The War Against Terrorism gave many Afghanis and Iraqis more reasons to r... .Through his declaration, Bush waged war against Afghanistan and Iraq, asserting that these nations threatened American security.A&E Television Networks, n.d.Shortly after, United Airlines Flight 175 slammed into the Trade Center’s south tower and American Airlines Flight 77 smashed into the west side of the Pentagon, bringing forth President George W. Bush’s War on Terrorism (“9/11: Timeline of Events” 2).Despite the increasing rate of world-wide terror attacks, Americans felt unassailable as they carried out their lives fueled by oil from the Middle East.
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We are finding that it is an even more difficult task today to be at war with a concept like "international terrorism" because we also must give it a face.Because of the nature of terrorism, military action alone is not likely to be enough to win a war against terrorism itself.We are finding that it is very difficult to be at war with a concept like " international terrorism " because we also must give it a face.I found these stereotypes to be quite ridiculous – but the article underscores that there are some problems of mobilizing a society for war, whether it is against Japan in 1941 or against international terrorism in 2001. .The more foes that we draw into this war, the more complex will be the conduct of the war.
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The war on terrorism might not be a war in itself but it could be made up and composed by several on going wars such as Chechnya, the government of Sri Lanka versus the Tumult Tigers (which was actually the first country to successfully defeat terrorism), and Mali.Terrorism can be considered a tactic or act of war, or war a tactic or act of terrorism.Thus because of the very ambiguous relationship and line between war and terrorism, terrorism can be considered as a new way, or military tactic of fighting war.This question however is highly relevant and intertwines to other aspects of IR305 such as the changing nature of war (is the war on terror the new type of war?On the streets of London, there is no such thing as a ‘war on terror’, ju...
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Terrorism is also defined as an unlawful act of war and violence (Terrorism research).Globally, the most significant strain of terrorism to emerge as a policy concern during the 1960s came from the Middle East, a by-product of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war.32 In the social science literature on terrorism, both the Iran hostage crisis and the rise of the mujahedeen are deemed exemplars of a trend — pioneers in “ new terrorism ” or, in Rapoport’s construct, part of the religious wave.In making his case for reparations, the Harvard University law professor Charles Ogletree has described the 1921 Tulsa race riot as “ the most tragic example of domestic terrorism in America’s Revolutionary terrorism, which began to fade by the mid-1920s, racial v...
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The Algerian war resulted to the collapse of six French governments, the fourth republic, and almost led to a civil war (St. John, 2006).However, they finally lost the war and were forced to withdraw from Algeria in 1962.The United States, in its war against terror, should borrow a leaf from the events that occurred in Algeria.During the war, the French army had the obligation to provide security to the population as it continued with its search for the insurgents.However, there is a negative side to it; torture cannot win a war.
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Based on the intel received from American and various foreign intelligence agencies, America declared war on Afghanistan in 2002 followed by war on Iraq in 2003.This war was supported .. We hypothesis the threat of terrorism is exaggerated for possible gains to be made.After 9/11, Pakistan was considered as a strategic partner in the war against terror.He provides historical accounts of terrorism and sheds light on different types of terrorism that we see today such as: religious terrorism, nationalistic terrorism, state terrorism and revolutionary terrorism.So in short, there is more to it that meets the eye, meaning war on terror is not simply for the sake of American national security or to take revenge of the 9/11 attacks.
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Every nation has the right to go to war in order to sustain its unity, to abolish poor governance, to re-organize the existing political institution if they violate national rights and self-determination.During years of heated discussions, society has tried to solve the ethical, philosophical and political dilemma concerning the war on terror and aggression of American government against Iraqi people.The war on terror and the problem of terrorism has not been yet, and it requires special measures to be made in order to ensure global peace and political stability.Nevertheless, the war can create more terrorism affected innocent people around the world.Another reason against the military presence of the USA in Iraq is that primary justific...
