If other methods described are to be used to satisfy legal requirements of pollution load in effluents or to measure BOD removal, it is important to establish a correlation between the other methods and BOD or COD (preferably BOD).If the BOD of the water is hight, the DO is low.Therefore DO and BOD is inversely Proportional to each other.Continuation of BOD test beyond 5 days shows a continuing oxygen demand, with a sharp increase in BOD rate at the 10th day owing to nitrification.Many regulatory agencies recognize as the basis for oxygen-depleting pollution control only BOD or COD (preferably BOD) measurements of pollution load, because they are concerned with the pollution load on receiving waters, which is related to lowering the DO d...
3974 words (9.9 pages)
In conjunction with the BOD test, the COD test is helpful in indicating toxic conditions and the presence og biologically resistant organic substances.Both the COD and BOD tests are designed to measure oxygen requirements by oxidation of organic matter present in the samples.The COD test is not a direct substitute for the BOD test; however, a ratio usually can be correlated between the two tests.Since it is impossible to exclude extraneous organic matter in the BOD test and impractical to do so in the COD test, blank samples are required in both determinations.Although COD is comparable to BOD, it actually measures chemically oxidizable matter.
3954 words (9.9 pages)
In general, the test for these high concentrations of ions are done separately and deducted from the BOD measurements.Before discussing the results of the BOD and COD tests carried out, it is vital to know the different between both tests.Two very important interferences that will contribute to the BOD are Nitrification and Carbonaceous BOD.Another common source of error is to avoid air bubbles inside the BOD bottles.The second interference is the inorganic reduction agent such as the first ion which reacts with oxygen and falsely increases the measured BOD.
886 words (2.2 pages)
The sugar industry effluent is highly polluted and they do not satisfy the BIS Indian standard values .The sugar mill effluent are having high amount of Suspended solids, dissolve solids, BOD, COD, Chlorides, Sulphates, Nitrates, Calcium and Magnesium.According to BIS Indian standard the BOD should not exceed the 50 mg/l.In the present study, the BOD of the untreated effluent was 86mg/lit.In the present study, the COD of the untreated effluents was 460 mg/l.
1263 words (3.2 pages)
The amount of dichromate reduced is proportional to the COD.All the bottles put in BOD incubator for 5 days.Based on the higher suitable value of OLR, for given COD concentration, the volume of the reactor required is to be worked out as: ... Composite sample of the reactors influent and effluent were collected on a daily basis and analyzed for COD, BOD, sulfate and others chemical waste substances.The chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test measured the oxygen equivalent consumed by organic matter in a sample during strong chemical oxidation.
4440 words (11.1 pages)
Water Research 37, 4453-44671. .Yang, S.-S., Guo, W.-Q., Zhou, X.-J., Meng, Z.-H., Liu, B., Ren, N.-Q., 2011.An innovative approach to reduce excess sludge production in the activated sludge process.Water Sci Technol 1989;21:43±54.The high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio suggests an easily biodegradable wastewater, the relatively low BOD to total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) ratio suggests a need for nitriﬁcation and possibly even nitrogen removal and finally the relatively high total suspended solids (TSS) characterize the slaughterhouses’ wastewater (Chen and Lo, 2003; Lovett et al., 1984).
394 words (1.0 pages)
Anaerobic and facultative ponds are for the removal of organic matter (normally expressed as “biochemical oxygen demand” or BOD), Vibrio cholerae and helminth eggs; and maturation ponds for the removal of faecal viruses (especially rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus), faecal bacteria (for example, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp.COD is used to test the strength of wastewater that is either not biodegradable or contains compounds that inhibit activities of microorganisms.Facultative ponds- are designed for BOD removal .Dilution water is prepared, sample added and incubated at 200C for 5 days to determine dissolved oxygen, remove stopper from the BOD bottle and 2ml each of manganous sulphate solution, sodium azide soluti...
