There are reasons which validate the war on terrorism as being considered an actual war such as the fact that an actual decelaration of war was waged by both the US and Al-Qaeda, it can be considered a new way of war, and that ultimately like war, terrorism is a mean to a political end.Thus because of the very ambiguous relationship and line between war and terrorism, terrorism can be considered as a new way, or military tactic of fighting war.This question however is highly relevant and intertwines to other aspects of IR305 such as the changing nature of war (is the war on terror the new type of war?Terrorism can be considered a tactic or act of war, or war a tactic or act of terrorism.Also the title of the question is quite ambiguous b...
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Terrorism for political purposes means that riots or revenges are taken for their own sake, purpose, and benefit.Secondly, “the concept of ‘just war theory’ would also be evaluated by highlighting its limitations.Therefore, just war theory says that war must be fought when it is fair or when there is a reason to be fought with the enemies or for a legitimate cause (Wilson, 2006).Just war theory proposes the idea that lies between permissivism and pacifism.The paper would analyze the definitions for terrorism proposed by some authors deeply along with criticizing them and proposing a global definition of terrorism.
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All this implies and refers to a definition of war, to the law of war which imposes to spare civilians (see the texts of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) which set out the principles of humanitarian law, themselves dependent on the law of war, which are based on these principles and definitions and also refer to Human Rights.Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949 specifies that "Collective penalties, as well as any measure of intimidation or terrorism, are prohibited.The classification of the facts is however not always obvious, certain violent campaigns can be seen differently; some experts will see them as terrorism, as civil war, as...
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After the task force finished its work, Congress got down to it, and you can look in U.S. Code Title 18, section 2331, and read the American definition of terrorism.This definition being interchangeable with that of an act of war, the framework decision specifies that it “does not govern the activities of the armed forces in times of armed conflict, and the activities carried out by the armed forces of a State in the exercise of their official functions”.These common principles situate terrorism somewhere between an act of war in peacetime and a war crime committed by a non-state body.Therefore the notion of terrorism is better described in the context of a country (example: Terrorism in France, Terrorism in the European Union, Terrorism...
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The just war theory tradition is the basis of a long held view in the West that there can be legitimate uses of war and is usually traced back to St Augustine’s fourth-century masterwork, The City of God.He draws on Held’s definition of terrorism as ‘a form of political violence to achieve political goals, where creating fear is usually high among the intended effects.’ For Lowe it is precisely the need to emphasize the fear and terror in the definition that will help aid a better understanding of what exactly terrorism (used in everyday language) is, and thus provides a basis from which to justify or condemn individual cases of political violence.‘Acts of terrorism target the safety of innocent citizens, of non-combatants, and it is an ...
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Guerrilla warfare is used in most revolutions and is a form of terrorism, whether it is indiscriminate terrorism (example: the bombing of a public places) or terrorism aimed only upon the government.This form helps keep the people from revolting during drastic times of government trouble such as war recovery and financial difficulties.The Terrorism Research Center: Information Terrorism.The beginning of the Cold War was a direct cause of this "terrorism" (Freeman 8).It usually does this through a system of laws which are enforced by a police force ("Terrorism Research Center: Information Terrorism" 3).
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It is the most curse and most serious and sincere which must be strictly controlled and every one should take part in War against Terrorism to bring peace in all over the world. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror); are perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians).Terrorism means spreading terror or horror through unusual activities such as bomb blasts etc.An act of terrorism spreads panic among the people so it can be said that the main purpose of terrorism is to spread panic in a particular area or throughout the country.The use of similar tactics by criminal organiza...
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“Various Definitions of Terrorism”) The United States has many different definitions of terrorism in almost every government organization’s code.The United Nations adds to the definition again in 2005 at a panel, stating the definition of terrorism as: Any act intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non- combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act.It has been eleven years since these attacks, and our country is still at war, and we use terms like “acts of terror” to justify our invasion of their civilian space.(“Various Definitions of Terrorism”) The United Nations has no official definition of terrorism, be...
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If this war against terrorism is trying to eradicate terrorism and bring peace in Afghanistan, then it is working through the creation of unbound terror in the hearts of the population, through the destruction of an entire country, and costs of individuals who remain priceless.As Eric Patterson (2005) and Brown (2004), discuss the limitations held with the theory of ‘just war,’ in their numerous work state that what the war ethics in the today’s world fail to recognize is their responsibility towards the sovereignty of the country and to the human life.However supporters of the war claim that it is “the first truly just war since World War II,” (Kurt Stand, 2008), what they fail to understand is that how can daily killing of thousands of...
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 Ignatieff, M. (2002): “Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Terrorism, journal of Social Research, pp. Ignatieff, M. (2002): Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Terrorism, journal of Social Research, pp.Taking a case study of the US involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian war, the US was not involved in the war to prevent aggression; instead, it was trying to help Israel protect its sovereignty. Ignatieff, M. (2002): “Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Terrorism, journal of Social Research, pp. Ignatieff, M. (2002): “Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Terrorism, journal of Social Research, pp.
