War Communism And New Economic Policy Essays

Found 219965 essays.

Significance Of The Bolshevik Revolution

This had resulted in the ending of the Russian dynasty, peace by any means and severe hunger throughout Russia from war communism, during the civil war which I will attempt to address throughout this essay.'[10] Wise also agreed with Mawdsley that despite the use of War Communism and centralisation of industry, the Bolsheviks still had control, ‘perhaps the peasants did not live for the soviets, but they fought for them as their guarantee of their gains from the Bolshevik Revolution.Westwood argues that, ‘probably in 1923 the unpopularity of the government was great as two years earlier, the workers were still underpaid, underfed and underproductive, while the peasants had never forgotten their treatment under War Communism.Lenin had int...

1242 words (3.1 pages)
Examine The Impact of Policy Changes of 1921 on the Development of the Soviet State by 1924

The Civil war was not just a matter of the Bolsheviks (the reds) in which Trotsky was war commissioner against their political enemies, the whites who were liberals, former tsarists, Socialist Revolutionaries, nationalists, separatists and other moderate socialists along with the greens who were a peasant army, but from the start the Civil war was a more complex affair.There was widespread hostility to “War Communism” and there were open revolts against Bolshevik rule, however this policy contributed to a military success in helping the Reds win the Civil War.The Communist regime instituted there series of drastic economic measures to sustain the war effort in the years of the Civil war, and Lenin abruptly abandoned state capitalism.The ...

2892 words (7.2 pages)
How important was Stalin compared to Lenin in creating the Soviet Union

Also, without War Communism and a lot of people dead because of it, Lenin would not have thought about creating a new economic policy (which caused many people to believe that Lenin betrayed the communist belief) that would benefit his people.War communism achieved its aim of winning the war, but in doing so caused terrible hardships for the Russian people, some estimate that 7 million people starved to death under it.This meant that Lenin had to abandon the policy of War Communism and put in place a new economic policy.Lenin soon abandoned War Communism in favour of what he called “New Economic Policy”, he recognized that he would have to abandon his purely communist principles, speaking at the Party Congress, 1921 he said “we must try ...

1560 words (3.9 pages)
The interpretation that Lenin was a dictator Essay

Therefore this view also supports the argument that the economic problems led Lenin to adopt the policies of War Communism.Service also believes that “The onset of Civil War had intervened and necessitated emergency measures that he now referred to as ‘War Communism'”20, therefore the view of Service, who is a neutral historian, supports the view of both Hill and Laver that Lenin was led to adopt the policies of War Communism due to the Civil War.The interpretation that War Communism was dictatorial is also questionable because, to an extent, the control of War Communism was needed, as most factory committees were not professional and experienced enough to control production for the Civil War, nor did they have the ability to organise th...

3596 words (9.0 pages)
End Of The Cold War History Essay

This indicates that the Cold War was majorly about conflict of ideologies, and not about the nuclear weapons, military, or even economic equilibrium between the West and the East, Communism as a method of governance, desire for democracy, capitalism, or even domination of Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union.In fact no other major conflict of interestingly dominated the post World War II the way the cold war did.This indicates that the Cold War was had nothing to do with the military, nuclear weapons, or economic balance between the West and the East, nor other factors but it was about ideological conflict.This event initiated the demise of the Soviet’s communism and the end of the Cold War.Other scholars associate it with the fall of comm...

1860 words (4.7 pages)
War Communism and the New Economic Policy

War communism was implemented as a result of the civil war.Historians such as Maurice Dobb, E. H. Carr, and Stephen Cohen — have interpreted war communism as a short-term expedient imposed on the Bolsheviks by the emergency demands of civil war and foreign intervention.In conclusion both War Communism and the NEP had a great impact on the lives and livelihood of both the peasantry and the proletariat as described above.War communism also caused dissatisfaction within the proletariat.The policies of war communism and the New Economic Policy (NEP) had a great impact on both the peasantry and the proletariat.

