More Terrible than Death: Massacres, drugs and America’s war in Colombia.An investigation of US relations with Latin America in the period from 1820 to 1960, reveals the war on drugs to be a convenient extension of an almost 200 year-old policy.Fighting a Losing Battle Since it’s beginning, the war on drugs has been a series of lost battles.“Is the War on Drugs Bringing "Dignity" to Bolivia?”TheWashington Report on the Hemisphere.The US War on Drugs in Latin America Introduction The United States has a long history of intervention in the affairs of one it’s southern neighbor, Latin America.
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Those who believed that the war on terrorism would begin and end with the war in Iraq were only half right.This information teamed with advice and analysis gleaned from decades of terrorism research, lay out a plan for combating terrorism through deeper means and deeper understanding of the enemy.In an ideological war with no end in sight the way in which America fights the war on terror will help determine the eventual outcome.I agree with Jenkins in his assessment of realizing and accepting the risks and realities of this type of campaign is paramount in a publicly advocated and successful war (p. 153).War does not come without risk or with guaranteed successes, there will be discouragements as not every attack can be foreseen and prev...
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), Opposing Viewpoints: Terrorism, p. 78. .This kind of terrorism is used in the time of war; there is no goal of publicity.When a terrorist has publicity as his main goal, he is known as a "modern" terrorist; this type of terrorism has been around for a long time, but not until around 1968 was it widely known.), Terrorism: How the West Can Win, p. 115. .The bombings of the federal building in Oklahoma City and the Olympic Centennial Park in Atlanta are current examples of terrorists seeking publicity in the United States.4 Terrorists' need for publicity has been around for a long time, but new media technologies are causing the problem to grow faster than ever.5 Terrorism is growing at an impressive rate of 12 to 15 percent per year.6 T...
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In short, a war between the U.S. and China is certainly avoidable.During the Cold War, the fact that the USSR and the U.S. were in mutual possession of nuclear weapons served as an additional source of constraint on their behavior (Friedberg 28-29).The State Department labeled Iran as the most active sponsor of terrorism (Country Reports on Terrorism).Economic interdependence is one of the most vital factors that has eliminated the possibility of war in the contemporary world.The collective interests and integration prevent a war.
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Without Pierre Elliott Trudeau Canada would not hold this reputation.He believed in nation wide unity, and as a result he fought with solidity for the rights of minority groups, by implementing, manipulating and revamping procedures so that we can all live in a nation where we feel at home.Trudeau once said, “We peer so suspiciously at each other that we cannot see that we Canadians are standing on the mountaintop of human wealth, freedom and privilege” .As he was being questioned by a local news reporter he stated that, “as people are being abducted let them be protected, it’s only natural” In response to the FLQ on October 16th 1970, under the leadership of Trudeau, the Federal Government proclaimed the War Measures Act.This act “all...
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The author covers a brief history of terrorism organizational requirements of terror groups and process of recruiting personnel to them the; the means motives and opportunities terrorist exploit in their work; the need for communication with terror groups; sacrificial death governmental responses to terrorist acts and fear the mental health.Robert (2003) in his book dying to win; the strategic logic of suicide terrorism controverter many widely held beliefs about suicide terrorism.Based on an analysis of every known case of suicide terrorism from 1980s to 2005 (315 attacks are as part 18 campaigns), he concluded that there is little connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism, or anyone of the world’s religions Rather...
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On June 4 2002 a summit took place in Almaty where the heads of 16 nation states took part in talks and declared support for peaceful resolution of disputes and the common fight against terrorism.They are providing military assistance in the global war on terrorism.Kazakhstan has been an active supporter of the United States in the Global was on Terrorism.This may not be entirely the perception of the Kazak government but may be the perception of neighboring states and ultimately could have an impact on a United States presence in Central Asia.Currently Kazakhstan has established diplomatic relations with over 120 nation states and is a member of 64 international and political organizations.
