The researcher will then go through the materials trying to identify similar patterns, themes, sequences or relationships and use them in focusing the next observation.Unobtrusive observation will be used as it is the most appropriate approach to exploratory research (Robson, 2002).Unstructured items will be processed by first giving codes to the initial set of materials obtained from the observation and then adding the researcher’s comments or reflections (memos).A set of generalizations will then be developed which will cover the consistent ideas detected in the observation data.According to Robson (2002) focus group refers to a group interview on a specific topic.
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In preparation of an indicative flood mapping (IFM), the EA used an unsteady ISIS 1-D hydraulic model for the mapping of a 47km length of the Upstream Bristol Forme catchment to define areas at flood risk in 2002 (Syme et al, 2004).Increasing population growth and continued urban expansion has led to a reduction in surface permeability which invariably increases surface runoff in the absence of alleviating urban drainage design (Kang et al, 1998; Parker, 1999; Ranzi et al, 2002).Similarly, Milly et al (2002) observed that the frequency of great floods increased significantly during the twentieth century.Reed and Robson, (1999, cited in Dawson et al., 2006) stressed that many flood estimation problems were likely to arise at ungauged site...
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However, for the purpose of this essay participant observation would be discussed holistically devoid of the various roles.This essay discusses the merits and weaknesses of participant observation, arguing that the weaknesses are inherent in the merits and as such the merits outweigh the weaknesses and concludes with ethical discussions on participant observation.Participant Observation and the Collection and interpretation of Data.American Sociological Review vol.20, No 1, pp 28-33 .Dewalt and Dewalt (2002:1) define participant observation as “a method in which a researcher takes part in the daily activities, events, rituals and interactions, of a group of people as one of the means of learning the explicit and tacit aspects of their ...
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Chapter 2 Review of related literature Related Literature Foreign According to Robson (2001), usability is a key requirement for users, says Elisabeth Robson, Product manager for Online Computer Library Center.Cost Benefits Analysis between the Existing System and the Proposed BotolanCommunity College Library System .Appendix ISample Output .Handling the Existing SystemSavings (PHP) .According to Lopez (2002), University of the Philippines Mindanao when UP in Mindanao accepted its first batch of students in 1996, the Main Library collection was integrated with the core collection of the School of .
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.. Qualitative methods are initiated when the researcher has determined that quantitative measures do not adequately pull in the necessary information or interpretation of a particular situation (Robson, 2002).Jenkins (2002) proposes that rather than seeing individualized .Such qualitative data derived may not be accessible in the methods of observation or questionnaire (Blaxter, Hughes & Tight, 2006).Direct observation offers a more detached perspective of the behaviours/ phenomenon observed.The researcher objectively observes rather than takes part and be immersed in the observed situation (Trochim, 2006).
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(Robson, 1993, p. 197).A self-completed questionnaire is a questionnaire that respondents fill in for themselves (Robson, 1993).Green (2002) writes how volunteers will donate their time if volunteers are assured that they have “the opportunity to make a difference” (p. 31).Unpaid workers do play a vital role in society (Freeman, 1997; Green, 2002), and more studies are needed that address the environment of volunteers.The literature also suggests that people volunteer to make a contribution with their lives (Allison, 2002, Green, 2002; Karren, 2004, Throop, 2003).
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Therefore, Robson and Sylvester emphasize that ´it is timely to explore the perceptions of education personnel and students regarding the adequacy of responses within the educational sector and to identify the unmet needs´ (Robson & Sylvester 2007: 262).Robson, S. and Sylvester, K. B. .This is linked to the fact that many teachers lack the knowledge or the skills to implement effective HIV/AIDS and life skills programmes (Obura & Sinclear 2005 in Robson & Sylvester 2007: 260).in the areas of life skills and vocational skills (Robson & Sylvester 2007: 259-60).In 2005 the MoE distributed 30% of their budget to community schools (Robson & Sylvester 2007: 262).
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A detailed study carried out with 139 members of multi-agency teams (Local Government Area Research Report 26; Atkinson et al., 2002) found that the primary skills identified for successful multi-agency working across a range of settings include: .As proposed by Robson (2002), information was recorded during observations and additional information was added shortly after each observation period, including interpretive ideas and subjective impressions.This was recorded on an observation record sheet (see Appendix Three for sample record sheet).The observation technique involved studying a range of adults working with children and describing four things: the skills and knowledge staff were employing in their role, working relationships bet...
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However Robson (2002) also pointed out the disadvantages of using questionnaire to research.(2005) Human resource management at work: people management and development 3rd Ed.When analyse the data, a cross-tabulation can be used to show whether or not there is a relationship between two variables, which are the effectiveness of mentoring and coaching and the strength of psychological contract between employee and the organisation (Robson, 2002).Oxford: Blackwell .Makin, P. J., Cooper, C. L. & Cox, C. (2002) Organizations and the psychological contract: managing people at work.