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The Soviet Union and its allies allegedly engaged in widespread support of international terrorism during the cold war; in the 1980s the United States supported rebel groups in Africa that allegedly engaged in acts of terrorism, such as the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).These types are theoretical and directly related with nation state.Charles Kegley while discussing the contemporary terrorism presents a root cause school of thought which asserts that political and economic deprivation are the main causes of terrorism.In the last decade of 20th Century the phenomenon of terrorism continued to occur in the world more prominently after the end of cold war.It does not mean that the religion causes terrorism but...
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As it is evident, war and globalization which are both the basic ideas in the War on Terror are intimately related processes.The latter purpose was implemented under the IMF World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the other reconstruction programs were deemed to have been inspired by the creditors and donors when this war began.Some of the issues that sprout in about the war on terror could be like; bearing in mind that iran is not only a terror state but also, the leading sponsor of the international terror attacks across the world.The powers of the Anglo-American oil giants, War Street and the combined forces of the United States-United kingdom’s defense contractors indelibly are backing up this process (Priest, 2009).Reg...
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Fighting terrorism in a fully democratic country like America has been and will always be a challenge since the actions taken by the American government on countering terrorism may be perceived differently by the public in general who would view it as an infringement on their human rights.I will present a proposal that will encompass the diplomatic actions that we as a country should take in dealing with war on terror.The phrase “war on terror” is not often used since America cannot win terrorism by the use of military means alone as terrorism is not against an organized enemy who has set out clear identities and has a set of objectives that are coherent.My approach to war on terror In the holistic approach to war on terror I would mainl...
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Risk and the War on Terror.After the terrorist threat will be removed, more funds will need to be allocated to pay for the reparations that the war caused.The year 2003 represented an important moment during this fight against terrorism, even from its beginning, when in March, the war started in Iraq.Other people, espacially those who opposed to the Iraq War, deny the fact that a preemptive action could be ever justified.Since the events on 9/11, the U.S. spent a huge amount of money in order to financially support the war of terror.
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Slowly, Red Terror developed into War Communism.The final result of War Communism was the Revolt of Kronstadt, which led to the NEP.The long-term effects of War Communism were that it enabled Stalin to lead it onto the 5 Year Plans and Collectivisation, which wiped out the kulaks (the class enemy).Another major event during Lenin’s time in power the Civil War, which used the Cheka and Red Terror.By doing this, Lenin had eliminated a part of Russia’s problems – the provisional government tried to carry on the war, but the elimination of the provisional government in turn saw the end of the war, improving Russia’s living conditions and stopped inflation from occurring at that time.
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In psycho-social loss in the war against terrorism, the first exposed curse was the rise in militancy and extremism which narrowed the circle of common people lives.In the war against terrorism, province of KPK suffered the most as having border with Afghanistan.US Required Pakistan to remain steadfast in the war against terrorism in return they would provide the so-called one billion dollar debt.The Pakistan’s government participated in the US-led war on terrorism it was to work against its old policy of Islamization and increasing extremism in Pakistan.In order to meet the challenges for terrorism and reducing the threats for human security, we need to review the root causes of terrorism within theoretical frame work.
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Now we entered into a permanent state of emergency, which is now called ‘war on Terrorism’.This order to control global terrorism nations also started a ‘war against Terrorism’ under the leadership of America.There are some more related international conventions which were enacted to counter terrorism are U.K Terrorism Act, 2006, Australian Anti-Terrorism Act, 2005, Terrorist and disruptive Activities (prevention) Act, Military Commissions Act of 2006, SAFETY Act.Terrorism or the threat of terrorism, can involve weapons of mass destruction, or it can consist of measures of massacre domination and intimation directed on individuals, at a group or class or on all the inhabitants of a region or state.The Nuremberg Tribunal was established a...
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It seems that the incident of 9/11 which had won us worldwide sympathy and desire to act against terrorism has resulted in a much divided and threatened world due to our actions since 9/11.The United States citizens and Congress which gave almost a unanimous support to war on terrorism and War in Iraq now find that they have been misled by the government and have said so with their votes in the Congressional elections.Acts of Terror, “Terrorism” and International law .The racial profiling and early version of Patriot Act once again discriminated between different type of US citizens, authorizing illegal wire tapping and invasion of privacy of law abiding Arab Americans which made the people recall Japanese internment during the Secon...