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But the key to understanding the word terrorism is to understand that it is generally misused and is a label applied to one’s enemies.Indeed, when first used to describe the French in the late 1790s, the word terrorism did not apply to a specific act.Thus, the word terrorism has progressed from meaning a policy of the existing government to a violent action against the people or existing government.Ultimately, the word terrorism means to use fear to accomplish one’s goals.No longer is terrorism a method of governance; it is a method to attempt to destroy governments.
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Just like other religions, which have activities in order to exercise their basic freedom of religion, so does Islam have their own sets of activities which do not at all propagate war but through means which are peaceful.Fisk cites that once the culprits turn out to be Americans, the word ‘terrorism’ fades from the headlines and are then replaced into a word called ‘fanatics’ (128).He says that it is not a holy war against the non-believers as is commonly understood, which phrase was merely coined by the West in its struggle against the Muslims during the time of the Crusades, a war instigated by the Church for religious gain (Malek 122).As explained by Malek, Islam could have used other Arabic words which specifically refer to war inst...
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If the “war against terror” both theoretically and in practice is nothing to do with the laws of war, how it could be classified then?Wilson., International Law and the War on Terror , International Law Studies, 2003, (see: Adam Roberts, The Laws of War in the War on Terror) Vol.Given the above-mentioned arguments concerning the scope of application of the law of war to “war on terror”, it is reasonable to argue that neither Taliban nor al Qaeda reserve the right to be treated as legitimate subjects within the legal framework of International law and particularly jus in bello.2 Kenneth Roth, The Law of War in the War on Terror.The war on terrorism, unfortunately, falls into the second category.”4 Indeed, “the war on terror” is in many wa...
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Source: from the congressional record: Proceedings and Debates of the 84th Congress, 2nd session (May 22, 1956-June 11, 1956), C11, Part 7 (June 4, 1956) pp.Lewin, M (1997) ‘Stalin in the mirror of the other’ in Kershaw, I. and Lewin, M. (eds) Stalinism and Nazism.In conclusion, the myths surrounding Stalin have prevailed trough time, after his death and the collapse of the Soviet Union.Dictatorships in Comparison, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press, pp.A certificate of participation was presented to representatives of the Soviet Union who marched in Moscow’s Red Square to mark the victory and end of World War II in 1945; this can be taken as evidence that the Stalin myth was strengthened by this victory.
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The use of similar tactics by criminal organizations for protection rackets or to enforce a code of silence is usually not labeled terrorism, though these same actions may be labeled terrorism when done by a politically motivated group.An act of terrorism spreads panic among the people so it can be said that the main purpose of terrorism is to spread panic in a particular area or throughout the country.The use of word terrorism has become very common after the act on World Trade Center on 11th September 2001. .Terrorism is the systematic use of violent terror as a means of coercion. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror); are perpetrated for a religious, politic...
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There is no tangible enemy, and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by means of war.After the September 11 attacks, extraordinary renditions clearly involve kidnapping of persons the United States suspects to be a part of the Al Qaeda network and transporting them to countries where torture is used to derive information on how to bring the “war on terror” to a successful end.Guantanamo Bay, the famous prison outside territories of United States has given the world pictures of the torture within the “war on terror”.The worldwide flow of prisoners in relation to the “war on terror” continues to grow and prisoners have been kidnapped and tortured not only from the war zones but also from contries like Sudan,...
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The war against terrorism, according to the US government is still on and the government is not going to stop until it apprehends the capital terrorist and the head of Al- Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden.In the process of this war against terrorism, a number of tools and policies have been put in place by the US government to make the war successful.Taking the American fight against terrorism as the context, then the word may be taken to refer to an armed member belonging to an army of an enemy state with which America is at war.This was seen as a setback on the US government’s war against terrorism.The reason the US government cited for the war declaration was the intention to rid the world of all international terrorism groups that posed a form...