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Clinician – A doctor, nurse, dentist or other professional who deals with the observation and treatment of patients .The criteria must be based on evidence, measureable and related to important aspects of care (Hine et al, 2002) but if there are no specific standards in place Sale (2005) states that standards must be discussed, agreed upon and broken down into measureable elements that can be used in assessing quality.Dudley (2002) suggested several areas for improvement after a study assessing the use of ultrasound to estimate foetal weight, but acknowledged that further work and regular audit would be required.Hine et al (2002) identify the five key stages involved in the clinical audit cycle.These variables combined with the uncertain...
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(Lao and Ho, 2002) Many different perspectives and preventive as well as remedial measures are advocated to combat the problem.( East and Marianne, 2002) Parallels are drawn with other degenerative trends developing as a response to reckless media portrayals of behaviors related to alcohol, criminal activity and violence, however such comparisons should be made carefully if the behavior used for comparison in such an assessment (say gory violence) is non-normative behavior, where as sexual behavior is largely normative behavior, albeit in the midst of changing mores there have been paradigmatic attitude shifts in attitudes towards it (if this is analyzed historically or even across societies) but generally it is an accepted, universal m...
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2002 ; 115 : 127-131 ( Pub Med).Ajwani S, Blakely T, Robson B. Tobias M, Bonne M. .Counting for nothing: understanding the issues in monitoring disparities inn health.Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington; 2002. .According to Ramsden (2002) observed that cultural safety education is playing a golden role of Maoris health care services improvement like cultural safety being implemented to protect the health care professionals and evaluate the relationship between Maori community.
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77-82, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 January 2014. .Moody, D., 2002, the official website of IT University of Copenhagen .Morris, C. S., &SellonJr, G. H., 1991, ‘Market value accounting for banks: pros and cons.’, 76, pp.5-19.( In Chinese) .IFRS, 2009, the official website of the IFRS Foundation and the IASB.
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20 (3) 282-292.Hewitt (2002) argues this is not true, writing that patients are now powerful with an increasing knowledge of medical science and their rights, therefore they demand that the nurse takes on the role of advocate O’Connor and Kelly (2005) agree that there is some evidence that patients are more aware of their rights within health care but believe they are not in a position to defend those rights.Kenny, G. 2002.Despite this disagreement on vulnerability and power both Mallik (1997a) and Hewitt (2002) agree that for the nurse to advocate for their patient there needs to be a nurse/patient relationship.Interprofessional working will not be successful unless these difficulties are overcome; interprofessional education is a metho...
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Case study research: Robson (2002:40) describes case study as the “growth of comprehensive thorough knowledge regarding a specific case or a few of the connected cases.” The case study approach has the capacity to produce the solutions to the questions such as, ‘Why’?Robson (2002: 19) elucidates five chronological stages of progression in the deductive approach.As per Creswell (2002) a lot of methods can facilitate the collection of primary data.Therefore, it is a must to utilise articles from the well dependable media and the researcher is accountable for evaluating the suitability of the data that has been taken out from this source.A researcher ought to be cautious enough to the take out the unnecessary information bits accumulated fr...
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London: Hodder Education, 2006 .Mastering Modern World History.New York: Palgrave, 1997. .Mussolini believed that the lira “is a symbol of our nation…a vibrant country should have a strong, vibrant currency.” (Robson 83).He restored the value of the Lira to a new exchange rate of 90 lira to the Sterling instead of 150.Townley, E.. Mussolini and Italy.
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Robson, F. L. (2008).Southwood School: A Case Study In Recruitment And Selection.In conclusion, Southwood School needs to focus their attention on modernizing the recruitment methods and ensuring the application of varied forms of the selection process with the emphasis on the teaching method.The recruitment stage of the hiring process at Southwood School needs modernisation since it does not appeal to a sufficiently variable types of potential candidates.Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management.
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Sao Paulo is most likely a “primate city”, which means it is twice as large (in population) than the second largest city in Brazil.A city of Sao Paulo’s size (25m people) can create a lot of wealth for a country.* The model cannot be applied to a map, unlike The Robson Model (see next page).Not only do primate cities dominate a country in size, they also dominate in the level of commerce, industry, services and wealth they obtain.The Robson Model (1963) .
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London: Paul Chapman.& Huberman, A. M. , 1994.Robson (2002) added that qualitative research also applies to studies focusing on various issues surrounding the phenomenon such as the determination of relationships, understanding of situations, interpretation or derivation of meaning from events, and implications of factors and occurrences.Research methods for managers.Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe (2002) explained validity as the extent that data collected reflect the phenomenon under investigation.
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Smola and Sutton (2002) found in their study on generational differences in work values that the Baby Boomers were found to be more loyal to the company and less “me” oriented than their younger counterparts.As a result, older workers may exert more focus on maintaining important work areas, especially as they age (Robson, 2000).Smola, K. W., & Sutton, C. D. (2002).Robson (2000) found that older workers who are provided multiple opportunities for development, learning, and growth as they age may become less likely to perceive threats to their intellectual abilities, personal security, and work relationships.An AARP survey of older workers found that although financial need was a primary reason workers were not retiring, older persons...
