State Socialism And Anarchism And Other Essays

Found 294262 essays.

Is Anarchism an Example of Individualism or Collectivism Essay

” Collectivist anarchism bases its origins in socialism as a pose to liberalism.The main two strains of anarchism are anarcho-communists on the left which believe that “Monopoly is the father of the state, not its child” this stream has been the main one for more than a century.There are many tensions within anarchism with individualist anarchism in contrast to collectivist anarchism.There are however, many features at which anarchism and socialism disagree.There are many overlapping ideas between anarchism and socialism, especially in the ideology of Marxist socialism, both reject capitalism and believe that it is a system that exploits the working classes.

1145 words (2.9 pages)
Analysing Constructivism In International Relations Theory Politics Essay

It is clear for them that the idea of imperial hierarchies in the 18th and 19th centuries was not about material power only rather it involved the social norms in European states at the time.Ted Hof (1998) highlights that the key premised concept of constructivism is an intersubjective set of meanings, a shared meaning in a society, which can be in a form of social norms or social practices.According to Boli, Meyer, and Thomas (1989: quoted in Reu-Smit, 2001), the meaning and identity of the actors and the patterns of appropriate activities engaged in by those actors are defined by shared norms and ideas through reciprocal interactions that have been created and instantiated the relatively enduring social structures in way the identity a...

2077 words (5.2 pages)
The International Relations’ Theories Concept and Aspects Analytical Essay

The best form of organization for a state according to neo-liberals is democracy because it is least restrictive on its people.It presupposes that international anarchy has no nature by itself thus depends on the nature given to it by the state.Also in reifying the state, the theory fails to restore a focus on process and practice in international politics.The system level of analysis evaluates the state behaviour from the international relations system’s perspective while the state level analysis evaluates from the states’ perspective.Neo-liberals purport that there is an international society in the world and it originates from drawing an analogy within a state thus the domestic analogy used here implies that if there is a society with...

2725 words (6.8 pages)
Relationship Between Political Authority And Moral Autonomy Philosophy Essay

Accordingly, the philosopher Baier held the view that a universal obedience to certain rules that override self-interest, would produce a state of affairs which serves everyone’s interest much better than the unaided pursuit off it in a state where everybody does the same .Anarchism, is the only modern social doctrine that unequivocally rejects the concept of the state with its omnipresent evils of political power and authority .Anarchism supports a situation  in which  everyone has the first word on every aspect of everyday  life,  without imposed restrictions and laws by the state, without hierarchical relations and exploitation.He argues that a citizen cannot retain his autonomy and at the same time be under an obligation to obey th...

3427 words (8.6 pages)
International Politics Discussed by Wendt and Waltz Compare and Contrast Essay

On the other hand, Wendt assumes that given the natural attributes of humans who make up human societies and states, they personify the presuppositions of psychoanalytic social theorists (Wendt, 2010).Waltz, K. (2010).Finally, I have learned that the two authors are renowned scholars in the field of IR.Illinois, IL: Waveland Press.In K. Waltz (Eds.

610 words (1.5 pages)
Science in Modern World

In effect, Feyerabend’s version of anarchism has only to do with methodological plurality that gives the scientists liberty, to apply any world view or method of inquiry that is suitable to his context of scientific research.The 19th century French writer Pierre Joseph Proudhom who is generally regarded as the father of philosophic anarchism has upheld, for instance, that anarchism excludes authority from society.The message of epistemological anarchism is to restore to both the creative scientists and the general public freedom of decision in matters of knowledge particularly, science is not a specially privilege candidate of knowledge: epistemologically or methodologically “anything goes”.Occasionally, the laws of scientific method by ...

2158 words (5.4 pages)
Reconciliation Of Autonomy And Legitimate Authority Philosophy Essay

Otherwise, would it mean that when there is a clash between the demands of the state and the private interests or moral convictions of the people that disobedience should occur ?On the other hand philosophical anarchism does not only attack the state but follows the view that the very idea of legitimate political authority is inexistent.The most basic distinction between anarchist theories is that between a priori anarchism, which maintains that all possible states are morally illegitimate and a posteriori anarchism, which maintains that while all existing state are illegitimate this is not because it is impossible for there to be a legitimate state .However, even if the state made him free some flexibility is required by an institutio...

3742 words (9.4 pages)
The Common Law Is Dead: Or Is It?

