However, in media perspective, according to Katz et.al put `needs’ into five different categories: cognitive, affective, personal integrative, social integrative and tension release needs.The first assumption is that ‘the audience is conceived as active’ (Blumler & Katz, 1974) In other words, U&G establishes people play the active role to discover their own satisfied information for different reason and in different ways.Those elements not previously emphasized by Blumler and other scholars.Blumler and Katz in The uses of mass communication bring up an idea: .proposed a model of “media-person interactions” to classify four different gratifications: diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance.
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Uses and gratification theory was developed to ask how mediated text is used by the consumer, rather than what media dose to the consumer (Katz, E. 1959), the theory asses the users as a active audience member rather than a passive one, this mean that the user will use specific text to gain the valuable knowledge that they are actively seeking from the program or text that they may be consuming for a purpose (Katz, E et al 1974) .Blumler and Katz believed that the media text available was used in many different ways, all depending on the individuals preferences to as why they have chosen to openly accept this information that has been generated by the producer, this in short shows that the user has the ability to chose what they want to ...
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By picking out their bad characteristics and decisions, it helps audiences to define their own personal identity by differentiation.“Practitioners of Uses and Gratifications research have been criticized for a formidable array of shortcomings in their outlook — they are taxed for being crassly atheoretical, perversely eclectic, ensnared in the pitfalls of functionalism and for flirting with the positions at odds with their functionalist origins,” (Blumler, 1979).Even the ‘seriousness’ of news can lend itself to gratifying personal identity, by treating news anchors as personalities, rather than simply figureheads relaying information.The uses and gratifications theory of Blumler and Katz (1974) and other group studies in social psycholog...
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The second is personal identity, people willing to look for models for their behaviors.” Five basic assumptions of Uses and Gratification Theory As Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch give explanation in the book “Mass Communication Research”, there are five basic assumptions in Uses and Gratifications Theory.Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratification Theory recommend media users should take a dynamic role in interpreting and integrating media into their lives because they have alternate choices to gratify their own need.Katz, E. , Blumber, J. G. , Gurevitch, M. , 1974) These basic assumptions provide a framework for understanding the exact correlation between the media and the viewers.” (Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch, 1974) There is confusion be...
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This was soon follow around about a decade later in 1941 by Katz, Berelson, and Lazarsfeld who also decided to research into the topic of media effects, a research which produced the now commonly known ‘Minimum Effects Model’.Blumler and Katz (1974) .Society understands the notion or concept of being influenced as an “external force” (the media) linking itself or connecting with a personal action or viewpoint of the recipient.Blumler (1970) .Blumler and Katz (1974) concluded that audience’s fulfilment of needs came within the broad generalisation of four desires: .
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In conclusion, the hypodermic syringe model cannot be considered to be an accurate reflection of the postmodern societal relationship with the media: it has fatal flaws in its assumptions of the audience as mass and it’s disregard for other factors such as social relationships and personal opinion.·Personal Relationships (where the individual gains companionship, either with media characters or through discussion of them).Katz and Lazarsfeld simplified this to ‘attitudes and ideas flow FROM radio and print TO opinion leaders and FROM THEM to the less active sections of the population.’ However, although the model focuses less on everyone being mindlessly affected by the media message and more on the absorption of concepts and the sharing...
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These teen comedies shows depicted what British television was about in its concern for the social realities and representation of the cultural identity of its audience.The Guardian .Even if public service principles still dominated the themes of the programs, it shifted to addressing social issues with a more pragmatic imperative (Blumler, 2008).It was described to be open to multiple approaches, forces and goals (Blumler, 2008).Cultural identity was described as something that was imposed on one’s background and was somewhat a choice of the people (Storry & Childs 2002, p.3).