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In 1973 when the Committee of public safety was constituted and succeeded the Committee of Vigilance (Spence; p. 291), Danton proclaimed, “Let us be terrible so that the people will not have to be.” One cannot help but agree with T. Ridge (2003) when he remarks that if War on Terror has been announced for peace then ‘Homeland Security’ is just another name for the vigilance committee and has been formed in the name of freedom.From Guantanamo Bay to biometrics and increased surveillance, or from extraordinary rendition to the categorisation of terrorist suspects as enemy combatants, the ‘war on terror’ has regimented a whole series of practices that showcase the reaction to precautionary risk... As Keith Spence puts it in ‘World Risk soc...
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One of the most cited publications on the causes of terrorism is the article written by Martha Crenshaw under the title of “The causes of terrorism” (1981), highlighting the difficulties of finding general explanations for terrorism and distinguishing different types of variables.We spoke earlier about the root causes of terrorism; in this section we will discuss the trigger causes of terrorism.If we want to talk about empirical analyses of the causes of terrorism, we can refer to a very interesting study by Alan Krueger and Jitka Maleckova under the title “Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is there a Causal Connection?” (2003).Second cause is in the form of high economic growth has also been found to correlate strongly with the emergen...
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However, the war on Afghanistan and Iraq also revived the debate over the principles of the Just War Doctrine that exists for centuries.In War We Trust: The Bush Doctrine and the Pursuit of Just War.Just War Doctrine Just War always distinguishes between justifiable and unjustifiable use of force.States going to war must address this concern properly and take necessary steps to avoid this.A full-fledged war against terrorism and countries harboring terrorists has become inevitable.
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Intellectuals, politicians and religious from the Arab-Muslim world and 57 States have drawn up and co-signed an Arab Convention for the fight against terrorism "In accordance with high moral and religious principles, in particular the rules of the Islamic Sharia as well as the humanitarian heritage of the Arab nation which condemns all forms of violence and terrorism ”.Islamist terrorism or jihadist terrorism (sometimes wrongly called Islamic terrorism ,,) refers to attacks and other acts of terrorism committed by members or sympathizers of Islamist movements.The fight against Islamist terrorism is the subject of a "war of words" in the political world.Although major acts of terrorism such as the seizure of the Great Mosque of Mecca in ...
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The word terrorism has many definitions.The beginning of the Cold War was a direct cause of this "terrorism" (Freeman 8).This marked a new phase in war - the indiscriminate bombing of a civilian populous (Freeman 7).I was not taught to make war in that fashion."It usually does this through a system of laws which are enforced by a police force ("Terrorism Research Center: Information Terrorism" 3).
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And finally, just war theory concept would be applied on the recent military action in Afghanistan, whether it fits the scenario or not.The paper would analyze the definitions for terrorism proposed by some authors deeply along with criticizing them and proposing a global definition of terrorism.Therefore, just war theory says that war must be fought when it is fair or when there is a reason to be fought with the enemies or for a legitimate cause (Wilson, 2006).Just war theory proposes the idea that lies between permissivism and pacifism.Terrorism for political purposes means that riots or revenges are taken for their own sake, purpose, and benefit.
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US and ‘War on Terror’.those who could make good peace would never have won the war.” .The group advocated invoking of Sharia Law and strongly opposed Pakistan Army’s support for war on terror.Post 9/11, President Musharraff had no option but to be an active ally of the US in their ‘war on terror’.The dual policy of Pakistan, of supporting war on terror with the US overtly and supporting fundamentalists group covertly, is the reason for the failure of military actions.
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It all started when Carew, was approached and employed by the United States and Britain Intelligence Unit for a secret operation to affiliate with the Afghan Mujahideen guerillas with the primary purpose of appraising the training and equipment, which they lack for them to win Cold War battle and eventually breakdown the powerful Union Soviet Army.Disturbing because it seems that the author’s membership and first hand experience in the intelligence operation in this Cold War has given him the license to divulge such kind of intelligence operations.The people who were trained to terrorize in Afghanistan seems to be same people who are employing terrorism at present.In the end, one cannot help to think how did Carew manage to carry out suc...