’ is defined as: “the body of unwritten principles originally based upon the usages and customs of the community” (Anderson, Fox and Twomey, 1989) These rules of ‘Common Law’ “…were recognized and enforced by the courts.” (Ibid) Anderson, Fox, and Twomey (1989) additionally state that: “In truth the law is an arbitrary set of rules that we have agreed upon to govern ourselves.”(1989) Within the framework of this democratic legal structure the basis of the law is the “rights of the human being” (Ibid) Also within the framework of the democratic legal structure is the “right to privacy”.Anarchism Defined .There are other laws in the form of regulatory laws such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)  Regulations set out by the ...

1783 words (4.5 pages)
Right To Rule Citizens Duty Obey The Law Philosophy Essay

In general, they rather take state illegitimacy to remove any strong moral belief to maintain “obedience to, compliance with or support for our own or other existing states”.Anything less than a state is not a reflection of the common good.They also believe the state is against the law however they do not accept that its illegitimacy requires a vital right to go up against or abolish states.“If the individual retains his autonomy by reserving to himself in each instance the final decision whether to co-operate, he thereby denies the authority of the state; if, on the other hand, he submits to the state and accepts is claim to authority then… he loses his autonomy”.Hence, the concept of a de jure legitimate state would appear to be vacu...

4019 words (10.0 pages)
Relationship Between Neoliberalism and Neorealism

Wendt, A. and Duval, R. (1989) ‘Institutions and International Order’ in Czempiel, E. O. and Rosenau, J. N.Social constructivism’ first emerged as a challenge to the validity of the neo-neo synthesis of neo-realism and neo-liberalism in the work of John Ruggie (1986) and Alexander Wendt (1989).Whereas they have a number of differences to debate, namely anarchy, regime, state cooperation etc., they belong to the Neo-realist research programme which as been called the ‘‘neo-neo synthesis’’.The neo-neo synthesis is therefore criticised on three counts: one, it pays too little attention to how national and territorial identities are formed, and therefore does not have sufficient knowledge of these identities when needing to make informed dec...

1725 words (4.3 pages)
Analyse How Different Ideologies Treat the Concept of Liberty

A classic liberal approach to liberty is that a state must exist so as to put into place laws that protect people’s negative liberties.Other ‘liberties’ that many take for granted in a capitalist state, for example the ability to own private property, must, most anarchists argue, also be abolished, as private property leads to an unequal distribution of wealth.Locke saw humanity in its natural state as a collection of autonomous, rational, moral beings.In this essay I will consider liberal, conservative and anarchist (the end result of the Marxist dialectics is anarchism, and as such Marxism will be treated as a form of anarchism) interpretations of liberty.In order for maximum liberty to be achieved the state and government must be abol...

1099 words (2.7 pages)
Universally Beneficial Policy Solutions to Issues of Global Politics

The US-led anti-terror efforts, which successfully gained the cooperation of other nations, had already brought down a sovereign state, which is Iraq.The constructivists postulate that the behavior, identities, cultures, fears and threats of nation-states are part of their social constructs.New York: Knopf, 1954 .Politics Among Nations .Organizations Institutions.” .

1072 words (2.7 pages)
Anarchy Essay

The idea of ​​a difference in nature between international order and internal order is often linked to Hobbes's thought: in short, international relations would be a perpetual state of nature, in the absence of Leviathan to enforce the laws.In The Anarchical Society, Hedley Bull refers to an "anarchical society", an apparent oxymoron which suggests that although international relations are indeed anarchical, in the absence of central authority, he The fact remains that States comply with a certain number of prescriptions and recognize certain fundamental institutions, such as diplomacy, war, sovereignty.This situation leads to permanent insecurity, and the quest to ensure one's own security: in the state of nature, "everyone, individual ...

719 words (1.8 pages)
Legitimate Authority in the International System

This is because the major arguments contained under realism, is that the international system is anarchic in nature, and the relations that occurs at the international system, are always aimed at protecting the self interests of the state under consideration.This is because the international system is characterized by the interaction of states, and each state has its own interests and objectives in regard to the interaction (Bromley, Clarke, Hinchliffe and Taylor, 2009).One of the methods in which social scientists use to explain the relations and power in the international system is through the use of liberalism theory (Goldstein, 2912).This theoretical framework recognizes the role of the state, as well as other actors in the internati...

1810 words (4.5 pages)
Is Neo-Liberalism closer to Neo-Realism than it is to traditional Pluralism?