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Throughout this study fans’ behavior will be looked at in relation to the Uses and Gratifications (UG) which is a body of approaches underpinned by the basic idea that people use texts and the media to gain specific gratifications out of them or as Blumler and Katz state “It presents the use of media in terms of the gratification of social or psychological needs of the individual (Blumler & Katz 1974).It can be argued that such close inspection and dismantling of the text, leads to the film being used in a way that was not the intention of its author, Richard Kelly, but it is this hardcore following of fans online that have created the success for Donnie Darko and without their keen following and debates the film would not be ascribe...
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Blumler and Katz (1974) proposed four broad audience needs that are fulfilled by the media.Expanding Morley’s approach which looks at how people from different cultural backgrounds interpret representations in media, researchers were interested to explore people’s personal and socio-cultural context as an integral part for understanding the rich range of meanings ‘decoded’ and understood by media audience.Researchers tried to improve this link by including additional stages/layers to media effects, such is done by Lazarsfeld and Katz (1955) when they introduced opinion leaders into the process – a model which is also known as the two steps flow.For example, Katz and Liebel (1985) conducted a cross-cultural study on television soap Dallas...
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The other theory is Blumler and Katz of the uses and Gratifications theory that people choose what they take from the media they use and that everyone has the free will to listen/watch and choose whether to believe what they have seen/heard.When we are young we tend to take things very literally, so we do not see the hidden meaning, as we get older we start to recognise that there is a hidden meaning although we are not always sure what this is.In this case we could say that adolescents could easily see something in a broadcast that was not intentionally put there.The children were observed though a one-way mirror and some of the children went on to act out what they had seen later in the experiment.This study could also show that childr...
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As most pieces of media output are “polysemic” in nature, meaning that it is capable of having different meanings and readings from person to person (O’Sullivan, Dutton, Rayner: 1998:327), the way in which, or by how much, an individual is influenced is entirely through choice.Therefore it is argued that the mass media is used as “an instrument”, both more powerful and more flexible than anything in previous existence, for influencing people into certain modes of belief and understanding within society.The thought that the media is an overwhelming force that influences their audiences through the means of appealing to their desires and needs, must be examined in contrast with the notion that “every one is free”.Studies have also been car...
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.. For this study, it has been found that Uses and Gratification approach propounded by Blumer and Katz is the most suitable theory to base the research and its finding.Blumler and Katz’s uses and gratification theory suggests that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media.Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) developed 35 needs taken from the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories : cognitive needs, affective needs, personal integrative needs, social integrative needs, and tension release needs.Expressivity considers a fulfillment of interests of the person directly on a situation of interpersonal interaction according to emotional reactions of other persons (Parsons &...
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While Dubnow and Katz believed that the Gaon and the community leaders acted from identical motives, Hayyim Hillel Ben-Sasson contends that “there were two circles of warriors here, each of which had its own emphasis and preference regarding the purposes of the war and its means.Jacob Katz concludes that “It was in the field of education that the conflict between tradition and innovation became open war” In gentile society a new educational philosophy had emerged that all children should receive the same education, regardless of religion.The historians who have critically discussed the attitude of the Gaon of Vilna to Haskalah are Ben-Zion Katz, Joseph Klausner, Israel Zinberg, Louis Greenberg, and Raphael Mahler.(Katz 1988 p.230) .For...
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Katz notes that the term ‘heterosexuality’ ( ) was first used in 1868 by German-Hungarian journalist, Karl Maria Kertbeny, not long after the term ‘homosexuality’ was coined by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs.(Katz, 1995, p.45) This distinction between the activity performed by someone who, among many other things, does that (a baker bakes, and a sodomite sodomises) and a person defined in a particular way regardless of activity (a woman, a Jew) is now largely lost in contemporary use of gender labels, which now seem inescapable.(Katz, 1995, p.52) With such consensus, what evidence is there to the contrary?Ned Katz is an important figure in the sexuality studies and he supports the constructionists’ argument.Furthermore Katz suggests that in the ...
