introduced the synthesis of chloro and bromopolymaleimide and used as halogenating agents.The use of suitable additions of polymer-supported reagents, catalysts and/or scavengers is a powerful method, both for the synthesis of single organic compounds and for parallel synthesis.In this revision, we wish to testimony the synthesis of poly( bromomaleimide) with diverse cross linking densities and their applications in assorted oxidation reactions such as: oxidation of alcohols to their equivalent carbonyl compounds, synthesis of .. Towering steadiness of this polymeric reagent compared to its low molecular weight counterparts, trouble-free work up measures of the reactions, and its rejuvenation and salvage formulate it beneficial over ...
1854 words (4.6 pages)
There have been several methods employed traditionally for the synthesis of these compounds based on use of a wide range of transformation, such as Diels-Alder, Grignard reagents, reductions, Wittig reactions and photochemical reactions.As indoles are structural components of a large number of biologically active natural compounds, their synthesis and functionalization has been heavily researched, and is a crucial step in the preparation of many pharmaceutical compounds.These bicyclic models moieties have found a large importance as intermediates in the synthesis of various dugs and natural products.They have focused most of their attention on the synthesis of nitrogen containing heterocycles by the condensation of ketoalkynes with ammon...
2943 words (7.4 pages)
It’s worthwhile at this juncture to discuss few THF ring containing natural products such as which have been of paramount importance to the mankind and also to the researchers who have been actively involved in the synthesis and isolation of these natural products.This event as trivial as it may seem by today’s standards not only gave birth to a boundless science called organic synthesis but also contributed to a demystification of mother Nature by burying the fact that synthesis of nature’s molecules is her exclusive domain.Considered by many as the flagship of organic synthesis, natural product synthesis symbolizes the power of chemical synthesis at any given time and defines its scope and limitations.The discipline of natural product ...
1330 words (3.3 pages)
• Revise your synthesis.• Write the first draft of your synthesis.The explanatory synthesis uses two or more sources to convey information about a given topic; it does not provide for the writer’s opinion on the topic.Although all writing is recursive in nature, here are a few guidelines to follow that will help you organize and write your synthesis paper: • Consider your purpose in writing.The two types of synthesis discussed in this text are the explanatory synthesis (discussed in Chapter 4) and the argument synthesis (discussed in Chapter 5).
1638 words (4.1 pages)
Interestingly the Vala (2014) reported the efficiency of the on synthesis of gold NPs.Followed by few researchers reported the NPs synthesis by using Marine fungus.showed the significant synthesis of the lead NPs (Jacob et al., 2014).The chemical, Physical and green synthesis are not attend the large scale production due to their draw backs such as presence of the toxic compounds and hazarded materials as the byproduct in the synthesis of the metal NPs.Microbial capping agents are added as the stabilizer in to the reaction of the NPs synthesis to ensure the prevention of the aggregation and uniform morphology of the NPs and prevent the extraordinary issue of NPs research in chemical syntheses.
2476 words (6.2 pages)
The synthesis parameters such as solvent, electrolyte, voltage-current density, and temperature on the synthesis yield and textural properties of the MOFs obtained, was investigated and the produced MOF structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption, atomic force microscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.However, mechanochemical synthesis is limited to specific MOF types only and large amount of product is difficult to obtain.The microwave-assisted synthesis has been termed ‘microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis’ for the preparation of MOFs.Mechanochemical synthesis involves breakage of intramolecular bonds mechanically followed by a chemical transfor...
2182 words (5.5 pages)
The explanatory synthesis does not go much beyond what is obvious from a careful reading of the sources.The purpose of an argument synthesis is for you to present your own point of view - supported, of course, by relevant facts, drawn from sources, and presented in a logical manner.However, at times your argumentative synthesis essays will include sections that are explanatory in nature.Two Types of Syntheses Essays - explanatory synthesis and argument synthesis .Because a synthesis is based on two or more sources, you will need to be selective when choosing information from each.
786 words (2.0 pages)
Kidwai and Rastogi reported an eco friendly approach for the synthesis of 2 substituted-4-6-diarylpyrimidines using inorganic solid supports for its catalytic roleas well as energy transfer medium is described.The methodology eliminates the usage of solvents during reaction.Microwave assisted basic alumina catalysed reaction is the best as a catalysis as well as reaction time and yield.Filler and Roberts postulated the importance of fluore containing compounds synthesis in bio and medicinal chemistry e.g.Chowdhury and shanker describe the recent development in solvent-free multi component reactions which was the perfect synergy for eco-compatible organic synthesis.Multicomponent reactions under these solvent-free conditions can be adapte...
