Rna In Situ Probe Synthesis Essays


Found 7251 essays.

Review of DNA and Protein Microarray for BioMEMS Technology

4) Probe synthesis occurs in parallel, resulting in the addition of an A, C, T or G nucleotide to multiple growing chains simulataneously.In situ synthesis of protein microarrays as done for DNA microarrays is impractical.Only RNA target molecule that have exact complementary base pair bind to the prob.Algorithms that help minimize mask usage calculate how to best coordinate probe growth by adjusting synthesis rates of individual probes and identifying situations when the same mask can be multiple times.Manufacture is scalable because the length of the probe, not their number, determines the number of synthesis steps required.


4609 words (11.5 pages)
Nucleic Acids Are The Organic Compounds

Organic Bases Structure of RNA [21] .. RNA differs, however, from DNA because it does not form an analogous double helical structure.It represents about 5 to 10% of the total RNA.RNA serves as the genetic material in some plant viruses.It is a direct test based on DNA ribosomal RNA hybridization, with demonstrated sensitivity of 89.9% to 97.1%, and specificity of 93% to 98%.[19,20] .. RNA serves the following functions: .


2073 words (5.2 pages)
Real Time Pcr Essay

| Specific detection methods such as Double-Dye probe systems are more often used for theseApplications| Overview of real-time PCR Real-time PCR is a variation of the standard PCR technique used to quantify DNA or RNA in a sample.Two-step qRT-PCR Two-step qRT-PCR starts with the reverse transcription of either total RNA or poly(A)+ RNA into cDNA using a reverse transcriptase (RT).Figure: Ampliflour primer PROBE-BASED DETECTION SYSTEMS Probe-based systems provide highly sensitive and specifi c detection of DNA and RNA.RNA was isolated from sample A and sample B.Ultrapure, intact RNA is essential for full-length, high-quality cDNA synthesis and accurate mRNA quantification.


4694 words (11.7 pages)
Biotechnology and Genetic Testing Essay

(1986) Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome; HGPS.Types of chromosomal tests are karyotyping, which provides an image of all of a person’s chromosomes so that any changes in number or structure can be identified, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, which utilizes fluorescent DNA probes to find missing or extra copies of chromosomes (NHGRI, 2014).Frequently asked questions about genetic testing.Genetic testing examines DNA or RNA sequences for mutations and alterations that could possibly contribute to a person’s health conditions.The PRF diagnostic testing program.


358 words (0.9 pages)
A Review On VBNC Bacteria

Hybridization assay DNA/ RNA probes form a stable double stranded structure with target nucleic acid via H-bonding between complementary bases.RNA based methods: Due to the failure of distinguishing between dead or live cells by DNA-based methods, the mRNA level may be a valuable estimate of gene expression and/or cell viability under different conditions (Lleo et al., 2000).VBNC cells exhibit active metabolism in the form of respiration or fermentation, incorporate radioactive substrates, and have active protein synthesis but cannot be cultured or grown on conventional laboratory media.Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism to combat the threat of VBNC in future.Reverse transcriptase and random primers are added to the re...


3533 words (8.8 pages)
PCR and Southern Blotting: Applications in Medicine

The DNA is denatured by sodium hydroxide and transferred to a sheet of nitrocellulose or nylon and incubated with a hybridisation probe of single-stranded DNA.PCR is used in quantifying the viral load of HIV within an infected person therefore determining the effectiveness of their treatment.Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is used when the original sample of RNA is transcribed so that DNA is the product of amplification.Pitfalls of PCR include that the sample must be kept cold during storage and transport to the laboratory, the expertise required for analysing and interpreting results as well as standardising between different laboratories and finally the expensive cost of the procedure compared to available techniques9.The western bl...


888 words (2.2 pages)
Phosphonium Vermiculites Dispertion: Polymethylmethacrylate

In this paper, we reported a highly effective synthesis method of phosphonium vermiculites/polymethylmethacrylate (PBTP) nanocomposites by ultraphonic in situ polymerization.In addition , the obtained PBTP nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties than those prepared without ultraphonic, suggesting the great potential of ultraphonic in situ polymerization in the synthesis of polymer/clay nanocomposites.However, the tensile strengths were decreased with the increasing of the clays when PBTPs were prepared without ultraphonic in situ polymerization, which indicated clays gathered and had poor dispersion in polymer matrix.The XRD patterns and TEM images indicated that the PBTPs prepared with ultraphonic in situ polymerization had...