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Terrorism, in other words, proved to be counterproductive.According to Coady (2004: 37), “There are different kinds of terrorism as there are of war.It is unpersuasive to make the deliberate targeting of civilians a defining feature of terrorism, and states as well as non-state groups can engage in terrorism.Rather than being uniquely atrocious, terrorism most resembles small war.All war should be avoided, but some war is more unjustifiable than other war.
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Now one has a muddying of the term where terrorism becomes terror.Basically, taking those ten different elements, one can arrive at a rather succinct, perhaps not entirely complete, but workable, definition of terrorism, where terrorism becomes the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or, equally importantly, the threat of violence, in pursuit of political change.In fact, the United States stop using the term terrorism instead we talk about a War on Terror.And then finally, terrorism is conducted either by an organization or by individuals directly influenced, motivated, inspired, or animated to engage in acts of violence by an identifiable organization or movement.It is that I-S-M that means that terrorism is fu...
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Acts of terrorism are contrary to the laws of war and human rights and therefore outlaw.Acts violating the law of war are then qualified as war crimes.Yet even after excluding war crimes, terrorism remains difficult to define with satisfactory precision.The notions of terrorism and terrorist act therefore serve to qualify acts outside the well-defined framework of conventional war and the law of war, even if their precise definition is not well established from a strictly legal point of view.In the context of a conventional war, there is indeed a precise legal framework, the law of war.
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The cold war marked an important part of the world history as the twentieth century drew its curtain.The end of the war was followed by a period of economic boom in the history of America.This law was meant to give broad powers to the domestic law enforcement unit and the international intelligence agencies like the CIA in their quest for terrorism activities.8 years down the line the war on terror has not ended but the threat terrorism remains real.The Patriot Act which was passed in October was meant to effectively fight terrorism.
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However, the word terrorism demands one and only definition by the international body.Crawford V, 2010, Terrorism in the Contemporary World, Routledge, London, pp.112-121.In today’s world, terrorism is not an un-known word; terrorism can be tracked back to early recorded history.Brown S, 2008, Terrorism in the Twenty-first century, 4th edn, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, pp.43-66.Ramsbotham O, 2010, Inside Terrorism, 2nd edn Polity press, UK pp.255-313.
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Whittaker, D. The Terrorism Reader.Coker, C. Terrorism and Civil Strife.Terrorism Issue Taken up at UN".Inside Terrorism.From the Jewish Zealots of the 1st Century committing incidents of terrorism against the Romans to Hitler's Germany's committing atrocities against the people to the acts of terrorism that Ireland's IRA commit(ed) against the British Government to the ultimate act of Terrorism on the World Trade Centre, Terrorism has always existed.
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Vast majority in United States of America is feeling that the cause of war against terrorism was correct, genuine and need of the time but the way it was fought should be different.Attack on Iraq was also a continuation of War against terrorism due to charges of human rights violation, coalition and support to extremist and terrorist groups coupled with construction of weapons of mass destruction.Bush clarifies view on war against terrorism ‘We will win,’ just not in conventional way, NBC, MSNBC and news services, national journal.All the above facts paved ways for a new turn in War against terrorism.” This concept is enforce by the decision of American nation to giving votes to the democrats in recent elections rather than republicans t...
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As Hoffman brings up in Inside Terrorism, from the Thugs of antiquated India that killed to threaten for the sake of their god known as Kali of the Jewish Zealots who at ancient times cut-off the throats of the Romans out in the open to battle their control over the Israelites, religion (together with ethno-patriot/political drivers) has long been a component of terrorism.The suggestion here is that Western governments, in their backing of abusive dictator administrations for their own particular national investment, have basically made themselves focuses of terrorism of an irritated masses inside these administrations, carrying on roughly as the main option to political declaration.As Sageman portrays: “The worldwide Salafi jihad is an ...
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