Collier's Encyclopedia, n.d.31 Jan. 2014. ."Solar System Exploration: Science & Technology: Science Features: The Center of the Galaxy."Solar System Exploration: Science & Technology: Science Features: The Center of the Galaxy."History of Newspapers."
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Martin V, rejecting the calls from France to win Avignon, and those of the Emperor to choose a city of Empire, chose to leave for Rome, where he made a triumphal entry on September 22, 1420. .This done, the council elected on November 11, St. Martin's Day, the Roman Oddone Colonna, who took the name of Martin V. The new pope then presided over the council which sat until April 22, 1418.From then on, the council was no longer subject to the goodwill of the pope.The Council of Constance ends the great schism in the West.He will therefore be at the origin of the Council of Basel (1431-1449) which will support conciliarism.
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Aoineko Jul 10, 2003 at 03:54 (CEST) .So it's the code that Aoi uses on sect that is not good (anyway, you can't do that to me with the dinosorian browser anymore, I'm using the latest of the latest versions.A specialist in the room?- Tarquin 10:34 Jan 30, 2003 (CET) .It is not at all standard and does not provide much reading facilitation.
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The complete irony embodied in the series of events serves to convey and support Kundera’s claim that “curtain-rippers are criminals.” As suspected, dealings between Jan Prochazka and Professor Vaclav Cerny, a well-known figure with anticommunist sentiment, sparked heightened surveillance.“A person…slurs friends, uses course language…floats heretical ideas he’d never admit in public, and so forth.” As seen, Kundera first simply says that “a person” does all these things, yet in the following sentence he expresses that “we all act like Prochazka.” This noticeable, alluring, and gradual shift in expression serves to demonstrate to the reader just how common Prochazka’s situation and actions are.Following thorough evaluation of the argument...
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You could still confess your sins without paying money, but people still chose to pay money.A second reason that Martin Luther committed heresy is that in the 95 Theses, he said that indulgences weren’t okay to sell.Deeming him, a heretic.There are already other people saying he is a heretic, which contributes to the definition and him violating the church with his writings.So think about it, after having his writings read and getting them banned, the definition of heresy proving that he is a heretic, and going against the church in his writings, doesn’t that prove that he in fact is, a heretic?
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Davidson, 28 & 30.The trial of Alice Kyteler helped make the link between heresy and witchcraft, helped in making witchcraft a crime punishable under heretical laws, helped define what the acts of witchcraft are, and allowed for the authority of the church in matters of witchcraft, such as torture, to be defined.Outlaw was accused of helping heretics, who where also being charged with heresy, and using sorcery for the use of evil.Davidson, 26-27.William Outlaw was accused of, “aiding, abetting and harboring heretics…usury, perjury, adultery, murder of clergy, and excommunications, to the total of thirty-four separate counts.”1 William Outlaw, son of Alice Kyteler, had the charges of heresy and helping those who where heretics combin...
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One of the main issues of being a heretic was that for obvious reasons heretics did not see themselves as “heretical” but rather as authentic Christians who were “reclaiming the true teaching of the gospel.” The fact that they stubbornly consider themselves to know the word of God better than institutions already set up condemned them.This brilliant system was in fact fair, considering medieval concepts of justice.As explained, Kelly agrees mainly with Lea and contradicts several ideas of other scholars in his field.Kelly’s style of writing is very effective in proving his point, given the fact that he establishes clearly what is understood by other historians and then makes his point clear.He also establishes the definitions of the word...
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Both civil and church authorities can run an inquisition in order to root out non-believers from a nation or religion in the wake of the decline of the Roman Empire.Although most of the conversions were forced, Christian canon law held that even forced conversion was biding, and the conversos, against their will or not, were now to be held fully accountable and privileged members of the Spanish Christian society in which they lived.Spain at the time was a nation-state that was born out of religious struggle between numerous different belief systems including Catholicism, Islam, Protestant and Judaism.The population, who converted them, as a mocking term of distaste, later referred to these forced converts as conversos.A heretic is a high...
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The massive popular movements of the XIII century were directed against the Inquisition’s bigotry.The Spanish Inquisition spread to the Netherlands and Portugal, and served as a model for Italian and French inquisitors.A common result of the Inquisition’s activity includes the following numbers: hundreds of thousands of innocent people were burned at the stake, millions of maimed and outcast people languished in the prisons, and many of them lost their properties and good names.In all port cities, its offices served as quarantine against the entry of heresy, which disastrously affected Spanish trade.The strengthening of the royal powers in several countries in Europe contributed to the restriction of the Inquisition’s activities.