1705 words (4.3 pages)
Resistance of Wheat to Mycosphaerella Graminicola

Extracted RNA was treated with DNase using a Qiagen RNase-Free DNase Set (Qiagen, Valencia, CA).Probes was labeled by adding 1 mM of digoxigenin-dUTP and using the same PCR program and primers as for the Cdna synthesis.Total RNA was quantified based on the standard conversion factor of 1 absorbance unit at 260 nm = 40 mg RNA mL1 (Tsai et al., 2004).Total RNA was visualized on a 1.6% agarose gel and then quantified and assessed for purity using a UV–visible spectrophotometer (CECIL 9500 Model, UK).The membranes were then hybridized, twenty to a total cDNA probe from 20 treatments of wheat.


2512 words (6.3 pages)
Protein Synthesis in DNA Processes

The messenger RNA passes through the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm where is connects with the ribosomes and acts as a template for protein synthesis.They are Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and Transfer RNA (tRNA).Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a very small, single stranded molecule that is manufactured by the DNA in the nucleus and is primarily responsible for the transfer of amino acids.There are three types of RNA found in cells, all of which are involved in process of protein synthesis.One strand functions as a template and the enzyme called RNA polymerase moves along the strand attaching RNA nucleotides one at a time to the newly exposed strand on DNA.


1676 words (4.2 pages)
Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription

It binds to growing RNA chain and moves along the RNA.Once the RNA is detached, the RNA polymerase falls off and the termination of transcription occurs... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase proceeds in four steps: (i) the holoenzyme first binds at the promoter site, forming the closed promoter complex in which DNA remains double helicle, (ii) the closed complex isomerizes and causes unwinding and separation of DNA strands to form open (binary) promoter complex, (iii) after unwinding only one of the two strands is copied; this is achieved by incorporation of nucleotides, initially without movement of enzyme leading to the formation of RNA chain, up to 9 bases in length.Once RNA polymerase is detached, the RNA chain also comes off and the t...


3206 words (8.0 pages)
Heterocycles: Types and Biosynthesis

Scheme 14: One pot synthesis of isoindolinones .Another example of a tandem reaction for heterocyclic synthesis is the intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrones for the formation of cyclic isooxazolidines ( .Two of the most common are: Fischer-indole synthesis and a Hantzsch synthesis to obtain the pyridines.Cytosine, thiamine, uracil, adenine, guanine are the nitrogen bases that are present in both DNA and RNA ( Figure 3 ); derivatives of these have been used to form the core of drug molecules, due to their ability to selectively interact with the human body.New approaches have arisen in the past decades involving palladium chemistry and lithiation procedure for the synthesis of substituted isoindolinones that have proved ...


2943 words (7.4 pages)
Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of 5-halogeno Pyrimidine

Microwave- assisted synthesis has been applied in many formats ranging from traditional solution phase to solid phase and solvent free reactions.Solid state microwaves assisted organic synthesis have an impact on drug discovery.have made the solvent and catalyst-free synthesis of dihydropyrimidione in one pot conditions under focused microwave irradiation in 2008. .Chowdhury and shanker describe the recent development in solvent-free multi component reactions which was the perfect synergy for eco-compatible organic synthesis.The solid state synthesis of N-derivatives of 5-halogen substituted of pyrimidine 2,4 dione is of great interest in present research.


1443 words (3.6 pages)
Protein Synthesis Essay

DNA transfers RNA to proteins which is what makes it part of protein synthesis.In simpler words, DNA is transcribed in order to make RNA, which is then decoded to produce proteins.RNA and DNA use complementary coding, where base pairs match up, just like the strands of DNA binds to form a double helix.The brief explanation basically is that in the process transcription DNA is untwined by RNA polymerase to make mRNA.Transcription is basically the chemical synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.


481 words (1.2 pages)
DNA And RNA Structure and Functions

Thus DNA is most suited as a hereditary material than RNA molecule.The core task of RNA molecule is to manufacture protein by a process so called translation, with the help of information from DNA.This maximum number of OH-groups in RNA helps in carrying out other cellular processes... DNA and RNA are found to be very important constituents in the living cell.The DNA has thymine shielded by methyl group which gives extra stability whereas RNA has uracil without any protecting group.


1823 words (4.6 pages)
Picornavirus Life Cycle and Processing of Proteins

The poly(A) tract at the 3′ end functions for virus viability, impart stability and also for the efficient RNA replication by interacting with viral RNA at the 5′ end (Bedard and Semler, 2004).IRES (Internal ribosome entry site) is a clover leaf secondary structure at the 5′ non-coding region and in the polypeptide there is a 3′ noncoding region which contains the poly(A) tract required for the synthesis of minus RNA strand for RNA replication and translation.2C binds with the minus strand of poliovirus RNA at the 3′ non coding region and hence it plays a role in positive RNA viral strand synthesis and also in minus strand RNA synthesis.The new positive and negative strand viral RNA are synthesised by using the viral encoded RNA dependen...


