Jm216 Synthesis Essays


Found 3785 essays.

Organic Synthesis of Polymers | Essay

The term “liquid-phase” synthesis was earlier used to highlight the heterogeneity between solid-phase peptide synthesis and a method of synthesis on soluble polyethylene glycol.Various researches indicate that poly ( bromomaleimide) has not been systematically investigated as a polymeric oxidizing reagent in the pasture of organic synthesis.Enabling homogeneous reaction circumstances and simplifying separation of product, liquid phase synthesis has established efficacy for peptide, oligonucleotide, oligosaccharide, and shows assurity for the usage in tiny molecule synthesis.introduced the synthesis of chloro and bromopolymaleimide and used as halogenating agents.The use of suitable additions of polymer-supported reagents, catalysts an...


1854 words (4.6 pages)
Heterocycles: Types and Biosynthesis

β-Enaminones are versatile compounds that have been used for their pharmacological activity, as building blocks for natural product synthesis and heterocyclic synthesis.Scheme 12: Synthesis of pyrrole, pyridine and indole nitrogen containing heterocycles .These bicyclic models moieties have found a large importance as intermediates in the synthesis of various dugs and natural products.They have focused most of their attention on the synthesis of nitrogen containing heterocycles by the condensation of ketoalkynes with ammonia.Another example of a tandem reaction for heterocyclic synthesis is the intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrones for the formation of cyclic isooxazolidines ( .


2943 words (7.4 pages)
Importance of Natural Product Synthesis

Some modern classical examples of total synthesis include the synthesis of prostaglandin PG and Ginkgolide by E. J Corey, Ingenol by Wood, Brevetoxin by Nicolaou, Vancomycin by Evans, Taxol by Holton , Nicolaou , Wender and Danishefsky groups independently.This event as trivial as it may seem by today’s standards not only gave birth to a boundless science called organic synthesis but also contributed to a demystification of mother Nature by burying the fact that synthesis of nature’s molecules is her exclusive domain.The total synthesis of Hexepi-Uvaricin was published by Hoye in 1994 and subsequently first total synthesis was achieved by Keinan in 1998. .Today the art of organic synthesis has improved to astoundingly high levels of ...


1330 words (3.3 pages)
Explanatory Synthesis Essay

• Write the first draft of your synthesis.In developing a thesis for your explanatory synthesis, base your thesis on an idea that is .In the explanatory synthesis, writers divide a subject into its component parts and present them to the reader in a clear and orderly fashion.Although all writing is recursive in nature, here are a few guidelines to follow that will help you organize and write your synthesis paper: • Consider your purpose in writing.• Revise your synthesis.


1638 words (4.1 pages)
Marine Genomes in Nanoparticles (NPs) Synthesis

Kathiresan et al., (2009) reported the synthesis of the silver NPs from the marine fungus is first time from the marine .Several researchers are reported the efficiency of the marine fungus on the NPs synthesis with high pharmaceutical applications.Microbial capping agents are added as the stabilizer in to the reaction of the NPs synthesis to ensure the prevention of the aggregation and uniform morphology of the NPs and prevent the extraordinary issue of NPs research in chemical syntheses.Recently the exopolysaccharide derived from the marine bacterium are used as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of the gold NPs with significant antibacterial activity against clinical human pathogens (Sathiyanarayanan et al., 2014)....


2476 words (6.2 pages)
Synthesis of New Coordination Polymers or MOFs

However, mechanochemical synthesis is limited to specific MOF types only and large amount of product is difficult to obtain.Microwave-assisted synthesis has attracted much attention as it provides a very rapid method for the synthesis of MOFs and has been used extensively to produce nanosize metal oxides [59].Synthesis of porous MOF by mechanochemical reaction was reported first in 2006 [89].The critical contribution of moisture in mechanochemical synthesis of pillared type MOFs was recently reported by Kitagawa group [91].Mechanochemical synthesis involves breakage of intramolecular bonds mechanically followed by a chemical transformation [80].


2182 words (5.5 pages)
How to Write a Synthesis Essay

In an academic synthesis, you make explicit the relationships that you have inferred among separate sources.However, at times your argumentative synthesis essays will include sections that are explanatory in nature.You will not be writing explanatory synthesis essays in this course.The explanatory synthesis does not go much beyond what is obvious from a careful reading of the sources.Two Types of Syntheses Essays - explanatory synthesis and argument synthesis .


786 words (2.0 pages)
Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of 5-halogeno Pyrimidine

Multicomponent reactions under these solvent-free conditions can be adapted for high speed parallel synthesis and are exemplified by assembly of dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones (Biginelli reaction) and imidazo[1,2-a]annulated pyridines, pyrazines and pyrimidines (Ugi reaction) which may have potential in building a library of such compounds .have made the solvent and catalyst-free synthesis of dihydropyrimidione in one pot conditions under focused microwave irradiation in 2008. .Verma and Rajender Singh made solvent free synthesis of heterocyclic compounds.The solid state synthesis of N-derivatives of 5-halogen substituted of pyrimidine 2,4 dione is of great interest in present research.Chowdhury and shanker describe the recent development...