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Weise, Elizabeth."Welcome to Culture & Community."Though some of the hearing community might take on an unknowingly negative approach on deafness due to a lack of knowledge, for those in the deaf community, their hearing loss is not a burden or a disability, but instead an important component of their identity and culture (Sanger-Katz).Welcome to Deaf Culture.The common view of deafness is that it is simply a person who cannot hear and “is deficient in some way because he or she may not be able to communicate by ‘speaking’ or ‘hearing”, we capitalize on what a deaf person cannot do rather than what they can (“Understanding Deaf Culture”).
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I believe even when it comes to the news, men who violate the law are more in the mainstream than women.What subtle messages about sex, gender, gender identity and roles, and sexuality were evident in these images?Jackson Katz demonstrates that men’s behavior is socially constructed and learned through the interviews in the beginning of the video.Gender identity is similar when it comes to sex; women are shown to be soft, flawless and unrealistically thin; also, I noticed no lesbians in the ads as if gay women don’t exist.How does Jackson Katz show that men’s behaviors are socially constructed and socially learned?
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Katz suggests that one way violence is normalized is through the movie industry which shows white males engaging in violent actions without being depicted as villains.Katz states that the media illustrates a wrong image of individuals committing crime by calling them ‘youth’ crimes or ‘kids’ love.Movies play a very important role in illustrating this equation.Physical fitness becomes a major way for white men to keep their masculinity.Finally there is the notion of heroic actions being equal to violent masculinity.
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Mircea Geoana focuses mainly on the same aspects, but he only posts messages in Romanian which have a general (93% of the wall-posts), objective (60%) and easy to understand (93%) content, like facts, announcements, less personal opinion.In 93% of her messages she either expresses her own personal opinion or writes emotional statements.Although Geoana’s brand personality is seen as a more rugged and though person, his pictures reveal a family oriented person, glamorous and charming.Once changes like fragmentation, differentiation, changes in communication flows between politicians and their message receivers start to materialize, the political communication sphere needs to face the media abundance, ubiquity, reach, and speed (Blumler &am...
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With a balance between each patrol type, police officers can complete both proactive and reactive patrols (Walker & Katz, 2011).Hence, it is a type of proactive policing (Walker & Katz, 2011).Commissions were developed, which helped with corruption temporarily (Walker & Katz, 2011).One improvement may be more civilian review boards that can hold officers accountable for their misconduct (Walker & Katz, 2011).)(Walker & Katz, 2011).
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He points out why it is important that men join the feminist struggle.The title is a pun that refers to the masculine "guise" that guys put on to prove their manhood.Sexual abuse includes any sexual act in which one person has not agreed to it.Jackson Katz shows how violence in the media perpetuates, reinforces, and promotes violence in society.Tough Guise: Violence, Media, and the Crisis in Masculinity.
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April 14, 2000, sec.Katz emphasized freedom on the Internet more than anything on his article.As stated in both articles by Katz and Eun-Kyung Kim, the Internet provides the potential for growth and success within ourselves and within our community, both virtual and otherwise.Both Case and Katz believe that government-mandated use of blocking and filtering can restrict freedom of expression and limit access to information.AOL Chairman: Web Shapes Politics.
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Shannon (2000) and December and Katz (n. d. ) advise that nonessential information such as literature reviews should be avoided.Rooryck, Johan & van Heuven, V. .Reasons for resisting or delaying introduction of EPS were the resulting minimization of client, broker and underwriter interaction, the EPS’ inability to transmit supporting customer documents to potential underwriters and its potential to undermine the professional role and identity of brokers and underwriters and to worsen employment conditions and job satisfaction.Walsham, G. 2001, Making a world of difference: IT in a global context, Wiley, Chichester, pp.pdf Shannon, S. 2000, ‘Writing a structured abstract’, Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, vol.
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(Katz CC Pg 316) Katz used the example of John Allen to make his point.(Bedau CC Pg 406) Only when lives are being threatened with the probability death, should the extreme measure of lethal force be applied to the immediate scene.(Bedau CC Pg407) Capital punishment supposedly is serving as social utility to prevent the convicted to commit crime again and lowering the chance of others to commit the same crime, but Bedau argues otherwise.(Bedau CC Pg 406) In the case of execution, there is no immediate harm posting towards any life at the time, along with alternative solution being available, the argument of capital punishment being justify as self-defense is simply not plausible.All John Allen ever wanted was the thrill of being a stick ...
