Historians such as Maurice Dobb, E. H. Carr, and Stephen Cohen — have interpreted war communism as a short-term expedient imposed on the Bolsheviks by the emergency demands of civil war and foreign intervention.War communism also caused dissatisfaction within the proletariat.Whilst the NEP caused a refreshing new outlook to the peasantry after the suffering under War Communism this was not so for the proletariat.The solution to War Communism was done through the New Economic Policy (NEP).The policies of war communism and the New Economic Policy (NEP) had a great impact on both the peasantry and the proletariat.
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As soon as the Civil War come to an end War Communism was replaced by the New Economic Policy; which granted workers more than the freedom they had before the Civil War, and the peasants a freedom which they had never had.The interpretation that War Communism was dictatorial is also questionable because, to an extent, the control of War Communism was needed, as most factory committees were not professional and experienced enough to control production for the Civil War, nor did they have the ability to organise the supplies for the cities and Red Army.This is because Lenin was able to see the errors that had been caused by War Communism and offer an alternative that did not agree with his ideology.The view that War Communism is dictatoria...
3596 words (9.0 pages)
It should also be remembered that NEP would not have been needed had it not been for the terrible failures of War Communism, and that by 1923 production levels were only as high as they had been in 1913 under the Tsar., did not ring true, he starved 7 million people to death under war communism, lost huge amounts of land in the Treaty and Brest-Litovsk, and caused a civil war Who was more important, Lenin or Stalin?Lenin introduced the system of war communism with two main aims, to put communist theories into place (i. e. redistribution of wealth), and to win the civil war.War communism achieved its aim of winning the war, but in doing so caused terrible hardships for the Russian people, some estimate that 7 million people starved to dea...
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This represented a big step towards communism because the country was now in a period of socialism, a transitional phase between the end of capitalism and the beginning of communism.Another problem was that Lenin had to face the demands made by the Civil War.Firstly, he introduced the so-called War communism, which not only brought misery to the population but also brought the economy close to collapse.Instead of bringing the promised success, War communism brought misery, in the form of famines and diseases, from which up to 20 million Russians a thought to have died.This pragmatic interpretation of Marxism that implied that the party should follow any course that would ultimately lead to communism was later called Marxist-Leninism.
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The second aim was to help with the Civil War by keeping the towns and the Red Army supplied with food and weapons.This was the main reason why Lenin decided to abandon the emergency policies of War Communism as the sailors at Kronstadt had been the ones who had played a primary role in the October Revolution and were firm supporters of the Bolshevik Party.The Reds eventually won the Civil War but not after it had imposed great hardships on the peasants .There were many short-term effects of War Communism both on Russia and the people.During the Civil War, War Communism was introduced.
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Other policies that Lenin had enforced within Russia that could be considered revolts against tradition include War Communism and the New Economic Policy.Lenin also introduced War Communism, the NEP, and the idea of “Peace, Land, and Bread” as a revolutionary process against tradition.The Bolshevik Party, which was run by Lenin, took advantage of this revolutionary spirit amongst the workers and soldiers in order to later overthrow the Provisional Government, win the Civil War, and seize power as a single party state.The USSR, a Left Wing single party state, did achieve power as the result of a revolutionary process against tradition as Lenin had used his April Theses in order to persuade people into joining his cause and setting up a co...
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Gleb returns to his home town where he worked as a mechanic before the war.Gladkov even makes it seem like the NEP is completely unnecessary by showing the effectiveness of Gleb’s efforts to rebuild the factory.Gladkov’s novel Cement covers many of the changes in post civil war Russia.Gladkov uses his character of Dasha to portray how Russian women gained a sense of individualism and independence during the war.All of these elements spell the doom to Communism in Russia, as Gladkov never saw, but did manage to predict.