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Kamen argued ‘Spain was barely more Christianised in 1600 than it had been in 1500, for all the efforts of the king, inquisition and Counter-reformation’.Overall Philips attempts to implement his religious policies were not very successful.These somewhat repressive measures included; all Spanish students studying abroad to be recalled, as to not allow them to be influenced by heretics, An index being formed of ‘dangerous’ or heretical books being banned or censored, including the works of many prominent Spanish thinkers and literatures.However it wasn’t it all dim, Philip did make some improvement in clerical standards and eliminated much heresy within his lands as well as successfully implementing the Tridentine decrees within the counc...
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” In document 6, they are saying that there has never really been any heretics that they have come across, they have had mostly Catholics.” As stated in document 5, this was a negative effect because their land is being taken and they are losing everything that they own.Bythe end of the thirty year war, European nations were beginning to impose themselves upon the rest of the inhabited world with tremendous repercussions.“Before the voyages to Peru, one could keep much wealth in a little place , but now that gold and silver have been cheapened by abundance , great chests are required to transport what before could be carried wrapped in a piece of drugget .Columbus’ discoveries forced the world to change.
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Thus the women in the early romances, who most clearly fit the definition of a heretic--politically powerful, attuned to the devil, employing witchcraft, and in danger of burning--are not accused of heresy because the link between witchcraft and heresy had yet to be made formally in England and significant heretical movements had not yet emerged there; while the women in the later romances are gagged, or removed completely from the narratives, or polished to appear as "good Christians" or "women of the otherworld," because the coupling of witchcraft with politics had become too dangerous.Although there was a growth in the heretical communities in England at the time of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and heresy had become a social issue,...
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Whereas other countries with the same facilities as Germany would have stifled any attempt at a revolt with the use of censorship.However, the lack of literacy meant that the impact of the pamphlets distributed was reduced.Issues of papal supremacy existed elsewhere, therefore the unusual political situation in Germany, helped by the lack of censorship of the printing press may have been the most significant contribution to the great amount of support Luther received by 1521. .This is evident in that previous protestors against the Catholic Church, such as Jan Hus, who lived during the 14th and 15th centuries, were unable to become as widely supported as Luther.The effectiveness of the printing press would have been limited if Luther d...
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When the Inquisition proceeded by geographic sector, the opening of an investigation of the Inquisition in a given heretical sector generally took the form of a general preaching, where the inquisitor expounded the doctrine of the Church and refuted the theses of heresy.In addition, the bishops are confronted with local pressures: heresy also develops in the nobility or among the townspeople, and a bishop can have a close heretical relative.from an ass more solid historical ture.Negative episodes from the past must not impose themselves in the present in a phantasmic way.The work of memory is not done to aggravate collective guilt, but to free the conscience under the gaze of God and to move forward.
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When they were allowed this, the guild was in charge of most of the town.The increase of capitalistic industry was responsi .By the 1300s, guilds began to lose their protection and democratic sides.As if the guilds were not complex and powerful enough, they decided to create associations of guilds, which controlled common foreign markets.This made it more difficult for new members to join the guilds.
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Galileo did go against the church, but he did not try to disprove anything in the Holy Scripture.Galileo then goes on to say that the prohibition of a science would not even be an option when he declares: “To prohibit the entire science would be no different than to reject hundreds of statements from the Holy Writ” (Galileo, 103) There will always be a need for the truth and science and neither of them will ever be replaced or banned.The need for science, the need for religion, and the quest for knowledge will never disappear.He accepted that there can be more than one truth and that some passages in the Bible could be reinterpreted using new knowledge and discoveries in science to learn new lessons.Galileo said that everyday “one is dis...
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Galileo was one of many examples of someone fighting for what they believed in and knew what was right.He was a holy and spiritual man that knew that the truth could not be stopped.If God did not want us to learn and discover he would not have given us the power to learn.Galileo said that everyday “one is discovering Copernicus’s position is truer and truer” (Galileo, 103) So that if it were to be prohibited now after people have been reading and learning about it for so many years it would be an infringement on the truth, and to disallow it now would make it seem to be more correct.Galileo believed that God created the universe and the earth to be discovered and that you cannot deny a sense that was given to you by the highest power of ...
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Witches and the Inquisition, Available .Robbins, R., 1959, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, Bonanza Books, California .The proportion of unmarried women was evident in line with prostitution, infanticide and contraception was part of the problem.Bibliography: .Ben – Yehuda, N., 1980, The European Witch Craze of the 14th to 17th Centuries: A Sociologist’s Perspective, The University of Chicago Press.