1443 words (3.6 pages)
Synthesis of API’s and API’s based Derivative

Ours Efforts will be enabling to purpose the more efficient synthesis of complex molecules.And Ph.D. scholars in the field of Organic Synthesis.Figure 2: Proposed Two-Step Synthesis route for Secnidazole .This project concern with the establishment of organic synthesis facilities in Department of Chemistry, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI.The purpose of this project is to setup a laboratory which can design (Organic Synthesis) and synthesize (Organic Synthesis) the APIs for the local Pharmaceutical industry along with the establishment of the required facilities.


900 words (2.3 pages)
Relationship Between Neoliberalism and Neorealism

According to the rationalistic model of the neo-neo synthesis the international economic and political community must be ordered according to absolutely certain and definite economic and political principles that are open to scientific research and investigation.If this constructivist position is accurate, Ruggie argued, then the neo-neo synthesis cannot also be accurate.Thus Ruggie came to define the opposite to the neo-neo synthesis, i.e., constructivism, with the following statement ‘ ’ (Ruggie 1998: p. 867).Deeply influenced and threatened by the persuasiveness of such ideas, and so by the notion that their own ideological differences might become superfluous; scholars of both schools created the ‘neo-neo synthesis’ as a self-defenc...


1725 words (4.3 pages)
Writing a Synthesis

Writing your synthesis The following synthesis essay is from Reading and Writing across the Curriculum (2001, pp.The guiding ideas of the paper—the thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph and the corresponding topic sentences—are highlighted in gray.A synthesis is an opportunity to create new knowledge out of already existing knowledge, i.e., other sources.A synthesis is not a summary.In this essay, the author found various sources on the same topic (the purposes of U.S. forces in Vietnam) and used certain parts of those sources to support the thesis statement.


475 words (1.2 pages)
Intracellular Biosynthesis of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles

The optimum condition for synthesis of nanoparticles is temperature of 30ºC and pH of 9. .In order to meet the growing demand of nanoparticles, eco-friendly methods for nanomaterials synthesis need to be developed which are free of using toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocol[11-13].The synthesis of nanoparticle circles around enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which exists in surface of .Thus, phytochelatin synthase enzyme may be involved in the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles.Development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology.


2068 words (5.2 pages)
Chemical Synthesis of a Gene: Phosphodiester Approach

In solid-phase synthesis, 3′-terminal hydroxy group of the first added nucleoside is attached to the solid surface by covalent interaction.Besides, other methods in use for gene synthesis are successive extension PCR, simplified gene synthesis (PCR based), synthons and ligation by selection, to name a few.Since then, the procedure for oligonucleotide synthesis has been improved by several workers and they provide different approaches for synthesis as well as protection of bases and sugar moieties.The synthesis is carried out in several steps described below: ..For synthesis of a gene, the oligonucleotides (about 30-60 nt long) are synthesized chemically so that each oligonucleotide has a 6-9 nt overlap with its neighboring oligonucleotid...


1979 words (4.9 pages)
Explanation of the Multistep Synthesis of Benzilic Acid Essay

The multistep synthesis of benzilic acid begins with a conversion benzaldehyde to benzoin through a condensation reaction.Prevent this scenario by creating a reaction of an ethanolic solution of the benzil with 10 percent sodium hydroxide solution; if benzoin is present, a purple color develops.Benzil Synthesis .“Multistep synthesis” refers to the procedure in which the product of one reaction serves as the starting material in the subsequent reaction.The synthesis of several complex organic compounds follows a multistep synthesis.


409 words (1.0 pages)
Lipase Catalysed Synthesis of Bio-based Reactive Polyester

IAn: SAn: diol were 2.5:2.5:5.0 and 1.4.0:5.0 taken for synthesis of polyester.The strategy of synthesis of biobased reactive polyester from itaconic anhydride was like that itaconic anhydride does not react with diol alone so it is necessary that the monomer added so that the reaction was completed therefore succinic anhydride or glutaric anhydride was used in combination.The authors used some references to state the method for poly lactide synthesis using two method ring opening polymerization of lactide and direct polycondensation of lactic.The present paper is about the lipase catalysed synthesis of bio-based reactive polyester employing itaconic anhydride as a renewable monomer.Title of the paper is Green polymer chemistry: lipase ...