1443 words (3.6 pages)
Figure 2: Proposed Two-Step Synthesis route for Secnidazole .In this project we will focus on the establishment of synthetic organic laboratory, the synthesis of the two API’s (Secnidazole & Atenolol).Due to the importance of API we decided to work with the synthesis of API as it will create the impact of API research on national level.In this project we have design the synthesis of the following APIs .. .Proposed Two-Step Synthesis route for Atenolol .
900 words (2.3 pages)
Likewise, it is a belief of the neo-neo synthesis that economists and politicians are able to make predictions about the nature of the international environment by using these scientifically determined laws of economics and politics; the above model cannot allow for capricious economic and political events whose causes lie outside of scientific prediction (Lapid, 1989).Deeply influenced and threatened by the persuasiveness of such ideas, and so by the notion that their own ideological differences might become superfluous; scholars of both schools created the ‘neo-neo synthesis’ as a self-defence mechanism.The neo-neo synthesis is therefore criticised on three counts: one, it pays too little attention to how national and territorial ident...
1725 words (4.3 pages)
Before writing your synthesis .The main purpose of a synthesis essay is to make insightful connections.Now, decide the order in which you will present your evidence, the various arguments you will employ, and how you will convince your readers.The guiding ideas of the paper—the thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph and the corresponding topic sentences—are highlighted in gray.However, the purpose of a synthesis essay is to use only the most important parts of your research, the information that will best support your claim.
475 words (1.2 pages)
The synthesis of nanoparticle circles around enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which exists in surface of .In order to meet the growing demand of nanoparticles, eco-friendly methods for nanomaterials synthesis need to be developed which are free of using toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocol[11-13].Development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology.This enzyme has been previously used for in vitro synthesis CdS nanoparticle under special conditions .To obtain the optimum concentration of CdCl2 and Na2S that yields the maximum synthesis of nanoparticles and particle-size distribution, CdCl2 and Na2S, at concentrations ranging from ...
2068 words (5.2 pages)
One such method called PAS (PCR-based accurate synthesis) involves (i) synthesis of oligonucleotides to cover the entire DNA sequence (ii) PCR to synthesize DNA fragments (iii) second PCR for assembly of the products of the first PCR and (iv) cloning of the synthetic DNA and then verification by DNA sequencing.The synthesis is carried out in several steps described below: ..Besides, other methods in use for gene synthesis are successive extension PCR, simplified gene synthesis (PCR based), synthons and ligation by selection, to name a few.It is a low-swellable, highly cross-linked polystyrene and suitable for oligonucleotide synthesis.In solid-phase synthesis, 3′-terminal hydroxy group of the first added nucleoside is attached to the sol...
1979 words (4.9 pages)
During the conversion of benzoin to benzil, some benzoin may remain unoxidized.* During the conversion of benzaldehyde to benzoin, you must maintain temperatures below 65 degrees Celsius to obtain benzoin.Take care when refluxing benzoin with nitric acid; the nitrogen dioxide fumes are extremely toxic and can cause lung damage.The synthesis of several complex organic compounds follows a multistep synthesis.“Multistep synthesis” refers to the procedure in which the product of one reaction serves as the starting material in the subsequent reaction.
409 words (1.0 pages)
The strategy of synthesis of biobased reactive polyester from itaconic anhydride was like that itaconic anhydride does not react with diol alone so it is necessary that the monomer added so that the reaction was completed therefore succinic anhydride or glutaric anhydride was used in combination.The authors used some references to state the method for poly lactide synthesis using two method ring opening polymerization of lactide and direct polycondensation of lactic.From the extension of an all these studies the current paper include lipase catalysed synthesis reactive polyester employing itaconic anhydride (IAn), succinic anhydride (SAn) or glutaric anhydride as starting monomer with for diol.The use of enzyme as a catalyst in polymer s...
2045 words (5.1 pages)
Therefore, controllable synthesis of well-defined NMOF crystals with specific exposed crystal facets in the nano/micrometer range is highly desirable.Kitagawa and coworkers have used the combination of the coordination-modulation method and microwave synthesis to control the size and morphology of HKUST-1 in which dodecanoic acid was employed as the coordiantion modulator.Herein in this work, we develop a simple and straightforward method for the one-pot synthesis of porous coordination polymers with controllable shape by using different bases ( sodium acetate, aqueous ammonia, triethylamine and NaOH) as deprotonation reagents in the ethanol-water mixture at room temperature.To date, several synthetic strategies have been employed by ...