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As noted in the article, Heretical Christianity did work to promote Islam as most of the heresies were doctrines that had disputed the existence and acceptance of Jesus Christ as a son of God.They particularly opposed the deityfication of the Virgin Mary as it was suggested by Catholicism and of particular interest is their opposition of Jesus Christ as a son of God, a notion that had been already advanced by the heretical Christians3.Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed.“No Other Gods before Me: Spheres of Influence in the Relationship between Christianity and Islam.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 33 (2005): 223-234.“No Other Gods before Me: Spheres of Influence in the Relationship between Christianity and Islam.” Denver Journal of...
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It was Wycliffe who started the Reformation thought “-the unique authority of the Bible for the belief and life of the Christian” (John-Wycliffe.com).William Thorpe said, “From him one could learn in truth what the Church of Christ is and how it should be ruled and led” (John-Wycliffe.com).It seems the bifocal could be another proof to Plato’s The Republic, “Necessity, the mother of invention”.A third and much lesser known contribution of John Wycliffe is the bifocal, a two-part lens in eye glasses helpful in reading.Most literature today attributes the invention of the bifocal lens to Benjamin Franklin in 1760.
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She does have some good points – for instance reforming the tax system, the Army and the Navy – however she should be doing things like that because she was the queen and she had to have responsibilities.But taking it so far was just evil.However it takes a horrible person to go so far as to kill nearly 300 people just to try and get everybody to agree with you.Even when she knew it wasn’t working, and she was just turning people against her, she carried on.I think this because she has killed so, so many people just because they had a different opinion to her!
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The Malleus Maleficarum accuses male and female alike.directly or indirectly interfered in obstructing an investigation.percent of accused witches.So you can see .The title Malleus Maleficarum is .
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The New York Review of Books, vol.New Research Into Causes Of Terrorism Reveals People Turn To Suicide Bombing To Preserve Identity.(2003, Jan 16).The Suicide Bombers.com/articles/70717.
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(1974): 141-157. .Printing was seen as a major invention important for circulating great pieces of scholarship, though it created a problem for those trying to keep scandalous and heretical ideas from being disseminated.Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin.Governments and established authority had a stake in the suppression of these types of materials as divisive, heretical and treasonous.Transactions of the Royal Historical Society.
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Researching the topic of heresy and the great intellectual minds of the seventeenth century was an interesting process.Given their continued importance, and the unquestionable impact of these thinkers, we find it important to ask: why were these men and their ideas heretical?In the eyes of the church Galileo and Descartes seemed to be Heretics.One cannot forget that these men were hassled by the church for simply believing something other than those of the church....devoted to the religion?
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(2010): 50-52 .Pinnock, Clark.Downers Grove, IL: InterVaristy Press, 2006. .However, to Jacob Arminius’s defense, Arminianism was intended to protect Calvinistic predestination from heretical teaching.The Grace of God, The Will of Man.
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He took all of their gold and silver ornaments and all of their land.Although Henry had broken away from the Catholic Church, many things did not change.Henry said that all monks were immoral and lazy.Priests were not allowed to marry.This was due to wars in Europe and the expense in his personal life.
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In the texts ‘Joan of Arc: heretic, saint, terrorist’, ‘The Litany of Saint Joan of Arc’ and Julius Caesar we see how language techniques present a particular point of view and convince audiences to empathize, support, question or consider particular personalities, especially those of a political background.The abstract nouns ‘generosity’, ‘courage’ and ‘purity’ emphasize these role model qualities and provide reason for her sainthood.The representation of political figures of our time and through history can and will always be viewed with conflicting perspectives that position and persuade, and composers use this to reshape, support or confirm particular assumptions or perspectives.By also repeating her name it continues to bring audien...
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Denied the right to publish his work, he requested permission to leave Russia, which, surprisingly, Stalin granted in 1931.MIRRA GINSBURG is a distinguished translator of Russian and Yiddish works by such well-known authors as Mikhail Bulgakov, Isaac Babel, Isaac Bashevis Singer, and Fyodor Dostoevsky.Nevertheless, throughout the 1920s, Zamyatin, outspoken and courageous as always, published his essays, plays and tales.Editor and translator of three anthologies of Soviet science fiction, she has also edited and translated A Soviet Heretic: Essays by Yevgeny Zamyatin, and History of Soviet Literature by Vera Alexandrova.AUTHOR YEVGENY ZAMYATIN was born in Russia in 1884.
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AMD Press, New York, NY Llorente, Juan Antonio  A critical history of the Inquisition of Spain, from the period of its establishment by Ferdinand V to the reign of Ferdinand VII, composed from the original documents of the Archives of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition and from those of subordinate tribunals of the Holy Office.Houghton Mifflin Compan, Boston, MA/New York, NY.Norton Press, New York, NY. Torquemada and the Spanish inquisition; a history by Rafael Sabatini. The Spanish Inquisition.
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