Robin Lakoff Essays


Found 2006 essays.

English Language Coursework – Task One and Introduction Essay

Therefore I wanted to look to see if this still applies to boys and girls at a young age where they are seen to be innocent and they would not pick up on these differences.Robin Lakoff also said ‘women use hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation’ but since the children are only 7-8 years old they are still learning basic English skills.When researching this topic I found out that Robin Lakoff devised a theory that there are differences between the language of men and women and how males are more dominant speakers than females.The problem that may arise with this is that some children are more confident than others; this means they will not be as shy with their response as another child would.I think the way we brought up and the language ...


856 words (2.1 pages)
Language and Gender

Lakoff simply repeated the differences that sexist stereotypes within society have put forth; therefore her assertions could clearly be erroneous.This convergence of sex-roles within society has I believe greatly reduced the number of linguistic differences such as the coarseness of profanities.For example, Lakoff stated that the use of precise colour terms by women was an example of the triviality of their vocabulary.The researchers found from their sample that some linguistic distinctions stated by Lakoff were true, such as intensifier usage, with women using them six times as often as men.Other language features females use more frequently according to Lakoff are intensifiers instead of absolute superlatives, hedges such as you know, ...


858 words (2.1 pages)
Speak Freely: Limits of Free Speech

New York: Pearson Custom, 2009.University of Oklahoma ed.“Hate Speech” Exploring Language.The First Amendment of the United States Constitution gives Americans the right to free speech (Lakoff 260).“There's No Such Thing as Free Speech, and It's a Good Thing, Too” Exploring Language.


449 words (1.1 pages)
Feminism And Gender And Language Essay

By avoiding male or female sounding names that symbolize biological gender, children can develop an identity that they are truly comfortable in and not dependent upon their anatomy.In linguistic studies throughout the 1900’s, most linguists and scholars focused their research on members of society that were middle-class, heterosexual, white males, and it wasn’t until the mid-70’s when Robin Lakoff released Language and Woman’s Place that linguistic research regarding the connections between language and gender was conducted.Postmodern feminist theories involving gender roles, gender identity, sexuality, and expansion of opportunities for women and minority genders1 are all continually changing factors in the connections between gender an...


407 words (1.0 pages)
The Splurge of Language: Constructive or Destructive? Essay

Long, Roderick.Article “The Power of Language” 1999. .Lakoff, Robin Tolmach “The Power of Words in Wartime”.“The Power of Language and the Language of Power”, Pearson ESL, 2001. .On top of everything, the issue as regards to the manipulation of language a problem, we can never utter specific respond but we can give credence to the actuality that the appropriate use of language draws a very constructive element of positivistic approach.


999 words (2.5 pages)
Possibility Of A Gender Neutral Language English Language Essay

Lead this to ƒ Hong Kong English ƒ  Australian English Look for “Strahan Discussion Note”ƒ  Conclusion .This is surprising because this article is written as Jochonowitz claims “from a feminist perspective, yet the author [Lakoff] does not advocate abandoning indefinite he” (200).The second study focused on examining reactions “in a more naturalistic context by asking respondents to evaluate an essay written using all plural pronouns, generic pronouns, or generic pronouns plus evaluative stereotypic phrasings” (39).In the first study individuals were asked to evaluate the sexism in several sentences that “contained no bias, used words as man or he in the generic sense, or referred to women in an unfair, stereotypical manner” (39).Another...


1537 words (3.8 pages)
Gender Differences in the Use of Adjectives and Intensifiers

“Lakoff also pointed out that women have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them, with such words and expressions like so good, such fun, exquisite, lovely, precious, divine, adorable, darling and fantastic” (Wardhaugh, 2002:318).In another article Lakoff (1973) states that women use colour terms like mauve, beige, aquamarine, lavender and magenta.Lakoff uses mauve as an example.beautiful, awful, good and fantastic as examples of empty adjectives (Amir, et.al.A number of linguists have investigated this field of study; among them Robin Lakoff (1975), Janet Holmes (2001), Deborah Tanen (1990), Jennifer Coates (1998), Susan U. Philips (1980) and others.


2746 words (6.9 pages)
Language and Gender: Do women and men talk differently?