1134 words (2.8 pages)
Revolution in Russia Essay

The USSR, a Left Wing single party state, did achieve power as the result of a revolutionary process against tradition as Lenin had used his April Theses in order to persuade people into joining his cause and setting up a communist state, and had set up policies that went against Russian tradition, such as War Communism, and policies that went against communist tradition, such as the New Economic Policy.This can be seen as a revolutionary process against tradition as Lenin was intending on eliminating and suppressing all the anti-Bolshevik supporters, with the help of War Communism (The Russian Civil War).Other policies that Lenin had enforced within Russia that could be considered revolts against tradition include War Communism and the ...

1489 words (3.7 pages)
New Economic Policy Failure

Lenin saw that Russia was in a state of turmoil after exiting World War I and silencing the civil war, so he was determined to fix the economy.The NEP stated that requisitioning of food and agricultural surpluses, a ideal of War Communism, must be ended.The New Economic Policy was instituted on March 21, 1921.The imposition of the New Economic Policy in 1921 incorporated western economic ideas, such as peasants controlling businesses, causing Russia to depend more on its agricultural sector and in turn, brought it back to its pre-war state.In order to thwart their rule, Lenin revised the War Communism policies, and produced the New Economic Policy.

1338 words (3.3 pages)
Post-WWII History Essay

As a result, the US became fearful that it was losing the power struggle against the Soviet Union – a battle that was later known as the Cold War.He warned the audience that the Soviet Union intended to spread Communism throughout the US by sending spies to infiltrate the US government (Fitzgerald 2006).This apprehension was exacerbated by suspicions that traitors within the American government were aiding the spread of Communism (Fitzgerald 2006).Despite this accomplishment, the Republicans were unable to contain the main achievements of the New Deal – unionization of heavy industry, Social Security, agricultural subsidies and civil rights militancy.The aforementioned developments prompted Washington to assume that a new foe was in its ...

524 words (1.3 pages)
Commanding heights

In Germany, after the world war 1, hyperinflation hit the Germans which ensured the collapse of many bank account holders and this caused working class citizens to lose out on their personal savings and many blamed it on communism.As the cold war dragged on , the communist fell behind and all the secrets of the communists were shown to the people.This might also be one of the reasons countries had many dictators which led to the second world war.Now that communism was exposed, very few countries continued this type of system.People formed groups against communism and protested against their own government.

1154 words (2.9 pages)
Why Great Britain Followed a Policy of Appeasement Toward Germany in the 1930s?

The appeasement policy, which can be defined as a diplomatic policy that hopes of preventing war by making concessions to an aggressor, was displayed by Great Britain towards Germany in the preface to World War II.In essence, a repeat of World War I would be the worst possible outcome, and that the only way to prevent Europe from falling into another massive tragedy like World War I was to follow the policy of appeasement World War I had been considered the Great War, and the War to End All Wars.The public did not want to wage another war, costing millions of lives.Britain have felt that the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh on the Germans, and considered appeasement as a method of correcting the wrongs that German had been dealt i...

598 words (1.5 pages)
Defying All Odds of Communism

After the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II it was apparent that the victors would come out as the new world powers.The policy of containment the United States followed and the great actions they took against communism shows how serious of a problem communism was and what lengths the U.S. went to keep it down.In this foreign policy, the United States went just far enough because they prevented World War III from occurring.The North Korean’s decided to unify the country through war, not knowing that the U.S. would move to stop them.The U.S. adopted a policy of containment to keep communism in the USSR and the other places it had spread.

914 words (2.3 pages)
Main Reasons For Vietnam War Involvement

The Directive basically had said four main things: Communism as it was often embodied by the Soviet Union would be considered to always seek a wide expansion by itself and then destroy the free societies so as to secure its own power base; that the United States policies at that particular time of the Marshall Plan, supporting of the anti-Communist regimes, and the keeping of the military forces that were stationed throughout the globe in the hot-zones to monitor Soviet activity ought to be maintained; an enormous buildup in the military power of the United States was necessary that would essentially constitute a large standing army even in peacetime that is something the United States had never had before; and the last thing basically d...