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Now one has a muddying of the term where terrorism becomes terror.And that, is also inherent to understanding what terrorism is and what one of its core characteristics are.Basically, taking those ten different elements, one can arrive at a rather succinct, perhaps not entirely complete, but workable, definition of terrorism, where terrorism becomes the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or, equally importantly, the threat of violence, in pursuit of political change.And one also has a phenomena where at times in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the United States has discussions of how firstly, to wage war against a tactic or else one has discussions about how terrorism, this political phenom...
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Similarly, as we have seen, Nelson Mandela, ex-President of South Africa, and Nobel Laureate, was once branded a terrorist and was imprisoned for decades for his terrorist acts; a definition for terrorism, and the word thus seems to be flexible, depending on the political context and the aims that are trying to be achieved by the people supporting the country in which the terrorist is present.In response to this, it is known that the current administration funded paramilitary groups to fight against the guerrillas  , although the paramilitary groups have themselves become embroiled in the drugs trade and are known to have committed acts of terrorism against civilians and non-combatants, such that there is now a war between the guer...
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The end of Cold War was followed by an eruption of religious terrorism in a large number of countries, particularly in the Middle East, South and Central Asia.This confused the experts on political terrorism, who saw terrorism as a new and unprecedented phenomenon, something that was essentially a response to injustice.The fact is that the state terrorism has killed more people as compared to terrorism by non-state actors.Similarly, the US State Department in its annual document, called, ‘Patterns of Global terrorism’, defines terrorism as “politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.” The problem with this definition is t...
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By explaining those factors, I will use that article as my main article whose name is “comparative book review of unholy war: terror in the name of Islam and the crisis of Islam: holy war and unholy terror.” .9- John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 77 10- John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 77 11- John L. Esposito, Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 78.In short, the terrorist group’s reasons for resorting to terrorism constitute an important factor in the process of causation.”21 But in this point, there is a conflict with what Esposito wrote in his book “Unholy W...
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The face – the enemy’s identity – is the most challenging factor to determine when the war is waged.New-age terrorism refers to non-state actors who cause destruction in smaller and wider scale.Hussein’s execution is one of the main developments in terms of the war on Iraq.The rigorous campaign even prior to the war on Iraq made progress in determining this new face of a global enemy.The moment that the aim has been launched after the tragedy of the 9/11, perhaps one of the main significance it incurred is to be able to spread awareness on terrorism.
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In the last decade of 20th Century the phenomenon of terrorism continued to occur in the world more prominently after the end of cold war.Last century witnessed the events of insurgency and terrorism between two big powers in the guise of cold war.In 20th Century the world witnessed World War I and II as big showdowns of terrorism to achieve the goals of superpower.Charles Kegley while discussing the contemporary terrorism presents a root cause school of thought which asserts that political and economic deprivation are the main causes of terrorism.It does not mean that the religion causes terrorism but it does mean that the religion often provides symbols that make possible bloodshed even catastrophic acts of terrorism.
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...s been offered by James Rinehart who feels that the “Definition must focus on the acts of terrorists, not simply labeling the actors and must have a “Political agenda: a specific set of grievances of demands that are of utmost importance to the actors willing to use terror” (14).Finding a proper, well-accepted definition of what constitutes terror is extremely difficult.However, on the flip side, labeling someone as a terrorist can also serve a political purpose as in the case of being propaganda towards a war effort, or to help define an enemy.Challenges in Defining Terrorism .There are many challenges that face the international community when it comes to how to define terrorism and what it constitutes.
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Analysing causes of terror he differentiates certain types of terrorism such as individual terrorism; International State terrorism; State regime or Government terror and some others.The article Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism makes an attempt to explain the roots for the terrorism directed at the United States, and the rage that fuelled the attackers on September 11.This is, as the author suggests, arguably the most difficult part of the war on terror, as terrorist organizations use myriad ways to fund their operations, legal and illegal, overt and covert, with paper trails or without.Thus basing only on the international law it is impossible to win the war on terrorism.The author here points out to one of the most...
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In the process of this war against terrorism, a number of tools and policies have been put in place by the US government to make the war successful.The designation of Enemy Combatant traces its origin in the 1942 American Case Law where the supreme law was able to recognize the Law of War and its distinction between the War Prisoner (Lawful Combatant) and the Enemy Combatant (Unlawful Combatant).This was seen as a setback on the US government’s war against terrorism.Part three of the Geneva conventions defines the prisoners of war as military forces members or militia of such a force belonging to an enemy state at war with America, regular armed forces members showing allegiance to the government, Civilians supporting in non-combat roles...
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Although the United Nations has not yet accepted a definition of terrorism, the UN's “academic consensus definition”, written by terrorism expert AP Schmid and widely used in social sciences, is as follows: .421.1) "Constitute acts of terrorism, when they are (L n ° 96-647 of July 22, 1996)" intentionally "in relation to an individual or collective enterprise with the aim of seriously disturbing public order by intimidation or terror the following acts: attacks on life… theft, destruction, damage and deterioration as well as computer offenses…, manufacture or possession of machines.The Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the fight against terrorism specifies in its article 1 that: .The British Terrorism Act 2000 defines terrori...