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According to Lopez (2002), University of the Philippines Mindanao when UP in Mindanao accepted its first batch of student in 1996, the Main Library collection was integrated with the core collection with the core collection of the School Management ( SOM ) Library at the Stanfilco Bldg., Ladislawa Avenue , Buhangin, Davao City.They also described in detail the functionality and use of several widget libraries and Web services we built.The widgets allow the integration and customization of Web services without requiring programming.They focused on client-side techniques in which each user’s browser contacts Web services directly because this approach lends itself to the creation of HTML widgets.This low entry cost, combined with the provi...
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Home Office 2002. .Coleman and Briggs (2002) argue that while triangulation contributes to validity, it is not a panacea and that its value can be overestimated.The use of triangulation within qualitative research is therefore, said to increase validity (Giles 2002).Robson C. Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers.A study by Knock (2002) drew on the findings of a telephone survey of all police forces in England and Wales and interviews with key personnel in 16 police forces to gain information about the use of Sex Offender Orders (SOOs) which came into force in 1998; the aim of these being to provide an additional measure of protection to the public from sex offenders by prohibiting an offender...
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The promotion of OSH practices is also influenced by safety compliance which is referred to the attitudes that aim to meet the minimum safety standards at work (Inness et al., 2010) which consist of wearing personal protective equipment, working in a safe manner or following safety procedures amongst others.Moreover, the safety practices of co-workers had been shown to envisage an individual safety behavior (Brondino et al., 2012; Melia et al., 2008; Turner et al., 2010. .The communication within a team is a crucial component of the team safety performance, mostly when the team members are working on interdependent tasks in close proximity (Awad et al., 2005; Lingard et al., 2002).The employer and employees have to be aware of the great ...
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There is no doubt that finding information by simply searching the Internet is much easier and faster than reading an entire book.As each generation becomes more in tune with the Internet, their desire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possible has increased.According to Robson (2001), usability is a key requirement for users, says Elisabeth Robson, Product manager for Online Computer Library Center.A 2003 report by the Open E-book Forum found that close to a million e-books had been sold in 2002, generating nearly $8 million in revenue.While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time saving than visiting a traditional library, research has shown that undergraduates are most likely searching onl...
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"Headnote to In Memoriam A.H.H."To express his feelings he composed In Memoriam A.H.H over a period of seventeen years (Robson, Christ 1189).The various sections in the poem represent Tennyson’s gradual passage through the grieving process, allowing readers to grasp how Tennyson felt through the stages of his bereavement (Robson, Christ 1189).“Epilogue to In Memoriam A.H.H.” The Norton Anthology of English Literature.The Norton Anthology of English Literature, vol.
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That can be completed by sending questionnaire or interview (Robson, 2007).Moreover, questionnaire approach is impossible to investigate a topic in depth due to a long and complex questionnaire will reduce its response rate (Robson, 2007).In addition, the research strategy has been discussed and presented.Researcher need to allocate much time to finding interviewee and arranging time for taking the interview practice (Robson, 2007).Moreover, case studies require researcher using multiple sources of evidence to measuring the problem or phenomenon (Yin, 2002).
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Under the Robson indicator any district council areas outside Belfast whose deprivation index score was above the natural break points in at least 2 of the 3 Robson measures was considered an area of social disadvantage.These are reassuringly similar to those areas identified as deprived using the Robson Index (1995) and also correspond to figures published in 2003 by on Income Support and Disability Living Allowance claimants (see appendix ).Criticisms of the Robson indicator were generally based around decreasing accuracy of the measure due to the passing of time, as it was based on the 1991 census figures and also the inability to examine the individual components of deprivation, as it is a combined deprivation score accounting for 18...
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The research design including the procedures, strategy and reliability of the research are also described with ethical considerations when conducting the research survey.According to (Robson 2002; Sekaran 2003) the key stage of this research is to gain the access from the organizations to conduct the survey.According to Robson (2002) lists five sequential stages in deductive approach to progress positive results in quantitative analysis – .Equally the rationale for the rejection of inappropriate methods has also been explained.The philosophical approach to the research is given and the appropriate research methods to reflect this approach have been explained and justified.
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New York: Fair Child.According to Collis and Hussey, (2003) Qualitative research method is the approach in research strategy that has to do with observation and reflection on certain perception so to gain understanding of social and human activities.Robson, C (1993) ‘Real World Research: a recourse for social scientist and practitioner researchers’, Oxford, Blackwell Collis, J.Whilst the deductive method begins with assuming hypothesis from a theory and then testing before observation and confirmation, the inductive approach is vice versa that means starting from the observation to hypothesis and then the theory (Robson, 2002).Cooper, D. and Schindler, P. (2008) Business research methods.
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net/jmmd/023/jmmd0230339.htm on April 25, 2007.New York: Routledge, 2004.a=o&d=108464145>.org/co/afghan/acult.Robson, Barbara, Juliene Lipson with Farid Younos and Mariam Mehdi.
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