When conducting a sample, many see a direct relationship between the overall accuracy of the sample and the population used to create the sample.The non-random sample is selected in a precise and specific manner in order to ensure that the known characteristics correspond with the overall population sample.For example, the cost of the sample, the time duration of the sample, and the size of the population that will be used in order to obtain relevant information and the level of sampling error that will occur once the results of the sample are complete.Budget can greatly affect the sampling method chosen, therefore it is important to ensure the sample is as accurate and precise as possible, identifying the types of sampling method that w...

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Quota sampling: The population is divided into segments and a quota of sampling units is selected from each segment.where the sampling units are diﬃcult to contact.A census involves the gathering of data on a random variable from every member of the target population A sample is a subset of all members of a target population.Judgement sampling: Personal judgement is used by the researcher to select the best sampling units to include in the sample.Cluster random sampling: The entire population is divided into clusters, and a random sample of these clusters are selected.

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Thereafter, random samples are selected from each stratum.NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: .Cluster random sampling: The entire population is divided into clusters, and a random sample of these clusters are selected.A census involves the gathering of data on a random variable from every member of the target population A sample is a subset of all members of a target population.Judgement sampling: Personal judgement is used by the researcher to select the best sampling units to include in the sample.

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There is no guarantee that you will find the needed type sample papers or a well-written sample paper on required topic.CustomWritings.com is the company that offers you the best customized solution against all types of sample papers including, sample dissertation, sample thesis paper, sample essay paper and free sample papers.If you look for sample papers online, you will probably find a great number of APA sample papers, MLA sample papers, and MBA sample papers in particular.Free sample term papers, sample research papers or sample essay papers motivate students to use them and to be caught at plagiarising as a result.If you look for APA sample papers, MLA sample papers or MBA sample papers, you can locate thousands on websites; but if...

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It might not be possible to accurately identify the sample using this method in case the population is very large.Since the strata must be mutually exclusive, this means that we would need to sample four strata from the population: undergraduate males, undergraduate females, postgraduate males, and postgraduate females.The use of a quota sample, which leads to the stratification of a sample (e.g.statistical inferences) from the sample to the population.In quota sampling, the sample has not been chosen using random selection, which makes it impossible to determine the possible sampling error.

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It might not be possible to accurately identify the sample using this method in case the population is very large.Since the strata must be mutually exclusive, this means that we would need to sample four strata from the population: undergraduate males, undergraduate females, postgraduate males, and postgraduate females.To do a simple random sample, I could have estimated the total number of books and generated random numbers to draw the sample.In quota sampling, the sample has not been chosen using random selection, which makes it impossible to determine the possible sampling error.The use of a quota sample, which leads to the stratification of a sample (e.g.

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This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample.Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection.First, a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn.The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher.This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants.

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The researchers who use this sampling has less control over the survey, the first subject have influence on the next subjects of the research.On the other hand, Snowball sampling also have some disadvantages.In this sample, the researcher or some other expert uses his or her judgment in choosing the subjects from the population.This sample is not representative of the entire population.Moreover, this sampling is cheap, simple and needs less planning, fewer workforces than other sampling method.

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.. Table (15) and chart (7) show that there are differences in transactional leadership between sample individuals aged 50 years and above and sample individuals aged 40-49 years ,30-39 years and those below 30 years in favor of the sample individuals aged 50 years and above with significance at (0.01), whereas there are differences between sample individuals aged 40-49 and sample individuals aged 30-39 in favor of sample individuals aged 40-49 years with significance at (0.05), whereas there are differences between sample individuals aged 40-49 and sample individuals aged below 30 years in favor of the first with significance at (0.01), whereas there are differences between sample individuals aged 30-39 years and sample individuals age...

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There have been several proposed methods of analyzing panel sample data, including MANOVA, growth curves, and structural equation modeling with lagged effects.Is there good reason to believe that a particular convenience sample would or should respond or behave differently than a random sample from the same population?The researcher using such a sample cannot scientifically make generalizations about the total population from this sample because it would not be representative enough.In social science research, snowball sampling is a similar technique, where existing study subjects are used to recruit more subjects into the sample.Cluster sampling is an example of ‘two-stage sampling’ or ‘multistage sampling’: in the first stage a sample ...