1001 words (2.5 pages)
These are arranged along the appropriate codon on the mRNA during protein synthesis.Out of the 64 codons can be formed, three of these designate the termination of a message and these are called stop codons (UAA, UGA, UAG) and one codon (AUG) acts as the start signal for protein synthesis.Although the DNA does not produce the new proteins itself, it is responsible for controlling the process of protein synthesis.There are three types of RNA found in cells, all of which are involved in process of protein synthesis.Protein synthesis is the process that is concerned with transfer of the information from the triplet code on the DNA to ensure the formation of the proteins.
1676 words (4.2 pages)
Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma rotating arc discharge technique Lee, Y., Kim, N., Park, J., Han, J., Choi, Y., Ryu, H., Lee, H. (2003).Shyu, Y., Hong, F. (2001).Among all synthesis methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to due to its efficient cost and low operating temperatures required (Shyu et al.,2001; Han et al., 2003; Ni et al., 2006).This new technique would contribute with the synthesis of carbon nanotubes for microelectronic applications since it offers relatively low synthesis temperature.Kinetic study of carbon nanotube synthesis over Mo/Co/MgO catalysts.
398 words (1.0 pages)
?Synthesis Essay Assignment: Construct a three page thematic analysis of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire.You should use these two sources to support your .A successful essay of this type should include a thesis statement (your opinion of Abbey’s use of .Your essay should concentrate on a single theme (or topic) in Abbey’s work and should integrate at least two outside sources (this is the synthesis part), one of which can be the critical essay I posted in Week 7’s Lesson.This essay is due Sunday, October 27, no later than 10 pm.
3493 words (8.7 pages)
In addition, the result indicated the shortage of valine, glutamate, isoleucine, and ornithine in the synthesis of rapamycin (Fig.Thus, it might be speculated that urea cycle might be potential key metabolic module to provide nitrogen source for rapamycin synthesis.But lysine and rapamycin production was positively correlated since its coefficient was greater than zero, implying the addition of lysine to fermentation medium might improve the supply of intracellular lysine in the process of rapamycin synthesis.In fact, both isoleucine and valine are the precursor of methylmalonyl-CoA [22, 24]which is a key node of the carbon ï¬‚ux switches from the primary branch into the secondary metabolic branch [29, 33] such asrapamycin.Therefore,...
1640 words (4.1 pages)
The depletion of intracellular tryptophan or the high level of tryptamine might indicate the activation of shikimatemetabolic pathway, and more DHCHC available for rapamycin synthesis.In fact, amino acids are essential parts of carbon and nitrogen metabolism for maintaining cell growth and protein synthesis.In fact, both isoleucine and valine are the precursor of methylmalonyl-CoA [22, 24]which is a key node of the carbon ï¬‚ux switches from the primary branch into the secondary metabolic branch [29, 33] such asrapamycin.Therefore, more isoleucine and valine in mutant strain might be used to supply methylmalonyl–CoA for rapamycin synthesis.In sum, more amino acids were used to supply precursors of rapamycin synthesis in the mutant st...
1619 words (4.0 pages)
SPATH’S SYNTHESIS: (1) (Above) was converted into (2) via electrolytic reduction, which on treatment with potassium and methyl sulphate gave (3) (N-methylpyrrolidone).A third synthesis of nicotine by Craig was also carried out: CRAIG’S SYNTHESIS: Nicotinonitrile (1) (above) was reacted with ?The structure of nicotine was finally confirmed by synthesis.tter worked on a tortuous synthesis (of about 20 steps) of tropinone between 1900 and 1903, but in 1917 Robinson reported his ‘one-pot’ synthesis and also provided what was probably the first example of a formal retrosynthetic analysis.The laboratory synthesis of an alkaloid can be a challenging problem.
1927 words (4.8 pages)
Among all synthesis methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used due to its efficient cost and low operating temperatures required (Shyu et al.,2001; Han et al., 2003; Ni et al., 2006).Many methods for the synthesis of CNTs have been used and developed (Ajayan, 1992; Ishigami et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2002).Low-temperature growth and field emission of aligned carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition.Keywords Carbon nanotubes; Floating catalyst; Single heating source; low synthesis temperature Introduction: Since their first discovery in 1991 (Iijima, 1991), carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their nanoscale dimensions and promising shape as well as their potential properties.Master Thesis, University P...