Nye argues, ‘A good deal of intersocietal intercourse takes place without governmental control…states are by no means the only actors in world politics.’ This emphasises the pluralist theory that states do not act in a unitary fashion, rather the state is fragmented and, ‘composed of competing individuals, interest groups and bureaucracies,’ which shape state policy.Whether co-operation results in a relative gain or loss is not very important to a state as far as neo-liberalism is concerned, so long as it produces an absolute gain.This theory has three key assumptions the first was introduced, being that the state is not a unitary actor but there are multiple channels of access between societies.This emphasises the autonomous nature of n...

2068 words (5.2 pages)
To what extent is a future stateless society an anarchist fantasy? 45 Marks Essay

Conservatives believe that the state upholds tradition and helps to enable social order.Socialists would also argue that the state is important and therefore this idea is a fantasy because they believe that it is vital in aiding equality among individuals.They would argue that a stateless society is an anarchist fantasy because the state is needed to protect human rights and by taking this away, there is a threat of individual’s freedoms affecting the freedom of others and would lead to chaos.It is important to note that we haven’t always lived in a society that is run by the state and limits people’s freedoms, and so it can be argued that there is always the possibility of living in a society like this, where individuals can self-govern...

935 words (2.3 pages)
Analysis Of Feyerabends Against Method Philosophy Essay

According to his view, science would benefit most from a “dose” of anarchism in scientific theory.How can be organized the state, in which there is an approach to science?For all the apparent humanity of the concept, the desire to create a society where everyone will be developed individually, and the state will protect all forms of knowledge, Feyerabend provisions are too general and abstract.Towards a theory of epistemological anarchism, Feyerabend push its social and political beliefs.He always came to the consideration of science and its methodology from the standpoint of humanism, happiness, and the free development of all people.He opposed to the spiritual enslavement of people, and rebels against the science when it dogmatization ...

1700 words (4.3 pages)
Critical Review: The Reluctant Fundamentalist and Social Change Essay (Critical Writing)

Change is made social, when Changez learns about the events of 9/11 and decides to promote a new idea of social relations among people.Hamid’s protagonist Changez passes a long way from a belief in the American sanctity, through a painful realisation of the country’s social and political vulnerability, to the roots of his cultural and social belonging.However, Hamid’s book implies that social change is possible, away from aggression and violence and toward reciprocity in human relations with the world.More often than not, modern works of fiction shed light on the most controversial aspects of social change and facilitate the development and integration of social priorities with the realities of life.This is how, hiding behind the veil of...

1115 words (2.8 pages)
Feyerabend And Epistemological Anarchism Analysis Philosophy Essay

He likes the epistemological anarchism, which does not substantiate any of his positions and does not commit to any public organization or the type of ideology.Science is essentially an anarchist enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more human and progressive than its alternatives, based on law and order.Neither the state nor society can impose on a person criteria for separation of true knowledge from false.He also believed that anarchism in theory is rather desirable, because it is more humanistic approach than the other scientific systems, since it does not force scientists to rigid rules.According to his view, science would benefit most from a “dose” of anarchism in scientific theory.

1483 words (3.7 pages)
David Rapoport 's ' Wave Theory Of Terrorism Essay

Referring to David Rapoport’s ‘wave theory of terrorism’, one can identify some distinct characteristics in the ‘waves’ regarding motivational elements (such as, 1st wave had anarchism; 2nd wave was anti-colonial in nature; 3rd wave was dominated by new left theme; and 4th wave had religious motives) yet these waves had some ‘political’ goals/objectives in common.Such an approach would also enable me to throw light on the social network that facilitates terrorist attacks and what would be a holistic transformative approach to address this issue.I contend that people perceive social conflict in many different ways and since extremism is a form of social conflict, a qualitative approach is best suited to determine contributing factors and ...

426 words (1.1 pages)
The Role of International Companies Analytical Essay

This fact thus explains the rapid expansion of the Chinese military as well as the increased influence that this state has over its neighbours.Finally, the debate of whether China will embrace the internationally accepted regimes of the world or whether it will challenge the rules and regulations set by the international community has been increasing with the socioeconomic development of China as a state over time.From a constructivist perspective, however, China like any other state has its distinct characteristics that have shaped its unique identity.There are scholars who believe that China’s activism in East Asia is a means through which the state wants to achieve regional hegemony (Irmer, 2007).It is due to this fact that Grebe (200...

2865 words (7.2 pages)
Critical review of the articles by James Rosenau’s and Amitav Acharya’s Compare and Contrast Essay

1Amitav Acharya, “Can Asia lead?China has risen to the status quo power position, as well as social state.States exist according to the Hobbestian state of nature where life is brutal, short-lived, and nasty.2James Rosenau, “Governance in the Twenty-first Century,” Global Governance, 1.1 (1995), 23.Power ambitions and global governance in the twenty-first century”, International Affairs, 87.4 (2011): 869.