3317 words (8.3 pages)
Protein Metabolism

When RNA polymerase transcribes the DNA, guanine pairs with cytosine and adenine pairs with uracil.At that point, RNA polymerase releases the mRNA polymer and detaches from the DNA.This occurs in the nucleus.” RNA synthesis transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand, also unlike DNA replication where DNA is synthesised, transcription does not involve an RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis.During transcription RNA polymerase binds to the DNA to unwind the DNA strand and allow RNA polymerase to transcribe only a single strand...


1420 words (3.6 pages)
Biology Essay

Eukaryotic transcription occurs within the nucleus where DNA is packaged into nucleosomes nd higher order chromatin structures.Translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes.Eukaryotic cells use RNA as well, but only use it for an intermediate step when turning genetic information into protein.RNA is a much less stable molecule than DNA so it is not very good for holding the large amounts of DNA typically seen in Eukaryotic cells.Ribosomes bind to the mature mRNA at an AUG site and, for each codon (3 mRNA nucleic acids), a tRNA brings an amino acid for the translation, until the stop codon where the newly synthesized polypeptide is released in its primary structure.


282 words (0.7 pages)
Antimetabolite Essay

Antimetabolites can also be antibiotics, such as sulfanilamide drugs, which inhibit the synthesis of dihydrofolate in bacteria competing with para-aminobenzoic acid.For example, antimetabolites mimicking purine (azathioprine, mercaptopurine) or pyrimidine, can be incorporated into DNA.However, since thymine is used in DNA, but not in RNA (where uracil replaces it), inhibition of thymidine synthesis via thymidylate synthase selectively inhibits the synthesis of DNA without affecting that of RNA.Antimetabolites can by their presence have toxic effects on cells, such as stopping cell growth and division, so these compounds are used in chemotherapy against cancer.In the ATC system, they are classified in L01B.


263 words (0.7 pages)
A Description of DNA Replication

RNase removes the RNA fragments used to initiate replication by DNA polymerase, and another DNA Polymerase enters to fill the gaps.To begin synthesis, a short fragment of DNA or RNA, called a primer, must be created and paired with the template DNA strand.Clamp-loading proteins are used to initially load the clamp, recognizing the junction between template and RNA primers.Also performs proof-reading and error correction.| DNA clamp| A protein which prevents DNA polymerase III from dissociating from the DNA parent strand.| Single-Strand Binding (SSB) Proteins| Bind to ssDNA and prevent the DNA double helix from re-annealing after DNA helicase unwinds it thus maintaining the strand separation.| Topoisomerase| Relaxes the DNA from its super...


3352 words (8.4 pages)
Characterisation of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

On the other hand if the probe hybridizes to the target the DNA polymerase cleaves the probes between the reporter and quencher.A TaqMan probe contains a reporter dye at the 5´ end and a quencher dye at the 3´ end of the probe.This assay is both qualitative and quantitative and allowed me to compare the RNA gene expression in relation to the control (GAPDH).The reporter dye does not fluoresce if the probe is intact... RNA was extracted from prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, C42B and DU145 cells (stored at -70°C and thawed at 37°c before extraction) using RNeasy Kit (Superscript II enzyme and Poly-A primer) from Qiagen.


5197 words (13.0 pages)
DNA Replication Transcription and Translation Essay

tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA Although the DNA holds the genetic code, the RNA transforms this genetic information into the synthesis of proteins.For instance, when the mutation resulted to the transcription from the codon “CCG” to “GGC”, the protein synthesis will not be altered.In the ribosome, the genetic information encoded by the DNA on the mRNA is decoded by the ribosomal RNA or rRNA.New York: McGraw-Hill.On the other hand, the transfer RNA or tRNA finds amino acid in the cytoplasm and attaches it to the mRNA template based on the genetic code transcribed.


1090 words (2.7 pages)
More About RNA

RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of genetic information.RNase P is composed of both RNA and protein; however, the RNA moiety alone is the catalyst.First a type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes.RNA is formed from DNA by a process called transcription.RNA, however, is more resistant to damage by Ultra-violet rays.