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After signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the population became outraged that they lost so much land after exiting the war.Also in 1920, agricultural output had been reduced to only half of its pre-World War I level, foreign trade had decreased, and industrial production had fallen to only a small fraction of its pre-war levels.Lenin saw that Russia was in a state of turmoil after exiting World War I and silencing the civil war, so he was determined to fix the economy.Prices for industry made products such as metals, tools, etc., skyrocketed to over 250% of their value before World War One was started.When Lenin first took power in 1918, Russia was in what he called a “state of War Communism” (Carr 147).
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The NEP helped to produce more agriculture, production of steel, electricity, pig iron etc.By winning the civil war he got rid of his opposition, which were the whites, Tsarist supporters, Liberals and the provisional government.The NEP also allow free trade union, this increased the amount of trading done in Russia.Lenin used propaganda like posters that said good thing about the government to show that the Bolsheviks were defenders of Mother Russia and of the success of the Revolution I think the most important reason they grew strong was because the Bolsheviks had great leader like Lenin who was a brilliant speaker and clever Politian who had good ideas and was unafraid to share his ideas with the public.Kronstadt began to turn agains...
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The leaders focused too much of their resources on producing iron and other material use for war they did not take care of the people of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin tried to fix this with his New Economic Policy but he failed miserably and was unable to really move the nation to a place that they could prosper.Money and banking and other elements of capitalist technique, which had been discarded or had largely lost significance during the so-called War Communism of the preceding period, again found a place under the NEP.195), War Communism (1917-1920) and the New Economic Policy (1921-1929).The policies of War Communism and the New Economic Policy (NEP) which were implemented by Lenin sought to remove all forms of capitalism such as...
4928 words (12.3 pages)
His support for the NEP was probably not due to the dubiously capitalist elements or the relinquishment of state control, but through a devotion to Lenin and belief in his ability to lead, the fact that supporting the NEP established him as part of the ‘inner circle’ along with Bukharin, and therefore casting aside Trotsky and other detractors, was likely to have been an additional benefit of expressing his support for this policy.Indeed the Civil War measures implemented by Lenin introduced the idea of the Red Terror and developed internment camps, Lenin was the instigator of Article 58 in 1927 which condoned the arrests of those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities.As it was, the lack of this fundamental practice turned the wh...
4445 words (11.1 pages)
The remaining grain that was produced could be sold or kept.Private trades were also permitted; all the food and goods were moved more easily from the countryside to the towns, the shops began to open and all rationing was ended.His good leadership was shown first shown by the civil war, which led the Reds into power or Russia.Small scale businesses under private ownership were permitted; they were allowed to trade and make a profit.Lenin began to try and improve his peoples lives and to do this he introduced the NEP.
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The Reds on the other hand, under the brilliant leadership of Leon Trotsky, were able to pick the different White factions off quickly, and so therefore were able to win the war.Due to the failures of the previous two administrations to pull out of the war, Lenin was faced with a dire situation when he came to power.By doing this, Lenin gave the peasants the incentive to work which under war communism they had not had, as they had the chance to earn money.This caused the general public to feel more inclined towards the new Government, and helped Lenin in his quest to establish Communism in Russia.Lenin was always conscious of public opinion in relation to how he could successfully establish Communism.
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In addition, Russia continued to export large amounts of grain to fund the war in spite of the substantial famine in Russia itself.During the communist regime, many peasants were forced into poverty by the policies of war communism and collectivisation.The NEP was at least a feasible attempt to improve the state of agriculture, and did give peasants some economic freedom.NEP could have helped the peasants economically if it was run properly.The sole aim of this policy was to keep the Bolsheviks in power and to win the civil war.
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Stalin did conform to true communism in regard to education.Whether it be in China under Mao, or Cambodia under Pol Pot, no regime has ever honoured Marx’s idea of communism in its purest form.Some, certainly those who lived at the time, hail “Uncle Joe Stalin” (a nickname attributed to the Russian leader in the USA) for saving communism in what became known as one of the most heroic battles of the war.So it is true that, to some degree Stalin abided by Marx’s ideal of communism in his attempt to create a classless society and implement a planned economy.As with the abolishing of the NEP, however, it is unlikely to have been Stalin’s belief in pure communism that motivated this expansion but rather his ambitious thirst for land and his i...