.Malden: Blackwell Publishing LtdMoore, A.Wodak, R. (1997) Gender and Discourse .London: Sage.Moore (2006) says “researchers such as O’Barr and Atkins (1980) have shown in their study of language used in American courts that the mainly female characteristics of language as described by Lakoff were in fact not characteristic of female language.” Furthermore, Moore (2006) says they have suggested that “this use of language should not be called “female language” but “powerless language” as it is characteristic of people in powerless position.”One feature that has been hugely criticised from Lakoff’s list of features that are more likely to be heard from women is ‘tag questions’.However, more recently, researchers have discovered contradicto...


3078 words (7.7 pages)
The Role of Language

Language and Gender.Lakoff used examples such as, hedges (sort of and I guess) and tag (isn’t it) questions which are responsible for eliminating women from higher positions in the society or going to the same level as the men.(The Original Text, first published in 1975) .Eckert, Penelope & McConnell-Ginet, Sally.Cambridge University Press.


1611 words (4.0 pages)
How and why do women and men speak differently?

According to Coates (1986), “deficit” is an approach established by Lakoff (1975).To summarise, gender different in patterns and styles of communication should be viewed as a complex issue where there are many approaches and factors involved in it.This is because there is a clear pattern for language style shown by different linguists over the years, which correlated with men to be that of power and dominance, and that associated with women to be that of powerlessness and submissiveness (e.g.In fact, deficit approach and dominance approach may make some contribution even though there would be some biasness or stereotypes included in these approaches.Robin Lakoff’s (1975) influential exploratory essay, , about the ways women’s speech dif...


1645 words (4.1 pages)
Metaphors In Cognitive Linguistics

We have admitted that metaphor cannot be treated only as a stylistic device because as Reddy suggests ”the locus of metaphor is thought, not language” (in Lakoff 1980: 204).George Lakoff, 1993.Our marriage is on the rocks) (Lakoff 1980:45).( Lakoff 1980:49) .Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson.


4766 words (11.9 pages)
He’s A Live Wire, Metaphor and Poetry Essay

In “Metaphors We Live by” by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson argue that metaphors are pervasive in everyday life, not just in language, but also in thought and action.Lakoff and Johnson give several examples of daily metaphors we use, such as “argument is war” and “time is money.It became widely known with the publication of Metaphors We Live By, by Lakoff and Johnson, in 1980.According to the linguist George Lakoff (Johnson, Lakoff,38), we use our basic bodily understanding of places, movements, forces, paths, objects and containers as sources of information about life, love, mathematics and all other abstract concepts.Different conceptual metaphors tend to be invoked when the speaker is trying to make a case for a certain point of view ...


2013 words (5.0 pages)
Understanding Culture Essay example

In this way, the Internet is greatly changing our view of author-function.With electronic technology, our culture will enter a new era and will experience changes similar to the ones that occurred with the alphabet and with print technology.When language is examined, these metaphors become clearly apparent.This is a positive result of me... ... middle of paper ... ...xperience) publishes mass amounts of information without discriminating based on the authority or reputation of the author.Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson examines the metaphors in our language and claims that they are in fact a major way that culture subconsciously influences our thoughts and actions.


440 words (1.1 pages)
Language and Woman's Place Essay

This shows that women are hesitant, tentative, unassertive, and deficient; whereas, men are opposite.If they do not talk like a lady, they are also ridiculed and criticized as unfeminine.” (p.6) Another point Lakoff claims that women lack power, seriousness, and confidence.Lakoff believes that women’s language, ma...“If they talk like a lady, they are ridiculed and thought that they are unable to think clearly and participate in a serious discussion.She states that most of them enjoy and consider talking as the way of keeping in touch, especially with friends and intimates.


225 words (0.6 pages)
Process Of Cross Domain Mapping Psychology Essay

Lakoff and Johnson and Grady and Johnson claim that humans from very early on form experiential correlations, which they call “primary metaphors”.These complex metaphor systems ‘are collections of more schematic metaphorical mappings that structure a range of more specific metaphors like LIFE IS A JOURNEY’ (Evans and Green, p.229) Due to this Lakoff created a system, called the Event Structure Metaphor, illustrating metaphors which interact in the understanding of expressions.Taking into further consideration the two key commitments in Cognitive linguistics which were introduced by George Lakoff and both distinguish Cognitive linguistics, as they make the individual enterprise it is.According to Lakoff and Johnson in cognitive linguistic...