1224 words (3.1 pages)
International Relations: Theory of Realism

New York: Columbia University, 1965. .A state having non-objective and arbitrary law may lead to severance of diplomatic relations or worse, global conflict.Unlike the theory of realism, liberalism permits plurality in state actions.Armed conflict between North Korea and the United States is not yet forthcoming, but based on the theory of realism an aggrieved state may carry out military action or invasion at any moment.BIBLIOGRAPHY Waltz, Kenneth N. Man, the State, and War.

789 words (2.0 pages)
Neorealist and Neo-Marxist Approaches to Globalization Essay

His starting point is taken from some elements of classical and neoclassical, such as independent state existing and performing in an anarchical international system.Waltz, K. N. (1979) Theory of International Politics.In classical realism, state leaders and their subjective valuation of international relations are the center factor of valuation.Waltz (2000) recognizes that state remains the primary force in international relations and has spread its power to efficiently manage the processes of globalization.Waltz, K. N. (2000) ‘Globalization and American Power’, The National Interest, 59 (Spring): 46-56. .

2151 words (5.4 pages)
Criminological Theories of Terrorism

The theory of “fight or flight” was developed by W. B. Cannon back in 1929, and refers to a state of arousal under stress in which the heart, lungs, and muscle operate more efficiently.Anarchism definedis the rejection of the state, of any form of coercive government, of any form of domination and exploitation... Modern sociological perspectives are primarily concerned with the social construction of fear or panic, and how institutions and processes, especially the media, primary and secondary groups, maintain that expression of fear.Benito Mussolini, who practically invented the term in 1922, said it is the merger of state and corporate power.The first is called economic/social integration theory, and it holds that high concentrations ...

2708 words (6.8 pages)
Realism and neo realism Essay

Consequently, Morgenthau argued that interest was at the heart of all politics and thus on the international stage it behoved each state to pursue its national interest, generally defined as power.The logical consequence is, that “states with more power stand a better chance of surviving than states with less power” A powerful state will always be able to outdo—and outlast—weaker competitors.Therefore, the state must seek power and must always protect itself.The constant threat to the national core interest of survival due to the anarchical structure of the system results in the augmentation of power capabilities of each state by e.g.He posits that the pressures created by a lack of an international formal authority lead to a reformation...

2173 words (5.4 pages)
China's Sudden Rise to Power Essay

Aaron L. Friedberg.5 (September/October 2011).Mearsheimer defines a hegemon as “a country that is so powerful that it dominates all other states” and when “no other state has the military wherewithal” to contest that power.International Security 30, no.Kenneth A. Oye, “The Conditions for Cooperation in World Politics,” from World Politics, pp.

418 words (1.0 pages)
Figurative Language in the song “25th Floor” by Patti Smith

All she can do is wait.She then wants to explore the 25th floor, which may symbolize her desire to ascend and escape from the bounds of social convention.She then speaks of the “transformation of waste,” where “waste” refers to the current evils in society.Zeus and Christ, who are “up there,” are then mentioned Zeus and Christ are both masculine figures, and both are “at the top.” Thus these two figures represent the whole of what anarchism and feminism wants to remove from society, which is patriarchy and rigid social hierarchy.This introduction, when taken in the context of the entire song, gives the song heavy undercurrents of anarchism and feminism.

368 words (0.9 pages)
Comparing The Differences Between Liberalism And Realism Politics Essay

Baylis, Smith and Owens (2008), clarified that once the state exercises its authority outside the borders a condition of anarchy exists.Above and beyond, realists’ view of justice is justified by other means once the state exerts efforts to achieve either a long or short term of national interests.According to Jan Jack Rousseau, people under the general will of the social contract must scarify some of their rights to the leader of the society to live under constant rules and regulations -liberals view of international system- to eliminate the state of nature where the stronger intimidate the weaker to be the dominant figure in the realm is the same condition realists view the interaction of states or international relations as an anarchi...

2103 words (5.3 pages)
Analysis of China as a Superpower

This is the soft power element of the state.The state is the only legitimate representative of the people and it uses this legitimacy to wield its authority within and outside the state.Armies are essential for controlling land and bringing security to the nation state and which is the main objective in a world of states in a system of anarchy.In June 2005,CNOOC, a Chinese state controlled company attempted to buy Unocal, medium sized US oil company.Therefore if there is no higher authority to settle disputes the state cannot leave its survival to others.

5406 words (13.5 pages)

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