3001 words (7.5 pages)
While this was a reaction to the violent counter-revolutionary war launched by the tsarist old order, the White Terror, Lenin’s willingness to use extreme violence as a means of ensuring that the Bolsheviks got their way was a definite weakness.Lenin’s strengths can be seen in his ability to end the war with Germany; defeat opposition both politically and in the Civil War, under the Red Terror; his ruthlessness and determination in being able to force through unpopular decisions and change policy when necessary, as well as the introduction of the NEP following the period of war communism.This was accepted at the tenth party congress in1921 and it ended the forced grain requisition of War Communism, allowing peasants to sell surplus grain...
1306 words (3.3 pages)
If this situation was, as some historians argue, the case then Stalin stood up to the challenge and took decisive action, thereby initiating his “Great Turn” more quickly to deal with a hostile political climate.On the other hand, some historians (such as Viola) argue that the NEP was causing extensive discontent within the party, and that rather than being as capricious as is often presumed, he can be seen as a pragmatist in the face of the will of the party.These were combined with existing fears that the West were set on destroying Communism, after they gave the Whites assistance during the Civil War.Many Communists saw the NEP as a retreat from Communist Ideology.It was seen as a promotion of private ownership, trade and profit, as w...
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During the NEP the workers and farmers were much happier and they produced a lot of goods.The Kulaks opposed communism and were very influential.There were many downfalls to the NEP that made Stalin put Collectivization into place.Some were murdered as a result of starvation while others were murdered for having different views.Through their successes and failures Stalin and Lenin attempted and succeeded in different ways to improve the soviet economy.
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The next stage went on from 1930 to 1960, and encompassed industrialization, Second World War, and postwar restoration.The economy of this period was largely characterized by the NEP – New Economic Policy.The state economy, guided by the directive principles of War Communism, was unable to meet the demand for goods, especially agricultural ones, which was proven by the famine of 1921, during which six million people died.While NEP was cancelled, it did not mean that private initiative was restricted.9, September 1957. .
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Levels rose, yes, but only in relation with 1917, not prior to war levels, also, Stalin’s 5 year plans showed us that much actually did need to be done, in terms of industry and agriculture progressed but only took Russia back to pre-war levels.* He stated that there would be ‘No Peace, No war’ .After the civil war, Living conditions were still appalling, peasants hauled for their food, had no proper lighting, food was dreadful and had no washing facilities.* They held the central area of western Russia, which contained most of the large industrial canters able o produce munitions and war supplies.There were three sides to the civil war, but two main ones.
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All the party members had only accepted the NEP as a temporary system but the debate was when and how it should be ended.The NEP was hindering the progress to socialism as it was intensifying the difference between rich and poor as well as leading to gambling and prostitution.They supported Socialism in One Country and his line on the peasants at the end of the 1920’s, as it attracted the members of the right wing of the party because it seemed to fit in with the NEP – their own route to socialism.2) The NEP and industrialization debate.The right wing which was led by Bukharin wanted to continue the NEP so that the peasants would earn more money which they would spend on consumer goods which because of the increase in demand would lead t...
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He decided to adopt Trotsky’s earlier suggestions for a programme of industrialization and the ending of NEP.Basically Russia could become Socialist on its own, provided if Lenin’s NEP was followed.He had the closest relation with Lenin because both shared the same ideas; he was the most brilliant person from the rest, he was the commissar of war and leader of the Red Army.His manipulative skills were basically the key to success.By 1924, Trotsky had decided that the NEP had been successful and should be ended.
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The civil war “gave the new regime a baptism by fire, and thereby influenced its future development,” and the result was that the Bolsheviks resorted to political oppression, centralized rule, and totalitarianism in order to survive.The first, “The Agony of the Old Regime,” offers a description of Tsarist Russia and the “thousands of men and women [who were] committed to fundamental change.” He provides insight into Russia’s difficulties in introducing a constitutional government, her disastrous involvement in World War One, and the February Revolution.A brilliant description of War Communism follows where the author argues that it was a consequence of Bolshevik intent instead of the pressures brought on by War.He suggests various reaso...