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Learning To Belong In Society.Adolescents, due to their membership both in an ethnic group and in the mainstream culture, face an extra problem with identity.While identity development is a complex task for all adolescents, it is particularly complicated for adolescents belonging to ethnic groups (Arbor 1998).Predictable changes occur in all domains of development, physical, emotional, social, language, and cognitive (Katz 1995).The ways that these changes are manifest and the meaning attached to them may vary in different cultural contexts.Human development research indicates that relatively stable, predictable sequences of growth and change occur in children during the first nine years of life (Katz 1995).
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The researcher relies on the information obtained by the person, which is subjective and not always reliable (O’ Sullivan et al, 1998, page 339).Subjective researchers, biased data and dubious techniques can make the study of media seem futile, yet with careful considerations, and intricacies, the study of the media can lead to fascinating and intriguing findings which can be both helpful to the student and member of the public alike.Hence because the media is so interrelated within people’s lives it can be said to be too personal to scrutinise.This is done by more in-depth personal interviews and discussions with people alone or in small market research groups.Studying the media however is not an easy task and it can be argued not a wor...
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... middle of paper ... ....en Bush, Palin, [online video]And then, campaigners would eager to try to influence journalist and exploit the routines of the news organization for selling the candidate and persuading voters’ behavior.By this means, such campaigns would be obtaining tremendous amount of coverage on prime news and few candidates position would be enhancing by news in the voters’ eyes.The collaboration in news production.
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The recent outcomes that Katz writes about is the Clinton reform in 1996 where benefits are limited to a period of two years and no one is allowed to collect for more than five years in their lifetime unless they are exempted.Works Cited Katz: ix Katz: 331 Katz: 331 Katz: 331 Katz: xi Katz: 246 Katz: 246 Katz: 226,227 Katz: 227 Katz: 232 Katz: 234 Katz: 214 Katz: 18 Katz: xiv Katz: 220 Katz: 262 Katz: 263 Katz: 278 Katz: 330 Katz: 334A person may only receive an exemption on the grounds of hardship in which states are limited to granting a maximum of 20% of the recipient population.The outcomes of this reform appear to be bleak for many Americans who reside below the poverty line.How does a wealthy country like America have such weak wel...
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Peer groups help to determine their individual strengths and weaknesses of self concept.The knowledge of likes or dislikes for future employment or the wide variety of colleges, government agencies such as air force, military, army.Violence Against Woman, It Is A Man`s Issue, by Jackson Katz speaks about gender violence.Teaching them who they don’t want to be, who they are, and where they want to go in their future.Referring to the video “ Violence Against Women, It`s A Men`s Issue” men tend to take their personal aggression society puts on them out on the weaker sex due to the fact that most women can`t or don’t defend themselves as aggressively as a man can.
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It is another way of communicating is using a private message option to write messages to another person.Theorists say that media users seek out source that best fulfills their needs.Focus of this theory is that viewers attend, perceive and remember information that is pleasurable or that will in some way help satisfy their needs .Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch’s Uses and Gratification Theory suggest that media users play an active role in choosing and using media.Another reason could be because students too stress while studying, they need break, one of the option they log on to Facebook, on their phones, tabs, personal computer or laptops.
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Being part of the team provides the platform to learn from others and enjoy success together rather than individual, which might result in internal competitions and risk inefficiency (Katz 95).Katz posits, “Having shared beliefs about realistic goals, relationships, and behaviors serves as a precursor for cooperation towards efficiency” (92).Having defined uniform shapes identity coupled with increasing cohesion among workers and customers.First, replacing the casual wear with branded uniforms creates a unique addition and a sense of identity to the company.Skills of an Effective Administrator, Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2009.
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