2045 words (5.1 pages)
One-pot Synthesis of Porous Coordination Polymers

Besides, N-heterocycles and alkylamines also are used as additives in the synthesis of MOFs and ZIFs.Kitagawa and coworkers have used the combination of the coordination-modulation method and microwave synthesis to control the size and morphology of HKUST-1 in which dodecanoic acid was employed as the coordiantion modulator.On the other hand, the use of various additives is an important synthesis approach for the fabrication of NMOFs materials with tunable morphology and size because the additives usually suppress nucleation and crystal growth during the reaction process.The gas adsorption properties of MOF-14 with different shapes were also studied and it reveal that properties of MOF-14 display a strong dependence on the facets expo...


1001 words (2.5 pages)
Protein Synthesis in DNA Processes

The messenger RNA passes through the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where is connects with the ribosomes and acts as a template for protein synthesis.These are arranged along the appropriate codon on the mRNA during protein synthesis.The fourth and final stage of protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm at the ribosomes, and is called translation.Protein synthesis is the process that is concerned with transfer of the information from the triplet code on the DNA to ensure the formation of the proteins.Out of the 64 codons can be formed, three of these designate the termination of a message and these are called stop codons (UAA, UGA, UAG) and one codon (AUG) acts as the start signal for protein synthesis.


1676 words (4.2 pages)
Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes at Low Temperatures Using Single Heating Source of Catalyst and Reactor in the Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Depositi

Materials Chemistry and Physics, 72, 223-227.Abstract Synthesis of carbon nanotubes at low temperatures as low as 540oC was demonstrated via floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method.This new technique would contribute with the synthesis of carbon nanotubes for microelectronic applications since it offers relatively low synthesis temperature.Many methods for the synthesis of CNTs have been used and developed (Ajayan, 1992; Ishigami et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2002).Low-temperature growth and field emission of aligned carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition.


398 words (1.0 pages)
Style Guide and Essay

?Synthesis Essay Assignment: Construct a three page thematic analysis of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire.This essay is due Sunday, October 27, no later than 10 pm.I will post a SafeAssign link in next week’s lesson though which you can submit your final draft.some theme or topic) and supporting textual evidence (discussions of moments in the Desert Solitaire where Abbey uses this theme or topic).Synthesis Essay Assignment: Construct a three page thematic analysis of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire.


3493 words (8.7 pages)
Mechanisms of Rapamycin Production Discrepancy

Thereby, it was confirmed that amino acids metabolic modules were closely associated with rapamycin synthesis indeed and the closest correlation was observed between lysine and rapamycin production.As described above, it was concluded that amino acids metabolism including lysine and arginine, valine, glutamate, isoleucine and ornithine, were key for rapamycin synthesis.The depletion of intracellular tryptophan or the high level of tryptamine might indicate the activation of shikimatemetabolic pathway, and more DHCHC available for rapamycin synthesis.Thus, it might be speculated that urea cycle might be potential key metabolic module to provide nitrogen source for rapamycin synthesis.In addition, the result indicated the shortage of valin...


1640 words (4.1 pages)
Effects of Light and Cell Cycle on Expression Level of EChR1

Thus, it might be speculated that urea cycle might be potential key metabolic module to provide nitrogen source for rapamycin synthesis.As analyzedabove, methylmalonyl-CoA is a key node for improving rapamycin production, while valine and isoleucine metabolism are key metabolic modules related to rapamycin synthesis.In fact, amino acids are essential parts of carbon and nitrogen metabolism for maintaining cell growth and protein synthesis.In fact, both isoleucine and valine are the precursor of methylmalonyl-CoA [22, 24]which is a key node of the carbon flux switches from the primary branch into the secondary metabolic branch [29, 33] such asrapamycin[19].Therefore, more isoleucine and valine in mutant strain might be used to supply met...


1619 words (4.0 pages)
Erythryloxum coca Essay

SPATH’S SYNTHESIS: (1) (Above) was converted into (2) via electrolytic reduction, which on treatment with potassium and methyl sulphate gave (3) (N-methylpyrrolidone).However, a second synthesis by Spi??tter worked on a tortuous synthesis (of about 20 steps) of tropinone between 1900 and 1903, but in 1917 Robinson reported his ‘one-pot’ synthesis and also provided what was probably the first example of a formal retrosynthetic analysis.The laboratory synthesis of an alkaloid can be a challenging problem.A simple synthesis can provide an alternative supply of such a drug.


1927 words (4.8 pages)
Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes at Low Temperatures Using Single Heating Source of Catalyst and Reactor in the Floating Catalyst Chemical Vapor Depositi

Shyu, Y., Hong, F. (2001).Many methods for the synthesis of CNTs have been used and developed (Ajayan, 1992; Ishigami et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2002).Synthesis of carbon nanotubes at low temperatures as low as 540oC was demonstrated via floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method.The interesting morphology of CNTs produced at relatively low temperature promotes real opportunity to minimize the synthesis temperature of CNTs in the future works.Low-temperature growth and field emission of aligned carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition.