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Although those are considerations brought to bear on just-war theorizing, the fundamental underpinning of this approach to thinking about war “is ultimately about the peace we seek to establish in contrast to the war the terrorists have set in motion.”  That is, the overarching goal in all wars (including the war on terror) should be the eventual achievement, not merely of removing immediate threats to national security or of pacification of an enemy, of using war as an instrument to establish peace in a land.In his 2002 State of the Union address, President Bush said, “We seek a just and peaceful world beyond the war on terror.”  In this line, his commitment to a war against terror is evident, but so is his desire to help brin...
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According to Victoroff (2005: 3), “This article reviews the state of the art of available theories and data regarding the psychology of terrorism.Multiple theories and some demographic data have been published, but very few controlled empirical studies have been conducted investigating the psychological bases of terrorism.All war should be avoided, but some war is more unjustifiable than other war.According to Coady (2004: 37), “There are different kinds of terrorism as there are of war.Rather than being uniquely atrocious, terrorism most resembles small war.
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Michael Howard, Professor of the History of War at Oxford University, thinks that “to declare war on terrorists or, even more illiterately, on terrorism is at once to accord terrorists a status and dignity that they seek and that they do not deserve.If the “war against terror” both theoretically and in practice is nothing to do with the laws of war, how it could be classified then?Given the above-mentioned arguments concerning the scope of application of the law of war to “war on terror”, it is reasonable to argue that neither Taliban nor al Qaeda reserve the right to be treated as legitimate subjects within the legal framework of International law and particularly jus in bello.Is “the war against terrorism” really a war?From this day fo...
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According to the US Council on Foreign Relations, NATO is an antique war machine still preoccupied with the politics of the cold war era.Since NATO was not adequately equipped to deal with terrorism and associated threats, enlargement of the EU seemed to be the easier option.Many years after the World War 2, European nations had not yet realized full economic benefits, due to the existence of economic barriers within Europe.Therefore, NATO’s weaknesses and inability to provide support in the war against terror led to establishment of a stronger EU, which led to the ‘big bang’ enlargement.Such considerations seem justified by the realization that despite the fact that NATO served its masters diligently during the cold war era, the organiz...
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” -Rand Paul We are living in a world that has been overwhelmed with war; a war that many of us will never have to physically fight but one that challenges us mentally every day.This decision plays a pivotal role in the future of habeas corpus and its use during times of modern warfare, more specifically the current War on Terror.These lines were essential for the Union during that war.Shortly after the Civil War, unrest settled upon the people of the United States and multiple groups were created in the south to fight against the rebuilding of America, Reconstruction.This facility was created to detain individuals suspected of participation in the global war on terror.
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Acts of terrorism are contrary to the laws of war and human rights and therefore outlaw.All this implies and refers to a definition of war, to the law of war which imposes to spare civilians (see the texts of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) which set out the principles of humanitarian law, themselves dependent on the law of war, which are based on these principles and definitions and also refer to Human Rights.The notions of terrorism and terrorist act therefore serve to qualify acts outside the well-defined framework of conventional war and the law of war, even if their precise definition is not well established from a strictly legal point of view.The classification of the facts is however not always obvious, certain...
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Frederick H. Gareau; State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism, Clarity Press, 2004 .This increases the moral quandary posed by just war theory, as well as increasing the hatred that can consequence against the perceived aggressor, as has been demonstrated in the recent war against Iraq (Frederick H. Gareau; 2004).Thus like the war on terrorism, non-proliferation leadership desires global cooperation and coalitions.It therefore demonstrated that it was determined to protect the nation against terrorism, “to fight the war against terrorism,” not only by police measures—interpreting the determination to protect the nation as actions taken on to constrain and apprehend criminals but also by act...