1915 words (4.8 pages)
The Vietnam War In 1965 History Essay

America had been in the war since 1959, however in 1961 it was clear that the war would not be settled for a long time; therefore the current leader of South Vietnam requested assistance to help in its security and fight against the communists.This is a treaty that shows an alliance, stating that these three countries will fight together in any war within the Pacific Ocean area, therefore all countries fought together in the Vietnam War.Contrary to this, Australia had a minute choice to not send troops to fight communism, as did Britain and France who refused to join this war.Before the war began, and prior to Menzies appointment for the second time as Prime Minister of Australia, he stated that they will be soon declaring war on communi...

2030 words (5.1 pages)
Harrys Trumans Fight Against Communism History Essay

One example is the use of two atomic bombs to stop the war in Japan.In nineteen fifty-one, President Truman asked Congress to establish a new foreign aid program to countries threatened by communism particularly Latin America, Europe, Asia, Middle East and North Africa (Spalding, 2006).Summarily, Truman’s war against communism was proving impossible due to the rapid expansion of the practice and existence of perpetuating forces like the Soviet Union.The doctrines policy also referred as the Marshall Plan prevented the spread of communism through the provision of foreign renovation aid to war torn nations.During his two terms reign, he helped negotiate Germans unconditional surrender in world war two and worked to counter communism.

1243 words (3.1 pages)
The economic policies of Lenin and Stalin Essay

In order to evaluate the success, or to some extent the failure, of their economic policies, it is necessary to consider their personal ambitions, if any, and the internal and external circumstances facing the USSR that influenced economic policy making.Another problem was that Lenin had to face the demands made by the Civil War.Lenin saw the NEP as a short-term fix which meant “a step backwards” in the development of communism but one which would restore the economy.However, comparing their strategies, one finds that Stalin moved away from Lenin’s ideals, War Communism and his New Economic Policies (NEP).Firstly, he introduced the so-called War communism, which not only brought misery to the population but also brought the economy close...

1857 words (4.6 pages)
Why did the United States adopt a policy of containment?

As a result of the Truman Doctrine Greece and Turkey received 400 million dollars in economic aid in order to fight communism, in exchange the United States established missile bases in Turkey, which provided a fundamental advantage over the Soviet Union.This speech also included a request that congress agree to give military and economic aid to Greece in its fight against communism.Truman was eager to help European countries recover from the war.This was an early example of the United States attempting to contain the spread of communism years before the Cold War was a worldwide phenomenon.The actual origins of the containment policy are to be found towards the end of the Second World War.

1866 words (4.7 pages)
Communism in Latin America Revised

This can be highly attributed to the problems that the region experienced when communism first gained its appeal in Latin America.It was since the World War II that Latin American Communism had been increasingly evident and continued to important in the region, more than uniformity.The reaction was said to be predictable as the capital was bombed as well as strafed by American aircraft of the World War II vintage and were flown by CIA pilots.“Communism’s Resurgence: Communism Is Not Dead in Latin America.New York: D. McKay Co.. Place of Publication: New York, 1963. .

3137 words (7.8 pages)
Eisenhower on Communism Essay

There was also no chance for privileges as communism dictated and that the Bill of Rights which did not allow for privileges for a group of people would continue to rule as unlike communism it allowed civil liberties.Freedom represents man as a creation of God and communism as an animal creature.He differentiated between his fight against communism from McCarthy’s as he warned against violent vigilantism and on freedom to be respected first which in turn would ensure that citizens will enjoy their rights.He shared with Truman on American foreign policy and he alleged communism as a huge force struggling for world supremacy and argued that control could not go far enough to stop soviet expansion and therefore a more forceful policy of lib...

