While Camps were generally spread throughout the entire Soviet Union, they were also present in European parts of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Mongolia, which were partly controlled by the Gulag.Kolyma was so remote that it could not be reached by an overland route, and surviving Kolyma was said to be more difficult than any other Gulag camp.These secluded Gulag Camps were made to colonize and populate people everywhere in Russia.Kolyma, for example, was a name that struck fear into the Gulag prisoner as it is the coldest inhabited place on the planet, where there are 12 months of winter.For example, the area along the Indigirka river was known as the Gulag inside the Gulag.
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The Soviet Union and other communist countries refused to acknowledge the existence of forced labour camps, and instead promoted the “new penitential policy of the Soviet State” using posters and banners in the gulags.By the end of the 1930’s labour camps were situated in all twelve of the Soviet Union’s time zones, and after the World Wars the gulags continued to increase in size and numbers as more labour was needed and the amount of individuals continuing “anti-Soviet activity” rose.It is important to note that Russian gulags differed from Nazi concentration camps in many respects.The gulags reached their height only in the early 1950’s.This questions whether gulags were truly meant to industrialize Russia or merely punish and suppres...
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Once the existence of the Gulag and the living conditions of the prisoners admitted by all, certain historians like Stéphane Courtois and his co-authors in The Black Book of Communism, engaged in comparisons between the concentration camps Nazis and Soviet camps, pointing out that the beginning Gulag, observed by officers of the German Reichswehr on maneuver in the USSR to circumvent the prohibitions of the Diktat of Versailles, could technically serve as a model for the German concentration camps: same interior layout of the barracks and camps, same working rhythms, same economic use, same methods of arrest, interrogation and transport of prisoners, and an ideological similarity in the preliminary definition of a "new humanity delivered...
9106 words (22.8 pages)
They both controlled what information got to the people and used terror to maintain order.Outside of school children were encouraged to join the Hitler Youth (in Germany) and the Pioneers (in Russia).In Russia, paintings, films, plays and posters gave a positive image of Stalin, promoting him as the best leader.Russia on the other hand was in the middle of a revolution and communism was being installed.Though both rulers had different goals they had similar means to achieve them.
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The theme of the atrocities committed by Soviet soldiers in Germany, Poland and other eastern countries at the end of the war was never really debated in Russia, where it remains largely taboo.According to historian Michael Haynes, there were 1,187,783 victims between 1939 and 1945, including 46,350 judicial executions, 718,804 deaths in the Gulag and 422,629 in prisons and penal colonies.Wartime overpopulation and shortages of nutrients and firewood multiplied the casualties of the Gulag.The subject is very sensitive in Russia, the role of "liberator" of the Red Army remains a key element of state doctrine and a matter of national pride.According to historian Aleksandr Gurianov, around 108,000 Polish people were sent to the Gulag camps,...
3264 words (8.2 pages)
Through these actions Russia was able to gain global recognition in the United Nations and emerge as a global superpower after the war.But alas, Stalin was just a mere human and not every action that he took was beneficial to Russia, some actions were the complete opposite; some actions had some major negative impacts.These huge leaps and bounds in industrialization put Russia in the same position as Western Europe which allowed Russia to contend with the other nations on equal footing (or close to it) during World War II.Even though Stalin spurred the modernization of Russia and it was a great success it did come with a price.Stalin was able to successfully establish Russia as a force to be reckoned with and overcame the daunting odds a...
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Suny, Ronald Grigor.Zhukov, Innokenty.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. .The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the Successor States.In Mass Culture in Soviet Russia, edited by James Von Geldern and Richard Stites.
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Partly agree with the view – but it is not as black and white – Tsars whilst they did show periods in which they were ineffective autocrats, did maintain power quite well considering the size of Russia.Explain that this may be caused by their lack of control over the whole of Russia – secret police was small, corrupted civil servants, lack of centralisation .By 1960 over fifty five percent of households had televisions and washing machines but this is low compared to the West, in particular the USA where over fifty percent had colour televisions which were still a privilege for the rich in Russia.This political change was not particularly great as saw no change in government and was just an extension to the autocratic and one party syste...
2346 words (5.9 pages)
Stalin sent them to Russian labor camps called gulags.The health of peasants all over Russia declined quickly.(Stalin) Russia was transformed into a more modern state and gained allies so that that the country was able to withstand Hitler’s invasions.The Five Year Plan was successful in its goal of increasing the industry of Russia.He believed that by unifying the farms, agriculture would grow through Russia more rapidly.
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Communism, Russia and nationalism .Glossing over the gulags, censorship and bread lines of the old system, they call for a return to the guaranteed security of Communist days.During his years in the west, Solzhenitsyn was very active in the historical debate, discussing the history of Russia, the Soviet Union and communism.Solzhenitsyn argues that Tsarist Russia did not have the same violent tendencies as the Soviet Union.He returned to Russia in 1994.
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It had to feed its massive population and so the Provisional Government, set up immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, focused more on keeping power and control over Russia rather than improving the stability of the economy of the country.There were many significant changes such as the structure of the government which had effect all over Russia.However the majority of the Russian population were still peasants and there was still lack of democracy under both of the rulers.In 1892 Russia had poor industry condition, Russia had a very small business class, the majority of the Russian population were peasants who did not have complete freedom of movement, and the Russian economy did not have sufficient funds to invest in...