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In the final step of the sample design, a researcher must decide the type of the sample s/he will use i.e., s/he must decide about the techniques to be used in selecting the items for the sample.The reliability of the law depends on the two factors viz., (i) the size of the sample which says that the larger the sample, the more reliable are its indicators.Sample design also leads to a procedure to tell the number of items to be included in the sample i.e., the size of the sample.The sample size should be such that the inferences drawn from the sample are accurate to a given level of confidence to represent the entire population under study.The reliability of the sample is proportional to the square root of the number of items it contains...

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Snowball sampling uses referrals made by respondents which may be used by the researcher as part of the sample.It measures the likely deviation of a sample mean from the grand mean of the sampling distribution.In this case, a sample element is enlisted as a member of the sample if it falls under the kth element.This property leads to the central limit theorem which states that regardless of the shape of the distribution of the population, the distribution of the sample mean approaches the normal probability distribution as the sample size increases.The area for z= 2.5 is 0.4938 indicating that this is the probability that the sample mean will fall between 120 and 125.

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Second biases may exist in the selection of sample elements within a given cell- even though its proportion of the population is accurately estimated.The market researcher is driven by a quota sample; they must get the correct number of each kind of person.2 .The interviewers may fail to secure a representative sample of respondents in quota sampling.In a study that considers gender, socioeconomic status and religion as the basis of the subgroups, the final sample may have skewed representation of age, race, educational attainment, marital status and a lot more.For instance if we know the population has 40% women and 60% men, and that we want a total sample size of 100, we will continue to sample men but even if legitimate women responde...

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A stratified random sample is a sample selected so that certain characteristics are represented in the sample in the same proportion as they occur in the population.A cluster random sample is one obtained by using groups as the sampling unit rather than individuals.A representative sample is a sample that is similar to the population on all characteristics.A two-stage random sample selects groups randomly and then chooses individuals randomly from these groups.Random sampling Methods designed to select a representative sample by using chance selection so that biases will not systematically alter the sample.

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The common feature in non probability sampling methods is that subjective judgments are used to determine the population that are contained in the sample.· It is used to sample low incidence or rare populations .Thus, the minimum required sample size cannot be calculated which suggests that you (researcher) may sample too few or too many members of the population of interest.· It is done for the efficiency of finding the additional, hard-to-find members of the sample.Here the sample is selected on the basis of certain basic parameters such as age, sex, income and occupation that describe the nature a population so as to make it representative of the population.

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Some reasons for using stratified sampling over simple random sampling are: .a) the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced; .The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated.c) increased accuracy at given cost.In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected.

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How does this correspond to some description of how to sample from a population?At each stage, they might do a stratified random sample on sex, race, income level, or any other useful variable on which they could get information before sampling.Since voter lists are compiled by counties, they might first do a sample of the counties and then sample within the selected counties.Stratified random sampling gives more precise information than simple random sampling for a given sample size.To create a sampling distribution of an estimator for a sample size of 30, we must be able to consider all possible samples of size 30 and base our analysis on how likely each individual result is.

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When a population can be appropriately stratified, the aggregate of the sample sizes from the strata generally will be less than the sample size that would have been required to attain a given level of sampling risk, had one sample been drawn from the whole population.This assessment is made in order to design an audit sample and to determine sample size.An increase in the auditor’s desired level of assurance that the tolerable rate of deviation is not exceeded by the actual rate of deviation in the population Increase The greater the level of assurance that the auditor desires that the results of the sample are in fact indicative of the actual incidence of deviation in the population, the larger the sample size needs to be.Although in s...

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Volunteering for the sample may be determined by characteristics such as submissiveness or availability.However, one can say much less on the basis of a nonprobability sample than on the basis of a probability sample.To sample friends, co-workers, or shoppers at a single mall, are all examples of convenience sampling.* Deviant Case – Get cases that substantially differ from the dominant pattern (a special type of purposive sample).Alas, research indicates only one situation in which a non-probability sample can be appropriate—if one is interested only in the specific cases studied (for example, if one is interested in the Battle of Gettysburg), one does not need to draw a probability sample from similar cases (Lucas 2013).

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Because a list of the entire population is rarely available, most samples suffer from some degree of under-coverage.Sampling in the real world is more complex and less reliable than choosing a Simple Random Sample (SRS) from a list of names in an exercise.Sampling begins with a list of individuals from which we will draw our sample.Part of this art is the science of statistics, with its random samples and confidence statements.Random sampling eliminates bias in choosing a sample and allows control of variability.