391 words (1.0 pages)
Ahmed M. M. reported synthesis of 4-(substituted)-7-cyano- 6-phenyl aminothieno [3,2-d] pyrimidins (33-34) and evaluated as good antimicrobial agents by using B.subtilis and compared with reference drug Amoxicillin.Medicinal chemistry is the branch of science, which has remarkable value for synthesis of novel drugs with intense therapeutic activity.Mosharef Hossain reported synthesis of 4-hydrazino-2- mehylthio-5-ethyl-6- methylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidine (24) which is evaluated as antimicrobial agent by using .Desai Akshay reported the synthesis of 2-thiophene-2- ethylthioureido-4- morpholino-6-( ureido-s-triazines.In the year 2007 Stephane reported the synthesis and antibacterial activity of arylbenzothiophenes (10) and diarylthiop...
769 words (1.9 pages)
The third objective of the project is to optimize the CNTs synthesis parameters such as; temperature, flow rate, precursor type used, and catalysis type.In this search a locally reactor has been designed for the synthesis and collection of soot from the petroleum material.Catalytic CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes: Towards High Yield and Low Temperature Growth.Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from heavy oil residue.It is quite clear a few years ago that the effective catalysts for CNTs synthesis are Fe, Co, Ni and their alloys.
1713 words (4.3 pages)
and is involved in protein synthesis, production of new membrane, modification of newly formed proteins, and transport of these proteins and membrane to other locations within the cell.The nucleus divides by mitosis.Inside the nucleus is a fluid called nucleoplasm, a nucleolus and linear chromosomes composed of negatively charged DNA associated with positively charged basic proteins called histones to form structures known as nucleosomes.The nucleus in eukaryotic cells is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope (nuclear membrane).Membranes also contain enzymes involved in many metabolic processes such as cell wall synthesis, septum formation, membrane synthesis, DNA replication, CO2 fixation and ammonia oxidation .
593 words (1.5 pages)
the late phase of PLT is also associated with presynaptic synaptotagmin synthesis and an increased number of synaptic vesicles, suggesting that L-LTP induces protein synthesis not only in postsynaptic cells, but also in post-synaptic cells.In contrast, the overall protein synthesis that occurs in the cell body requires that proteins be shipped to all regions of the cell, including synapses that have not received PLT-inducing stimuli.Despite the observation of ribosomes (the main components of the protein synthesis machinery) in dendrites as early as the 1960s, the dominant idea was that the cell body was the primary site of protein synthesis in neurons.In addition, β-adrenergic receptor agonists such as norepinephrine, may alter the late...
4109 words (10.3 pages)
Nanomagnetic-supported sulfonic acid is found to be a powerful and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of Pyrimidinones.In this study we use various ketones such as acetophenone and cyclopentanone in one-pot synthesis of Pyrimidinones.The possible mechanism for the nano-γ-Fe2O3-SO3H catalyzed synthesis of substituted 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones has been proposed in figure 2.When the reaction in which the cyclopentanone used as ketone was investigated, the presence of an intermediate benzylidene was anticipated; despite the expectation, this result was not obtained.Currently the ideal synthesis in organic chemistry means that a product is made in one step in the process of adapting to green chemistry .
419 words (1.0 pages)
Various plants parts have been used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles but rarely the barks have been used.Although the exact mechanism for the reduction of silver nanoparticles is not know Ajitha proposed that the flavonoids present in leaf extract may act as powerful reducing agent and the carboxylate group present in the proteins may act as surfactant to attach on the surface of the nanoparticles resulting in their stabilization during the synthesis reaction .In the present study the barks of and have been employed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles.Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using various plant extract has been reported [4, 7].The absorption peaks were observed at 426 nm and 420 nm for the silver na...
2681 words (6.7 pages)
Synthesis of Regioregular polyalkylthiophenes (PATs) .This remarkable property leads to the generation of novel polymer materials, as well as building blocks for the synthesis of block copolymers with desirable properties in organo electronic applications.The synthesis of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) can be achieved by using various cross-coupling polymerization techniques.1.Selective C-C bond formation, regioselectivity of the catalyst, and control of the product formations are some of the important features of cross coupling reactions.Regioregular synthesis results in well defined 2,5- coupled polyhtiphenes, which eliminates ambiguous structure-property relationship and allows for efficient performances in optoelectronic appli...
2526 words (6.3 pages)