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The United States has defined terrorism in the Federal Criminal Code (Section 2331 of Chapter 113B of Part I of Title 18) as: .The Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the fight against terrorism specifies in its article 1 that: .The British Terrorism Act 2000 defines terrorism to include not only violent offenses against persons and physical damage to property, but also acts "designed to seriously interfere with or seriously disrupt a electronic system ”.Although the United Nations has not yet accepted a definition of terrorism, the UN's “academic consensus definition”, written by terrorism expert AP Schmid and widely used in social sciences, is as follows: .421-2 also constitutes… the fact of introducing into the atmosphere… 4...
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They do not see the peace in declaring war or violence attacks, but seek to have peace through liberal ways.The war on terrorism is fought in a pervasive atmosphere of paranoia in which the spirit of press freedom and pluralism is fragile and vulnerable.Charles Townshend (2002), “Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction”, Oxford University Press, 2004, pg no.74.Before we start discussing terrorism in detail, the first thing to know is to understand what terrorism really is?But after the mishap of 9/11, when U.S. President George W. Bush declared War against Terror; a new way of spreading terror came into being, it is suicide bombing (Stephen et al, 2006).
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After the war, the U.S.A left the region in distress and civil war started in Afghanistan.• Parliament must debate Pakistan’s present relationship with the US, with particular reference to the American war in Afghanistan and operations in Pakistan.America got dragged into this war and Pakistan along with it.In order to cope with terrorism, our government should neutralise the moderate terrorists through reconciliation by offering them general pardon and asking them to renounce terrorism.The war has spread to every nook and corner of Pakistan.
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The just war theory tradition is the basis of a long held view in the West that there can be legitimate uses of war and is usually traced back to St Augustine’s fourth-century masterwork, The City of God.Lowe, S (2003) ‘Terrorism and Just War Theory’, Perspectives on Evil and Human Wickedness.In short, if there are examples of terrorism permitted under just war theory, they will have to meet a number of challenging requirements.Similarly, for Elshtain (2002) in her article How to Fight a Just War, the aim of terrorism is terror.He further notes that ‘even if one were to grant that terrorism necessarily involves the killing of innocents, this alone does not place it beyond the scope of just war theory, for innocents may be killed in a jus...
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The United States has decided to proceed in its war against terrorism with various bilateral agreements.Meanwhile, NATO has also tried to create a unique relationship with Russia, reflecting the latter’s weight in European security even following the Cold War.At the end of the period (on September 12, 2001), the alliance was again challenged, and for the first time in its history invoked its collective defense clause (Article 5), thereby associating NATO closely with a new U.S.- and British-led war against terrorism.There are different views as to how the international system of the post-Cold War era was influenced be terrorism.It was not immediately clear what role the alliance would play in the new conflict with international terrorism...
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Supporting nations like India, in launching pre-emptive surgical strikes against terrorist training camps, would yield better results in the war on terror.The US war on terror in Af- Pak region is aimed mainly at the Taliban and Al- Qaeda.The dual policy of Pakistan, of supporting war on terror with the US overtly and supporting fundamentalists group covertly, is the reason for the failure of military actions.This threatened the future of the US ‘war on terror’ and the existence of Pakistan itself.Every nation aims to counter the terrorism and win the war on ideals.
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The phrase "war on terror" can be seen as a pun on the meaning of the word war, which is here taken halfway between its figurative meaning (as in war on illiteracy) and its proper meaning.It should be noted however that, if the Obama administration has given up the expression "war on terrorism", it speaks of "war on al-Qaeda" in "National Counterterrorism Strategy" of June 2011. .This expression marked a considerable widening of the aims of the so-called "war on terrorism", insofar as it no longer encompassed only the fight against al-Qaeda, but, in principle at least, against all forms of terrorism, or less against what Washington called "rogue states" (an expression first used by Reagan, about Libya, in the 1980s).In 2006, Terry Jones ...
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This incident led to the formulation and adoption by the League of Nations of the 1937 Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism, the first international attempt at dealing with terrorism.The assassination of the Archduke set in motion a series of events that led to the outbreak of World War I.Book Title: Grand Strategy in the War against Terrorism.William L. Anderson, Is Terrorism Good for the Economy?Without the complexities of modern state terror, terrorism itself would never have evolved.
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