4637 words (11.6 pages)
Industrial wastes may have BOD values up to 25,000 mg/L O2 (Chapman, 1996).Fresenius & Schneider (1988) also state that standardized laboratory procedures are used to determine BOD by measuring the amount of oxygen consumed after incubating the sample in the dark at a specified temperature, which is usually 20°C, for a specific period of time, usually five days.BOD measurements are usually lower than COD measurements... Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the mass of dissolved molecular oxygen which is needed by microorganisms for the oxidation and conversion of organic substances in a sample (20°C) of water under defined conditions and within a defined period of time (index n in days and hours) (Fresenius & Schneider, 1988).Raw ...
4435 words (11.1 pages)
Muir, P. (2012, October 29).Eutrophication.Mountain Empire Community College.Untreated Sewage.The primary sewage treatment removes 25-35%of the BOD that is present in particulate form and thus there will be a slight increase in dissolved oxygen.
521 words (1.3 pages)
The main advantage of using such a system is the removal of non-biodegradable compounds such as residual COD, heavy metals and chloride ions together with other large molecules present in leachate.The average COD value is found to be 5000 mg/l and the ammoniacal nitrogen remains within a similar range 900-3000 mg/L for all most of the sites.Since the majority of the organic compounds are high molecular weight humic and fulvic acids, the leachates are characterized by relatively low BOD values.The leachate also contains high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen and has both a high organic carbon concentration and a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).The rotating biological contactor may have operational problems, since high concentrations o...
4118 words (10.3 pages)
Textile pollutants of environmental concern include residual dyes, color, BOD, COD, heavy metals, pH, high suspended solids, and toxic organic compounds.2 Typical effluents characterized in the textile industry and their measurements are presented in Table 1 .The removal of COD and BOD are important from an environmental point view since high levels can deplete the level of dissolved oxygen in receiving rivers causing an increased amount of non-biodegradable organic matter.23 Some advantages and disadvantages for the various chemical-physical treatment processes applied for cleaning wastewater is listed in table 3 (edited from babu et al).Global Nest: the Int.J.6, 222-230 (2004).Pentaethylene glycol n-octyl ether C8H5 as a surfactant...
2937 words (7.3 pages)
Using the methods of electrical conductivity, BOD bottles, density meter, and refractometer, the salinity of seawater will be calculated and compared for the most accurate results.Table 1 – Seawater salinity in BOD Bottle .. Table 2 – Salinity of seawater by density meter – Data obtained by Jessica Oregon .. Table 3 – Salinity of seawater by refractive index .. Table 4 – Salinity of seawater by conductivity probe (22.6 C) .. .In comparison, the BOD method took far too long and was not nearly as efficient as the density meter method.The results for the conductivity probe were quite far in comparison to the other method.The BOD bottle is weighed dry, and filled with DI water.
1275 words (3.2 pages)
Meade (1989) recommended a level below 80 mg/L for aquaculture species.The effect of this criteria varies considerably between species.The amount of BOD needed for a particular system can be estimated by taking into account factors such as dissolved.Increasing levels of BOD indicate organic pollution which is a cause of concern for aquaculturists.Biochemical oxygen demand ( and COD) .
2066 words (5.2 pages)
a- BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand): BOD5 Measures the amount of oxygen .the BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand)samples must be collected in black and .This study could be one of the components to built management control methods that may be more effective and economic.Public and Private Sectors .In the future, the findings for this research may be benefit for people who live on the two sides of the river.
3019 words (7.5 pages)
The energy liberated is used for the uptake of BOD from wastewater.They are responsible for breaking down cellulose, proteins, lignin and starches.The anaerobic-oxic process results in BOD removal and produces sludge which is rich in phosphorus.General characteristics of wastewaters are measured in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS).Actinomycete bacteria appear during the late stages of composting to clean up remaining materials that are difficult for aerobic bacteria to break down.