391 words (1.0 pages)
Diketo Analogues and Their Significance

Ahmed M. M. reported synthesis of 4-(substituted)-7-cyano- 6-phenyl aminothieno [3,2-d] pyrimidins (33-34) and evaluated as good antimicrobial agents by using B.subtilis and compared with reference drug Amoxicillin.(18-23) These analogs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using .Mosharef Hossain reported synthesis of thieno[3,2-e] imidazo[1,2-c] pyrimidin-2(3H)ones (39) which was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against and compare to reference drugs Ampicillin with Nystatin.Mosharef Hossain reported synthesis of 4-hydrazino-2- mehylthio-5-ethyl-6- methylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidine (24) which is evaluated as antimicrobial agent by using .Shetty Nitin kumar reported synthesis of 8,9,10,11-tetrahydro[1]benzothieno[3,2-...


769 words (1.9 pages)
Carbon Nonmaterial From Non-renewable Oil Resource Synthesis

Synthesis process has been carried out at temperature of 500 and 570 °C for precursor and CNTs synthesis, respectively, a ferrocene catalyst concentration was 17.99 wt%.Synthesis and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Biodiesel Oil: Green Nanotechnology Route.Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from heavy oil residue.Considering the environmental effects and depletion petroleum product sources, our efforts will direct to receive waste engine oil and use it for synthesis carbon nanotubes.In this search a locally reactor has been designed for the synthesis and collection of soot from the petroleum material.


1713 words (4.3 pages)
The prokaryote cell Essay

The cell membrane has a number of functions related to respiration, and ATP synthesis.Inside the nucleus is a fluid called nucleoplasm, a nucleolus  and linear chromosomes composed of negatively charged DNA associated with positively charged basic proteins called histones to form structures known as nucleosomes.ER with ribosomes attached is called rough endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in protein synthesis, production of new membrane, modification of newly formed proteins, and transport of these proteins and membrane to other locations within the cell.and contains enzymes for lipid biosynthesis, especially the synthesis of phospholipids and steroids.The nucleus divides by mitosis.


593 words (1.5 pages)
Long-term empowerment Essay

the late phase of PLT is also associated with presynaptic synaptotagmin synthesis and an increased number of synaptic vesicles, suggesting that L-LTP induces protein synthesis not only in postsynaptic cells, but also in post-synaptic cells.While local protein synthesis provides a mechanism for specificity that global protein synthesis appears to directly compromise.More precisely, if indeed protein synthesis is the basis of L-LTP, only dendritic spines receiving PLT-inducing stimuli will be subjected to the latter; the potentiation will not propagate to adjacent synapses.One of the reasons for the popularity of the local protein synthesis hypothesis is that it provides a possible mechanism for the specificity associated with PLT.Despite ...


4109 words (10.3 pages)
Synthesis Of Multicomponent Reactions Using Nanomagnetic Catalyst Under Solvent Free Condition

To examine the reusability, the catalyst was recovered by an external magnet from the reaction mixture after it was washed with methanol or acetone and dried in the air.The possible mechanism for the nano-γ-Fe2O3-SO3H catalyzed synthesis of substituted 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones has been proposed in figure 2....ves a cleaner reaction than acetophenone.In this study we use various ketones such as acetophenone and cyclopentanone in one-pot synthesis of Pyrimidinones.It was then reused as such for subsequent experiments (up to five cycles) under similar reaction conditions.


419 words (1.0 pages)
Bark Extract Mediated Green Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis

Although the exact mechanism for the reduction of silver nanoparticles is not know Ajitha proposed that the flavonoids present in leaf extract may act as powerful reducing agent and the carboxylate group present in the proteins may act as surfactant to attach on the surface of the nanoparticles resulting in their stabilization during the synthesis reaction [28]... To investigate the ideal temperature and time required for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles the reaction mixture was monitored periodically in a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Lambda 35® (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MS, USA)) operated at a resolution of 1 nm at room temperature scanned in the wavelength range of 400-600 nm.The present study on the green synthesis of silver nan...


2681 words (6.7 pages)
Chemistry: New Era for Organic Semiconducting Polymers

The synthesis of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) can be achieved by using various cross-coupling polymerization techniques.1.Selective C-C bond formation, regioselectivity of the catalyst, and control of the product formations are some of the important features of cross coupling reactions.Regioregular synthesis results in well defined 2,5- coupled polyhtiphenes, which eliminates ambiguous structure-property relationship and allows for efficient performances in optoelectronic applications.7, 31, 32 Due to the ability to form distinct regioisomers, polythiphenes became the most studied conjugated semi conducting polymers for organoelectronic applications.6, 33, 34 The simplest way to describe the 3-alkythiophene couplings is by denom...


2526 words (6.3 pages)

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