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No longer is terrorism a method of governance; it is a method to attempt to destroy governments.The point of declaring something an act of terrorism is to instill a hatred or dislike of the perpetrators.By the proper definition of terrorism, the phrase “State-sponsored terrorism” is redundant.For example, the media and the American government insists on calling the September 11 attacks “terrorism”.Terrorism: A word from the old French and Latin “terror” meaning great fear or dread.
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A well known Iranian scholar Tashkiri has defined terrorism as “Terrorism is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective and involving threat to security of any kind, and in violation of the rights acknowledged by religion and mankind.” .Several world leaders stated [Poland, Panama] that an international cooperation, identification of root causes for war crimes.According to the opinions of several political leaders around the world, present view is considered as a fact that, certainly war is not a solution for terrorism.War against terror ( our world today) .For instance American definition of terrorism is laid in Title 22 of the U.S. code as .
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John T Rourke a prominent academic scholar of international politics has collated together the majority of popular common useful definitions of terrorism, He identifies terrorism in five (5) categories as: .In conclusion: A single word can not define terrorism, every person has their own definition and understanding of the word.In today’s world, terrorism is not an un-known word; terrorism can be tracked back to early recorded history.However, the word terrorism demands one and only definition by the international body.Crawford V, 2010, Terrorism in the Contemporary World, Routledge, London, pp.112-121.
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Giuseppe Nesi, Contributor Giuseppe Nesi (2006) International cooperation in counter terrorism: the United Nations and regional organizations in the fight against terrorism (Published by Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ,), 2006 P. 47-48 Leel Pathirana, Failure to understand the conflict by UN and the West has created a humanitarian Crisis, Asian Tribune, pp.UN being the largest organization in the world that promotes peace should not be completely unable to address terrorism and therefore this has been seen as a complete failure to the UN in fighting terrorism.The most controversial issue within the UN in its battle against terrorism is the counter terrorism measures that are stipulated in the resolutions of the UN Security Council.Due to lack ...
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The year 2003 represented an important moment during this fight against terrorism, even from its beginning, when in March, the war started in Iraq.Print) As it has recentely been adopted by the U.S, terrorism preemption could be defined as “those offensive military and associated actions by the services and other appropriate agencies that are initiated against terrorists, their organizations, supporters,and sponsor states to prevent or deter acts or campaigns of terrorism directed against US citizens and interests.”( Sloan, Stephen 2000:39 ) .After the terrorist threat will be removed, more funds will need to be allocated to pay for the reparations that the war caused.Risk and the War on Terror.As it can be seen, the costs of a preemtive...
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The war on terrorism has ignited a war on our civil liberties.The FBI only needs to say the search will protect against terrorism and they don't need probable cause or evidence.The War on Terrorism is an Attack on American Civil Liberties After the attacks on 9/11 our country has been forced to confront the issue of terrorism.A brief definition of the Patriot Act is; uniting and strengthening America by providing appropriate tools required to intercept and obstruct terrorism.These records can be searched without your knowledge or consent provided the government says it's trying to protect against terrorism.
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Definition of Terrorism: .• Domestic terrorism: Terrorism practiced in your own country against your own people .• State Terrorism: A government commits acts of terror against its own citizens....that 3rd world countries are sponsoring Terrorism.• International terrorism: Terrorism practiced in a foreign country by terrorists who are not native to that country .
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The other issue is the inconsistent visions of politicians in relation to the war on terrorism and approaches to develop the war.Although the question is rather controversial, and it is a challenge to assess this or that approach to overcoming the problem of the war on terrorism, it is important to concentrate on the clear idea that the war on terrorism should be developed, but with references to the effective methods.As a result, there are two rather opposite approaches to developing the war on terrorism.In spite of the fact the war on terrorism is the priority of not only the US administration but also of the global community, the approaches to win the war should be chosen according to the principles of balance and justice.Although the...
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... Americans that by going to war is the right thing, no matter what.It seems right to criticize Bush for showing arrogance in his reason to go to war.(Bush) He makes the decision to go into war and he seems very confiden... .Currently, American troops are at war with Iraq trying to end terrorism, free Iraqi, and obtain world peace.Acting out of arrogance and anger is not always best, going to war to show off is definitely wrong and hurting innocent people by using of violence and intimidation with weapons can definitely be classified as terrorism.
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In contrast, war is subject to rules of international law.In June of 1914, the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo precipitated the first war that would define the 20th century.International cooperation and national unity will be critical to a sustained war against terrorism, and their prospects for success have never been better.In the future to come Americans will unite and come together as a major attempt to stop terrorism and to catch and punish all the suspects associated with terrorism.The attacks of September 11 will be the precipitating moment of a new kind of war.
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