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In 2020, Laogai in China and Kwanliso in North Korea still persist, but elsewhere, many forced regroupment camps exist, particularly in connection with the ongoing civil wars and the migration crisis: as an example Libya internal refugees and migrants to Europe, so that the European Union is accused of "externalizing the management of migratory flows" after having encouraged the dictatorship of Gaddafi to create such camps.It was at the end of the Second World War that the Soviet Gulag reached its peak, but it gradually declined from the death of Stalin in 1953 and especially from de-Stalinization in 1956: many survivors were then released (even if it meant being placed under house arrest in underpopulated regions of the USSR); another w...
2710 words (6.8 pages)
However, he made the treaty on a gamble that Germany would lose the war and Russia would get it’s land back.In context with the times, I believe this to be an example of good leadership as he was doing all in is power to ‘drag’ Russia out of a pitiful state and into the modern world that other nations had found.During the period lasting from 1917 up until 1924, Lenin remained leader of Russia through the Bolshevik party.He was a prime example of one.Yes, one may argue that his switching of views and failure to remain true to a fixed set of principles was a case of bad leadership, but I think it highlights Lenin’s ability to adapt to the new situations that Russia was facing.
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Another reported that the NKVD took all males between the ages of seventeen and seventy from his village of German-Russians.According to the historian Robert Conquest, Joseph Stalin “gives the impression of a large and crude claylike figure, a golem, into which a demonic spark has been instilled.” He was nonetheless “a man who perhaps more than any other determined the course of the twentieth century.” .― Robert Conquest[->0] .For example, an order reportedly arrived in Tashkent to ‘Send 200 [prisoners]!’ The local NKVD was at its wits’ end about who else to arrest, having exhausted all the obvious possibilities, until it learned that a band of ‘gypsies’ (Romany) had just camped in town.“According to some reports, entire groups of...
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Gulags consisted of many hundred of camps with the average camp holding 2,000 to 10,000 prisoner.“The Gulag.” The Gulag.Some of the affects that Russian gulags had on Soviet society and it’s daily life would be Citations: .6 Sept. 2012. .The term “GULAG” is an acronym for the Soviet bureaucratic institution, Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel’no-trudovykh LAGerei (Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps), that operated the Soviet system of forced labor camps in the Stalin era After Stalin’s death in 1953, Soviet authorities began to dismantle the camps.
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The problem was compounded when he formed a church organization that was not sanctioned by the bishops in Russia and abroad.Before the revolution, Russia boasted more than 50,000 churches and 160,000 priests.As suggested by Clendenin (2003), more than 70 million people in Russia today identify themselves as Orthodox.Archbishop Laurus, who arrived in America in 1946 with a group of monks fleeing the war in Europe, states that the primary purpose of Hollywood Monastery is to “preserve Orthodoxy as it was passed on from our predecessors and to give it to the next generation and also to Russia.Outside communist Russia, the faithful suffered as they witnessed the tragic fate of the countless persecution of their church.
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Stalin used this as the excuse to begin the ‘Great Purges’.In 1931 Stalin correctly prophesied, as it turned out, that Russia had 10 years to modernise before it was attacked.Stalin made a few short-term impacts on Russia but he was single-minded and not as practical as Lenin therefore the impacts he made were mostly long-term.He demanded continuous applause (the first person to would be arrested as someone who didn’t support Stalin).Stalin felt more secure to use his secret police to crush any opposition.
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Stalin’s actions and policies during his rule of the USSR were backed by the aims of the Communists in Russia.Stalin believed that the USSR had to unite against the powers of the capitalist countries, and to achieve this, he believed that he had to eliminate all opposition of the Communist ideologies in Russia.This essay will examine the ideologies, effects and legacy of Stalin’s rule over Communist Russia; to prove that during Stalin’s rule over the USSR, he accomplished much for his country, but his course of action was not justified by the results.“There was not a single execution in Russia that Stalin did not know about”, according to Lenoid Zamiatin, a former bureaucrat; and Stalin, during his time as ruler of the USSR sent at least...
1118 words (2.8 pages)
All the factors show that Stalin’s paranoia was the central and the main cause as the other factors all show a contribution of his paranoia in them which caused it to develop further and hence the beginning of the Great Terror.Russia was still recovering and was attempting to industrialize itself in order to increase their power.Another reason as to why Stalin had fear of old party members was because they knew the truth behind Stalin’s rise to power and what Lenin’s testament contained which would have caused the ruining of Stalin.An example of why I think this is because Stalin was in need to divert people’s attention from his failure in economic policy such as the voting which took place in the congress of victors that did not help as...
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Stalin was a very devoted Communist and used all the aspects of the Marxist doctrine.Some he successfully brought to end, like destruction of opposition, however he also killed thousands of innocent people while he was at it, including all the experts and talented workers and soldiers needed to run the country.Factories were built and for some time, Russia really seemed to be making process after the many years under Tsars who weren’t willing to do anything about the situation.When the Communists took over in Russia in 1917, the country was very backward and inefficient.Others failed completely, like trying to make the people happy to be Communists.