2952 words (7.4 pages)
Does the environment pollution caused by the oil industries increase the incidence of asthma, chest congestions, cough etc in the population?Does the industrial pollutants contain health hazardous substances?Is the increase in pollution contributed by these industries linked with increased appearance of cancer?What percentage of your daily diet is composed of oil and ghee products?Does this type of pollution assist in the spread of any lethal diseases e.g.
2088 words (5.2 pages)
The pollutants present in the waste water are Organic Carbon (100 to 200 mg per liter), suspended solids (1,137 kg/ton), dissolve solids, Cyanide (15mg/L), fluoride (1,000 mg/l); chemical oxygen demand, or COD (500mg/l); and zinc (35 mg/l).edu/Projects/WDP/resources/Characteristics.First is the BOD or the biochemical oxygen demand, second are the total suspended solids and lastly is the total colliforms.nsf/51ByDocName/SulfurOxides/$FILE/HandbookSulfurOxides.pdf Winiarski, Kathryn, 2000, ‘Program Defends Fish, Coral, The State [Online].
2195 words (5.5 pages)
Bod and Scarlett escape to the graveyard where Bod is able to defeat each Jack separately, except for Jack Frost.Jack Frost takes Scarlett captive in the chamber of the Sleer but is then tricked by Bod into claiming himself as the Sleer’s master.Meanwhile, Scarlett and her mother come back to the town as her parents have divorced and she and Bod reunite.Researching the murder of Bod’s family, Scarlett learns that the historian lives in the house that Bod once lived in.Silas gives Bod money and a passport with the name, says his good-byes to his family and friends, and leaves the graveyard to embark on a new life.
1569 words (3.9 pages)
The presence of heavy metals will lead to insolubilisation of sulphides (e. g. iron sulphides).However, the effect of pH must be taken into consideration.Of course, other environmental conditions in the ponds, particularly pH, must be suitable for the anaerobic microorganisms bringing about the breakdown of BOD.BOD removals in Anaerobic Ponds loaded at 250 g (Mara 1976) BOD5/m3d.Sulphide may also impede methane production in anaerobic ponds if occurring at excess concentrations.
339 words (0.8 pages)
Sabrina Raines, a 29-year-old college student , has multiple silver earrings that line my outer earlobe.The semblance of devotion, affection, and loyalty are also portrayed through body modification.This fleshy canvas enables individuals to become art of their own enigmatic design.She also has a tattooed anklet on her right leg.She appreciates the way that she looks with the decor just as someone wearing make-up would.
456 words (1.1 pages)
Better and more economic water treatment strategies should be devised in the future to deal with polluted water.Greater concentration of heavy metals like phosphorus and nitrogen were observed to be present in the sediment samples which stimulate the algal growth.Other than these measures, there is a need of shift of human activities towards the ones that are eco-friendly.Biodegradable plastic should be produced by most of the factories and industries instead of non-degradable plastic that is toxic for health.Dr. Widder has also arranged sensors around the estuary that can provide data in real time which along with the sediment toxicity can trace the path of the pollution source.
1299 words (3.2 pages)
There is no enforcement or accountability simply because there is a lack of objectives and true role responsibility at every level of the company.Although it is a small business, the lack of independent Board of Directors, combined with no Code of Conduct or clear company objectives make it hard for there to be accountability and true adherence to control guidelines.Phil, Doug, and Mr. Day control much of the company’s management roles, and the responsibilities in the accounting sector have a lack of segregation of duties.While there is strong work ethic and commitment to competence with low employee turnover, the employees aren’t aware of internal control objectives and being held responsible for certain duties.Board members, Doug &...
722 words (1.8 pages)
But this is true in any case.This means he has supernatural talents that only ghosts have, and he can travel where only supernatural beings can.Bod is given the Freedom of the Graveyard.So, Nobody, or Bod, lives in the graveyard where majority of the book is set.His mother arrives in the graveyard as a ghost, just as she is fading away, and begs the ghosts of the graveyard to protect her child.