599 words (1.5 pages)
Biology Key Skills

* Cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA, but thymine is only found in DNA and uracil is only found in RNA.[IMAGE] [IMAGE]Chemical differences between DNA & RNA ============================================= Both RNA and DNA are composed of repeated units.The start point for DNA polymerase is a short segment of RNA known as an RNA primer.* Adenine and guanine are both found in DNA and RNA.the sequence ATGC has different information that AGCT even though the same bases are involved DNA and RNA structure in brief * DNA and RNA belong to a class of macromolecules called nucleic acids.


2166 words (5.4 pages)
Essay on Organic Compounds ( Organic Chemistry )

It is a chemical reaction where water is removed (dehydration) from the chemical reaction and that links (synthesis) the smaller molecules to make the big molecule.Where the RNA comes from?From the parents .Where the DNA comes from?How the bases containing nitrogen are combined for RNA?


493 words (1.2 pages)
Genetic expression Essay

Once transcription is complete, the resulting pre-messaged RNA will have to undergo processing steps before being translated into protein.On the other hand, the formation of a hairpin loop between 2 complementary regions of RNA blocks the polymerase and a termination factor releases the RNA molecule, which does not require any modification to be translated.In prokaryotes, the terminator is made up of a DNA sequence rich in G-C bonds that forms 3 hydrogen bonds which slow down the progression of RNA polymerase.In addition, RNA polymerase does not need a primer as a starting point to begin to polymerize RNA.Like DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase reads the transcribed strand from the 3 'end to the 5' end and synthesizes the RNA strand from the...


700 words (1.8 pages)
The Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr

The quantity of the isolated RNA was determined by nanodrop spectrophotometry (absorbance at 260 nm of a 40µg/ml solution of RNA is 1.0) using nuclease-free water as a blank.PCR can also be used for the analysis of RNA sequences and to qualitatively detect RNA expression levels through creation of complementary DNA (cDNA) transcripts from RNA by use of reverse transcriptase.Currently, internal control genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, are most frequently used to normalize the messenger RNA (mRNA) fraction... A DNase digestion step was performed as a precaution using RQ1 RNase-free DNase kit although the TRIzol method generally results in RNA which is essentially free from genomic DNA (2).Wearing gloves while han...


1090 words (2.7 pages)
RNA Processing and Synthesis

Example, one t RNA (thr) and one t RNA (ser) are present in a single unit in E.coli.Bacterial ribosomes consists of 16s r RNA (1541 nucleotides), 23s r RNA (2904 nucleotides) and 5s r RNA (120 nucleotides) respectively.The E.coli genome consists of two copies of the t RNA tyr1 gene, the t RNA is transcribed from these two identical adjacent copies of the DNA.To form physiologically active RNA molecules, bacteria process the primary transcripts for r RNA and t RNA.Furthermore the protein serves to ensure the correct folding of the RNA and the RNA possesses the catalytic activity, in order to maximize the catalytic activity.


971 words (2.4 pages)
Anti-aging Mechanism Using Bacteriphages | Experiment

This may be proteins or sometimes anti sense RNA.In replications, the (+) RNA transcripts are not only used for translation, but also as templates for complementary (-) strand synthesis, resulting in the formation of dsRNA progeny.The Single stranded RNA genome are subdivided into the positive (+) polarity which is, of messenger RNA sense that can be used as template for protein synthesis.Type 4: Viruses with a genome of ssRNA of (+) polarity that is replicated with with a DNA intermediate: the conversion of a (+) strand RNA to a double-stranded DNA is accomplished by an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, commonly known as “reverse transcriptase”, which is contained in the virion.In this, the infecting parental RNA serves as both mRNA and lat...


4967 words (12.4 pages)
Transcription Section of the Central Dogma

“Transcription factors IIE and IIH and ATP hydrolysis direct promoter clearance by RNA polymerase II”.RNA processing.RNA: Catalysis, splicing, evolution.Enhancers may be thousands of base pair away from the RNA polymerase binding site however it has a specific ability to bend over and find the RNA polymerase so eventually let the activator proteins to interact with the other transcriptional factors on the start site or on the RNA polymerase.RNA polymerase is used in order to produce genes that carries the information for protein synthesis (including mRNA) and also snRNA.


2878 words (7.2 pages)
The Chemistry And Function Of Protein And Rna Essay

Nucleic acids, especially, are large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life and include DNA and RNA.While DNA and RNA share some similarities in chemistry, they do have key differences in chemistry and function....ribosomal RNA.The rRNA molecules of ribosomes do not perform any orders for protein synthesis.While DNA has four nitrogen-containing bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, RNA consists of adenine... .


426 words (1.1 pages)

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