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The novel became an instant success across Russia, and was the first work criticizing Stalin to be published in Russia.Consequently, his writings created an immensely popular dissident.This popularity, and the fact he was made by the system created an armor that protected him from Soviet reprisals, and thus let him write increasingly damaging works.in Scammell 2: 201) The clearly anti-Communist message in many new works of literature provided a platform from which conservative hard liners in Russia could launch attacks against the reforms.It was these writings that eventually led to his exile, as the Soviet government looked for any possible method to quiet the dissenter.
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On the contrary.They don’t want limits on their own surveillance, just on ours.Even some allies have tired of America’s human rights demands (which are readily ignored when strategic concerns trump them, as in Syria).While Snowden claims to be defending personal freedoms, he has sought shelter from egregious violators of human rights, including China, Russia, Cuba, Venezuela and Ecuador.That brings us to the heart of the matter.
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Nevertheless, life in Soviet jails was typically so difficult that virtually all inmates preferred confinement in Gulag labor camps, no matter how difficult the conditions were.The Gulag drove its inmates to desperation.Jacques Rossi, spent nineteen years in a Gulag after he was arrested in the Stalin purges of 1936-37... Life in a Gulag was a brutal and violent zone, every man was for themselves... Health care was insufficient or inadequate in the Gulags.
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... middle of paper ... .The ‘Gulags’ are the forced labor camps where millions of people are sent for crimes.Conditions in the Gulag were appalling and prisoners were used as slave labor.....org/details/Gulag_Archipelago_I .This is a work of fiction, but it is also a kind of journalistic novel that informs all about the gulag system.
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To add to this, the tactics that Bolsheviks officials used to quench peasant resistance were quite medieval – anyone who reacted was sent to the Gulag for slave labour, while class warfare, with the extinction of the “kulak” as main focus, raged over the countryside.Russia did not have the capacity to carry out reform on such a scale, leading to destructive results.It did not create an emerging super-efficient state, with the perfect economy to say that they needed the rigor of terror to achieve this.In many cases we see that actually the tactics used pushed Russia backwards, into irretrievable losses, and for this reason it is only fair to conclude that although Stalin’s tactics were genius in theory, he did not take into account the pe...
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Salman Chatta .Although the output of coal and iron grew massively, this was at the expense of agriculture which caused the great famine in 1932-33.The second 5 year plan also was successful in massively transforming heavy industry and saw Russia rise to just below Germany in terms of the most steel-producing countries in the world.Ostensibly, the 5 year plans were successful to a large extent in transforming Russian industry, although some areas were focused on a lot more than others.This portrayed a Russia which had successfully used the 5 year plans to create a much better and larger industry.
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The rise of Stalin and his implementation of economic policies had a reaching influence into the social structure of the state.It is clearly evident that Stalinism was an immense impact on Soviet sociology.These prisoners were sent to the soviet Gulags where they were starved, executed or worked to death.Stalinism gave birth to an industrial giant, and the deaths of millions.The persecution of innocents facilitated social control, which is important as it kept Stalin in his position of power.
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Lenin was one of the leading political figures and revolutionary thinkers of the 20th century, who masterminded the Bolshevik take-over of power in Russia in 1917, and was the architect and first head of the USSR.Moreover, the population suffered immensely during the Great Terror of the 1930s, during which Stalin purged the party of ‘enemies of the people’, resulting in the execution of thousands and the exile of millions to the gulag system of slave labour camps.After the outbreak of revolution in Petrograd in February 1917, he made his way back to Russia.Trotsky was a key figure in the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, second only to Vladimir Lenin in the early stages of Soviet communist rule.In 1917, exhausted by World War One, Ru...
1151 words (2.9 pages)
Stalin called this the GULAG system, he generated a huge labour force and provided lots of goods from these camps.Roy Medvedev although he is a Soviet dissident, says that the human cost of Stalin’s policies is a black shadow on the period, this means that he notes the achievements of Stalin’s reign but feels that the loss of life was unessessary to modernising Russia.The most important reason why i believe that Stalin’s policies were aimed at modernising Russia was that he used collectivisation, to try and unite and increase productivity despite the views of the people.Stalin could have been using the purges to execute threatening members of the Russian society, Stalin claimed that the people who were executed were traitors against Russ...
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Underground editions, often handwritten but usually typewritten and Xeroxed (unauthorized Xeroxing was illegal in the Soviet Union), included Pasternak’s “Doctor Zhivago”, Solzhenitsyn’s “One day in the life of Ivan Denisovich” and “Gulag Archipelago”, Bulgakov’s “Master and Margarita”, and many others.There are two essential drinks in Russia : vodka and tea.They are still endlessly trying to answer the three principal questions: “Who is to blame?”, “What is to be done?” and “Where to begin?”.Thus, they keep this custom and pass it to the new generation, which they believe will pass it to the next one.Despite that, people still believe they will find answers to those questions, and then Russia will become a country of freedom and wealth....
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