356 words (0.9 pages)
For instance, Venetian has the In the other hand, COD can give these customers equivalent coupons, and they can spend some time in COD, and use these coupons to buy anything in the hotel.COD is a big entertainment resort hotel in Macau.For example, in the future, COD will open a new show in CUBIC, and COD will arrange each employee to watch the “CUBIC” show at least once.The manager said the COD do very well in staff training, COD provides many training courses to the staffs to improve their work quality and skills.This thing will hurt the image and reputation of COD, it can decrease customers that want to come to COD to watch the show, and decrease the profit.
2526 words (6.3 pages)
Or would those same experiences have molded him to become stronger than the rest of us?Personally, I believe the love and warmth with which Bod’s ghost family accepted him has already made up for the loss of his real one.Going back to my original question, I continue to wonder what conclusions psychiatrists would draw up regarding Bod.Whichever the case, I only make this point to show how curious I am about what Bod will ultimately become.Nobody, or Bod, is the main character of Neil Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, the strange yet enlightening tale of a boy who was orphaned early in life and was then adopted by a charming couple, Mr. and Mrs. Owens, who turn out to be ghosts.
664 words (1.7 pages)
Compare the experimental COD values obtained for the sodium acetate samples(Flask No.(3marks) The experimental COD (mg/l)value for glucose .The COD value in flask 5 is 118.24mg/l and The COD value in flask 6 is24.05mg/l.The COD value in flask 5 is larger than in flak 6.The sample using in flask 5 and flask 6 are the same which is 1% NaCl solution.Therefore, more Cl- can be eliminated in flask 6.As dichromate will react with Cl- ,so the amount of residual dichromate can show the amount of Cl- in sample.Therefore, when the amount of residual dichromate is less that mean more Cl- can be eliminated in the flask 6 than flask 5.So , less dichromate will used in flask 6 and the residual dichromate will be more .As the amount of residual dichro...
766 words (1.9 pages)
New York: New Directions, 1951.Siddhartha’s name, a portmanteau of the Sanskrit words for “achieved” and “what was searched for,” invites comparison to the Buddha himself, who went by the same name when he was a prince.The focus of the Samana community is overcoming the bod... ... middle of paper ... ... of being, with its correlates of existence, time, and space,” (Kraft 91).New York: Grove, 1988.As he develops psychologically and ethically, Siddhartha grows closer to the point of emotional and spiritual maturity, at which he considers himself fully distinct from his earlier self.
412 words (1.0 pages)
But there are chances that the BOD may not act in the interest of shareholders due to some potential conflict of interest.The dividend policy is related with the profit distribution of the company.The investor would like to invest in a company which has a good dividend policy.Three main sources of financing: .It is the responsibility of the BOD to act in the best interest of shareholders.
433 words (1.1 pages)
The coast New England settled on is important in showing the precedence of geography because it provided the colonies with a booming cod fishing industry.Cod played an important role in developing the economy of colonial New England.However, the most important contribution was made by geography.The cod fishing industry along with the triangular trade is the reason economy was the secondary factor.Each of the three groups had their own unique aspects such as the coast, ports, and fertility, and that is all they needed to begin their industrious colonies.
1505 words (3.8 pages)
COD suffer problems with control.The adjustment problems that COD face compared to those in intact families shows that even after controlling for quality of parenting, predivorce conflict increases the chances of depression in boys, whereas postdivorce conflict elevates a girl’s risk for conduct problems.Prospective relations of parenting practices indicate that parents of to-be-divorced families with sons show less concern, and higher levels of rejection, economic stress, and parental conflict prior to divorce in comparison to intact families (Shaw et al., 1993).Therefore, COD have difficulties getting along with authority (Bolgar et al., 1995).Also, COD are at risk for adjustment problems because their parents are less likely to engage...
2901 words (7.3 pages)