1724 words (4.3 pages)
Toward the end date of the NEP, the objectives to eradicate poverty have been achieved.The NEP is often invoked as part of the Malay Agenda, which is in turn part of the Malaysian social contract granting Malays special rights in return for citizenship for non-Malays.In addition to Singapore, Sarawak, communism is also booming, where the Communist Party formed an underground association, to play its associations of workers and peasants of the students.The NEP was designed as a long-term program that will run for 20 years, starting from 1970 to 1990.To achieve the second goal of the NEP, various strategies have been designed, including: .
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To ensure that both goals were achieved in the NEP, the government has tried to improve the economic situation and at the same time, eliminating the identification of race with economic function.To achieve the second goal of the NEP, various strategies have been designed, including: .Although the NEP was hailed in some quarters as having reduced the socioeconomic disparity between the Chinese minority and Malay majority, others accused it of having reduced non-Malays to the status of second-class citizens by cementing ketuanan Melayu (Malay supremacy).The NEP was designed as a long-term program that will run for 20 years, starting from 1970 to 1990.Apart from Singapore, Communism was also thriving in Sarawak, where the communists formed ...
2825 words (7.1 pages)
During World War I, Russia’s economy was in shambles and along with it, were the working conditions and the life of its lower class citizens.The Soviet Union showed its presence in the war with its initial attack on East Prussia, which was held by the German Eight Army.When Russia joined World War I under the rule of Tsar Nicholas II, Russia was very prosperous with a stable economy and it was one of the biggest players in the war.The increase in the strength of the economy was a huge improvement that brought it back up to a level before World War I had began... Russia’s involvement in World War I set up the country for its future leader, Vladimir Lenin.
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However, the results prove that it brought good to the overall USSR economy via industrialisation.With food being vital for Industrialisation of the USSR, the NEP policy wasn’t efficient enough as 20 million tones of grains short.With demand from all direction along with many other factors, Stalin switched his agricultural policy from NEP, to left wing desperate measures of collectivisation in 1929, the policy of enforcing grain collection he once stood against.With agriculture policy moved further left, collectivisation will meet his communist ideological theory.He successfully eliminated his right wing communist rivals, stretching his influence over the party.
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However, Stalin had actually succeeded in turning the USSR into a super power, and in a remarkably short time.If Russia really could catch up within ten years it would provide a huge boost to communism.Even with NEP, by 1928, the USSR was short of 20 million tons of grain needed to feed the towns.Finally, the 5-year plans were very useful propaganda, both for Communism and for Stalin.There were few consumer goods, and the housing was poor.
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Lenin had been very much the father figure of the formation of the Soviet Union, being an absolute leader in the extreme circumstances of winning the civil war which consolidated the revolutionary state.It was therefore essential that the USSR be joined by other revolutionary states, there was great hopes that Germany would have a socialist revolution, and for a short time after the end of World War I it seemed possible that Germany would embark upon a revolutionary path, but this was repressed by the forces of the right wing in Germany, a major setback for the ‘permanent revolution’ outlook within the Bolsheviks, similarly the defeat of the revolution in the brief Hungarian socialist revolution of Bela Kun made many within the Bolshevik...
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In conclusion, the peasantry were poorly treated by both Tsarist and Communist Governments in the 1855-1964 period which meant that their lives did not improve.The peasantry were still effectively serfs who were being used for the benefit of industry, this was an important feature of war communism and similarly in the ‘dekulakisation’ of Stalin, as in both cases the peasantry had falsely been accused of hoarding.High taxes were commonplace under the Tsars despite the axing of redemption payments in 1905, however in contrast Lenin’s NEP ensured that such a heavy burden would not be repeated.Following the Emancipation Act, the peasantry had to endure among other things, high taxation, requisition, repression and restriction on movement and...
1866 words (4.7 pages)