3415 words (8.5 pages)
An Overview Of Metaphor And Politics English Language Essay

So now one widely shared definition of metaphor is proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980): metaphor is not just a matter of language, that is, of mere words, but a cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system; the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another; and metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action (pp.3-5).Fauconnier inherited Lakoff and Johnson’ cross-domain mappings, claiming that “mappings between domains are at the heart of the unique human cognitive faulty of producing, transferring and processing meaning” (1997, p.1).(Lakoff, 1993, p.19) .The analysis of “LIFE IS A JONRNEY” put forward by Lakoff also proves that full clusters of seman...


5025 words (12.6 pages)
Newmark And The Translation Of Metaphors English Language Essay

According to Lakoff and Johnson (1980) the conceptual system of man’s mind which control the way we think and the way we behave is metaphoric in nature.Lakoff and Johnson (1980) believed that metaphors help us both to speak about entities and to think about them.Lakoff has also stated that such metaphoric or abstract concepts are structured and understood through the metaphoric mapping of a restricted set of empirical notions in our mind.Lakoff and Johnson (1980) defined metaphor as a device to understand target domain experience on the basis of a familiar one (source domain).To bring another witness to the above-mentioned claim, Lakoff has stated that we usually use metaphors to speak about the abstract domains and in our way of using m...


3900 words (9.8 pages)
Darmok at Tanagra Cunningham and Kehle at Bloomington Gauss With Chalk in Hand

(p.220) Works Cited: Kieren, T., Gordon-Calvert, L., Reid, D. & Simmt, E. (1995).What is left out are the experiential bases of the metaphors and what the metaphors hide.As a result the Tamarians communicate by citing hig... ... middle of paper ... ... between subjective and objective, and deciding whether the Tamarians' language consists of an objectivist model ala Lakoff and Johson (1980).Paper presented at the meeting of the Ame rican Educational Research Association, San Francisco.Chicago: University of Chicago Press Varela, F.J. , Thompson, E., and Rosch, E. (1992).


419 words (1.0 pages)
The Power of the Liberal Narrative Essay

Steven Soderbergh.Erin Brockovich.The Political Mind: Why You Can't Understand 21st-Century Politics With an 18th-Century Brain.Jersey Films, 2000. .The Grapes of Wrath.


454 words (1.1 pages)
Apollo's Human Gardening in Ovid's Metamorphoses Essay

Apollo's identification with each of the metamorphoses gives him the identity of the farmer who sows the seeds, and he ends up being - directly with Hyacinth and Leucothoe and indirectly with Clytie - the agent who causes the metamorphoses.New York, New York.The metamorphoses involved support the concepts of the "Great Chain of Being" and the metaphor "People are Plants" expressed in the book More than Cool Reason by George Lakoff and Mark Turner due to the aspects involved in the Ovidian metaphors and what the people transform into.More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor.(pp 79-82, 230-232).


450 words (1.1 pages)
Hedges in Linguistics Essay

Inter-Language View on Hedging.Lakoff, G., 1972.Clemen (1997, p.238) criticizes Lakoff of basing on logical relationships in his use of words and some semantic hedging facets by not putting in mind the context as one of the most imperative aspect in giving hedges their outright meaning rather than viewing them as self-determining lexical.Nikula, T., 1997.Lakoff (1972, p.195) refers the strategy as ‘face’ which he uses to mean, “Making things less fuzzy.” The original application of the word hedging meant “expressions, which show some words modifying others like ‘sort of’, ‘kind of’” (Markkanen & Schroder 1997, p.4) among others.


1702 words (4.3 pages)
Love Metaphor In English Songs

Lakoff (1987) has commented that image schemas offers particularly vital evidence for the projections from concrete to abstract domains metaphorically.Lakoff (1993) argues that understanding of LOVE concept is led by conceptual metaphors that comprehend the abstract target concept LOVE with concrete source concepts such as ‘container’ and ‘journey’.Furthermore, Lakoff (1987) makes a further study of the mapping by proposing his Image Schema strategy.Owing to the small sample size involved in this study, the said findings can be said to be inconclusive where a larger sample size is warranted in future studies.Following the example of mapping in LOVE IS A JOURNEY metaphor by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), the tables below contain the mapping o...


