high blood pressure) is the force or pressure if blood flow in your blood vessels.Complications of high blood pressure are heart failure (thickens heart muscles and forces the heart to pump harder), kidney disease, and an increased risk of stroke.Wash hands before checking blood to ensure the most accurate reading of blood sugars.Blood sugar monitoring means testing your blood with a meter that takes a small sample of your blood from your fingers.The difference between medication and insulin therapy is, taking medication to help regulate blood sugar (doesn’t work for everyone, check with doctor) or taking a shot of insulin to ensure that blood sugars stay at the proper level.
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Over time, high levels of blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can can cause health problems.Both work with insulin—either the body’s own or injected—to help keep your blood glucose from going too high after you eat.Instead, it means you need insulin or another type of medicine to reach your blood glucose targets.If it doesn’t help you reach your blood glucose targets, your doctor may ask you to * take more of the same pill .Without enough insulin, glucose stays in the blood and causes a condition called hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar levels.
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Then the blood samples will be taken after 2 hrs of glucose ingestion.Given the large sample size taken in this project, support needs to be offered by researchers and technical assistants to collect blood samples and conduct the required tests to meet the pre-determined objectives in a timely fashion .Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) will be used to measure blood glucose levels for participants then results will be recorded.These tools will estimate blood glucose levels and provide data that will enrich analysis.Like glucose, iron level is regulated by a mechanism similar to that for glucose.
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Furthermore, visual deficits and retinopathy must be assessed because the patient may be at risk of taking medication inaccurately and become unable to perform regular blood glucose test (O’Reilly, 2005).There are a number of diagnostic procedures that have been used to determine the blood glucose level.For instance, patient with type 1 and some cases with type 2, insulin is an appropriate treatment in maintaining nearly normal level of blood glucose (Meetoo & Allen, 2010).Elevation in blood glucose caused by limitation of insulin in transporting glucose into the cells for energy synthesis.They should learn daily self care skills to prevent instability of blood glucose.
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Monitoring Blood Glucose .Insulin and the these counterregulatory hormones provide a sustained but regulated release of glucose for energy during food intake and periods of fasting and usually maintain blood glucose levels within the normal range.Other tissues (brain, liver, blood cells) do not directly depend on insulin for glucose transport but require an adequate glucose supply for normal function.Successful pancreas transplantation can improve the quality of life of people with diabetes, primarily by eliminating the need for exogenous insulin, frequent daily blood glucose measurements and many of the dietary restrictions imposed by the disorder.These hormones work to increase blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose production and...
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B. et Al  Plasma glucose, creatinine and urea levels in type 2 diabetic patients attending a Nigerian teaching hospital.Glycaemic control efforts should involve quarterly glycated haemoglobin assessments, routine monitoring of daily blood glucose values and combination therapy that targets both fasting and post prandial hyperglycaemia.Metformin decreases intestinal glucose absorption and hepatic gluconeogenesis as well as increasing tissue insulin sensitivity and which is particularly used in obese patients .The lifetime strategy for diabetes management might involve aggressive efforts to control glycaemia daily and early in type 2 diabetes, with less stringent glucose targets and avoidance of hypoglycaemia as possibility of com...
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When alcohol is ingested in moderation and with food, blood glucose levels are not affected by the ingestion of moderate amounts of alcohol.The patient needs to be reminded to record the blood glucose values on a log sheet with the date and time and any associated signs and symptoms that he/she is experiencing at the time the specimen was obtained.A patient’s visual acuity and dexterity skills should be assessed prior to selecting a blood glucose monitoring device.Blood glucose monitoring and goals of blood glucose monitoring .The effects of alcohol on blood glucose levels is dependent on the amount of alcohol ingested as well as the relationship to food intake.
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Furthermore, continue with metformin if blood glucose control remains or becomes inadequate and another oral glucose-lowering medication (usually a sulfonylurea) is added.To conclude, Diabetes is an endocrine disorder characterized by high level of blood glucose or sugar in the blood, (hyperglycaemia).If blood glucose level is higher than normal over a long period of time, it can gradually damage blood vessels.Both types of DM cause hyperglycaemia, which is an abnormally high level of blood glucose that may produce acute and long-term complications.If blood sugar (glucose) level remains high despite a trial of these lifestyle measures then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised.
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This balance requires patients to learn how food, physical activity, and insulin affect their blood glucose levels.Klonoff, D.C, (2005) recommends that patients should assess fingertip blood glucose levels at least three times daily and record the results whenever they notice that it is not within the normal range.On the other hand they may be necessary if the patient’s blood glucose level is low.The DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, 2001), demonstrated that tight control of blood glucose levels can cause weight gain and even obesity.Much of the spontaneity of everyday life disappears in a routine of set-meals, blood tests, injections and attention in trying to keep blood glucose levels within a target range.
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