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To go quickly, one is sometimes satisfied with a cubic extrapolation which involves only the two samples preceding the new sample to be calculated and the two following ones.The simplest method to design is to reconstruct the analog signal before re-digitizing it at the new sample rate.Since several existing samples must be taken into account before and after the new sample, the sample rate conversion causes a signal delay, the greater the more the conversion is precise.The sample rate conversion in the digital domain is based on the same principle.If the new sample rate is lower than the original one, filter the signal to eliminate frequencies above half of the new sample rate.

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Concept and basics of probability sampling methods One of the most important issues in researches is selecting an appropriate sample.In systematic random sampling we use the order of the population list or the place of units in the population for choosing the sample.(Example) First we should have the list of the population and according to the total number of sample needed we define a value of “k” to jump over population units and selecting units.We usually want to estimate some parameters of a population by a sample.Among sampling methods, probability sample are of much importance since most statistical tests fit on to this type of sampling method.

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(1987) states, Equation 1 (p. 319) is significant in computing sample size because it ascertains that the confidence interval has a desirable sampling error of at most e. According to Shiffler et al.computed for the mean, the variance, and the skewness of an estimate sample size ( ) that makes use of a pilot sample variance for single variable from a normally distributed population of simple random sampling design.Using this in equation 1 would then mean that the sample size as well as the precision of the accompanying confidence interval for the sample size will also be random variables (Shiffler et al.Table 1 of their paper facilitates the choice of an appropriate sample size using pilot studies with sample sizes less than 60 by provid...

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By using the article “Benefits of Inferential Statistical Methods in Radiation Exposure Studies: Another Look at Percutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation Mapping [Trialing] Procedures” one can see two studies conducted using large sample sets, to compare fluoroscopy times between novice and expert physician implanters performing SCS trialing procedures, and to the benchmarked reference level, using inferential statistical methods.The probability sampling procedure in which the target population is first separated into mutually exclusive, equal segments, then a simple random sample is selected from each segment, and combined into a single sample is a process called stratified random sampling.This can also work in reverse, if you want to take ...

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An example of the former is a randomized sample, whereas convenience and quota samples are typical examples of the latter.The use of non-probability samples enable such studies to be carried out despite this limitation.Another means to selecting a randomized sample is by reference to a mathematical table of random sampling numbers.Another reason for the popularity of non-probability samples compared to probability ones is that they are less expensive to undertake.In marketing research, researcher are often confronted with situations where information is needed for managerial decision making and yet sample sizes are either small or the influences of external variables can not be blocked from the study.

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•How large was the sample?Even professional sample surveys don’t give exactly correct information about the population.Undercoverage occurs when some members of the population are left out of the sampling frame, the list from which the sample is actually chosen.Even better, find out both the sample size and the margin of error within which the results of 95% of all samples drawn as this one was would fall.Many sample surveys by interest groups and local newspapers and TV stations don’t answer these questions because their polling methods are in fact unreliable.

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Multiple Cross Sectional Design: A research design in which there are two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is obtained only once.Convenience Sampling: A non-probability sampling technique that attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.Sample Size: Total sample of 26 respondents was selected for this study.Every element is selected independently of every other element and sample is drawn by random procedure from a sampling frame.Probability Sampling: A sampling procedure in which each element of population has a fixed probabilistic claim of being selected for the sample.

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When we sample a population with several strata, we generally require that the proportion of each stratum in the sample should be the same as in the population.A stratified sample is obtained by taking samples from each stratum or sub-group of a population.This has to be accounted for when we select a sample from the population in order that we obtain a sample that is representative of the population.“Sufficient” refers to a sample size large enough for us to be reasonably confident that the stratum represents the population.How would you select such sample?

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The point lies in the fourth quadrant only.Each of the four quadrants are represented as First quadrant: (+,+) Second quadrant: (-,+) Third quadrant: (, -,-) Fourth quadrant: (+,-) Example: Example 1: Find out the location of the quadrant in which the points are (2, 1) and (3, 1).The point lies in the first quadrant only.Solution: Both the points are negative so they will lie in fourth quadrant only.The sample of n elements may be selected through the N elements of population.

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Describe the ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin for the healthy male (sample 1) and female (sample 2).ESR for sample 5 was 40 mm/hr vs. sample 6 which was 5mm/hr.The ratio for sample 2 is slightly higher than that from the sample 1, but both are normal.Sample 1 had a ratio of 3:1 and sample 2 had a ratio of 3.14:1.Describe the ratio of hematocrit to hemoglobin for the female with iron-deficiency anemia (sample 3) and the female Olympic athlete (sample 5).

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