3809 words (9.5 pages)
Essay on Communication Between Men and Women in "Thelma and Louise"

This was illustrated well by the truck driver and the rapist Harlen and the conflicts they had with Thelma and Louise; proving the point that men and women must communicate differently.He is very open and shows his emotions in his body language, which are also characteristics of traditional feminine communication (Lakoff 627).When they communicate differently their is a good understanding of each other and a greater sense of connection between the two people communicating; which was shown well by the FBI agent Hal and Louise's boyfriend Jimmy.Jimmy shows a great need for intimacy with his proposal and also he shows his feelings for Louise.The movie shows what happens when the two genders communicate similarly and differently.


592 words (1.5 pages)
The Hills Like White Elephants

In conclusion, Jig’s wittiness and her competence with gestures of ironic sarcasm, all of which came together and give full meaning of the last line, a line that by the way corresponds with Jig’s own theatrical manifestation.“There’s nothing wrong with me.I feel fine” (Hemingway 89).The flow of the story combined with the actions, all depict an idea of male dominance not only in relationships but also in society.“I feel fine,” she said.


1463 words (3.7 pages)
English investigation Essay

Also in my transcript I can see that men use more taboo language than women do for example in my male conversation one participant says “fucking legend” whereas in my female conversation there was no swearing words used.They found that women talk about ‘feelings’ whereas men talk more about ‘things’.And from my own experiences these finding are accurate but also my data could also suggest this as well, for example in my females transcripts there is reference to a personal experience that doesn’t really play a part in the structure of the conversation, it is quite random.Zimmerman and West (1915) taped informal conversations between students in coffee bars, shops and other public places.The participant says ” Rory always corrects my spell...


1572 words (3.9 pages)
Cognitive linguistics Essay

The cognitive linguistics enterprise is characterized by two fundamental commitments (Lakoff 1990).The first key commitment is the Generalization Commitment (Lakoff 1990).Instead, cognitive semanticists claim that the meanings associated with linguistic units such as words, for example, form only a subset of possible concepts.After all, we have many more thoughts, ideas and feelings than we can conventionally encode in language.However, there is no English word that conventionally encodes this concept (at least not in the non-specialist vocabulary of everyday language).


2336 words (5.8 pages)
The Lottery by Shirley Jackson Essay

Having no rights to make decisions, females doom to be decided instead of deciding.Since a significant part of the opinion one normally forms about a woman’s character and social station depends on her marital status – as is not the case with men” (Lakoff, 73).In the end, Tessie’s death is another evidence to show that female is not only inferior, but a victim in that lamentable social circumstance.Just like Lakoff says in his book Language and Woman’s Place, “It is with Mrs, Miss, and Mr.Thus, the female’s inferior position has formed.


913 words (2.3 pages)
The act of dying in literature: Symbolism and themes

Thomas, D. (1937).(Lakoff, 2009) All are symbols of the type of man he could be and at times he was in his lifetime each title giving him the strength he needs to rally and fight against his death.(Lakoff, 2009) Death came, in death’s time took their life, and ended their time on the mortal coil almost without the individuals notice.Cambridge University Press, 1994. .(Lakoff, 2009) .


3319 words (8.3 pages)
Prototype Theory Isnt Comprehensive And Appropriate Theory Philosophy Essay

In spite of its ability to bridge the indirect link between language and the world through the mind, Prototype Theory is not comprehensive enough to be an appropriate theory.Prototypes of apple can be red, round and juicy.I think George Lakoff provided a good explanation on this problem.When concepts are no longer simple but compositional like striped apple, recursion of prototypes stops.Prototype of chair can be dining room chair and the prototypes of the subordinate levels go on and on.


2024 words (5.1 pages)
Gender Language Acquisition And Language Use Psychology Essay

Illinois: Waveland Press.London: Routledge .Lakoff identified several factors that make woman’s language different to men’s.(2002) Gender, Language and Discourse.Lakoff, R. (1975) Language and Woman’s Place.


2732 words (6.8 pages)

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