647 words (1.6 pages)
Ukraine to Soviet Union Essay

During the years of war communism from 1918-1921, Soviet labourers worked for pittance wages.Therefore this essay would conclude that although there were a number of external contributory influence to the collapse of communism, communism as an ideal cannot hope to survive for long in anything more than a theoretical sense, as it is inherently contrary to the basic drives of human nature.The United States rejoiced as its formidable enemy was brought to its knees, thereby ending the Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers since the end of World War II.The net result of war communism under Lenin was that from 1914 the countryside was neglected and destroyed and in 1920 there was a severe drought.As Khrushchev himself said of c...

13424 words (33.6 pages)
USSR Foreign Policy Essay

The world power is one of the countries that has multipolar approaches to economic policies from the first war through the second and to the cold war age.After the second world war, Stalin’s dictatorial approach to leadership and communism are the key factors that affected the foreign policies of the USSR.The tension that characterized cold war and the need to develop socialist ideologies to social development were key factors whose balance determined the nature of foreign policies that the USSR adopted.While America was busy redeveloping European countries under the marshal plan, Stalin saw opportunities in the post war Eastern Europe and compelled all those nations under his tutelage to supply machinery and raw materials to the USSR (G...

2114 words (5.3 pages)
History of Communism Containment

After defeating Germany during World War II, most of Europe and Asia lay in ruins, and on the horizon a new threat appeared, communism.Even after the Korean War and the creation of the Warsaw Pact, the expansion of communism was not over.After the Second World War, the United States began seeing an expansion of communism into Eastern Europe and sought to stop the spread of communism by adopting a policy of containment.Not only was American (containment in the height of the Cold War a failure)(US History), those failures can still be seen to this day.America’s idea of a united effort at the containment of Communism had exponential grown into a united expansion of communism, just the opposite effect the U.S. was trying to accomplish.

1606 words (4.0 pages)
The Truman Doctrine Essay

The Truman Doctrine formulated during the Greek Civil War is often credited with giving rise to the Cold War.The belief in communist pressure to dominate the world and the view that the Soviet Union was intransigent and would not compromise on its goal of world domination sustained support for the Cold War and the military build-up throughout the Cold War even though President Truman never intended that and his successor, former General turned President Eisenhower warned about the military-industrial buildup.Instituted to combat the global spread of Communism during the Greek Civil War in 1947, it rendered economic and military aid to Turkey and Greece.During World War I and World War II, Greece maintained alliances with Britain, France ...

8182 words (20.5 pages)
John F. Kennedy: The Inaugural Address

In the Address, Kennedy warned “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” He also called upon the public to assist in “a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.” It is in this address that one begins to see the Cold War, us versus them mentality that came to dominate the Kennedy administration.The Kennedy Doctrine was based on these same objectives but was more concerned with the spread of communism and Soviet influence in Latin America following the Cuban revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power under Eisenhower...

867 words (2.2 pages)
How Successfully Did Lenin Establish Communist Rule 1918-1924?

Lenin was always conscious of public opinion in relation to how he could successfully establish Communism.By doing this, Lenin gave the peasants the incentive to work which under war communism they had not had, as they had the chance to earn money.Russia was in the midst of World War I, and things were going very badly.This caused the general public to feel more inclined towards the new Government, and helped Lenin in his quest to establish Communism in Russia.Due to the failures of the previous two administrations to pull out of the war, Lenin was faced with a dire situation when he came to power.

1149 words (2.9 pages)
Cold War Essay

The Berlin Blockade was an important cause of the Cold War as the goal of the Soviets was to starve West Berlin, an Allied country, into submission to Communism, and was seen by the USA as a direct threat to their own survival.The Sovietisation of Eastern Europe is a notable factor as it increased USSR’s political, economic and military power by uniting other Eastern European states into a political and economic bloc against USA, mainly to spread Communism to Europe.Hence the aggressive nature of the blockade prompted a response from the USA, the Berlin Airlift, which was also USA’s way of directly challenging USSR’s limits of tolerance, which nearly escalated the Cold War into a breakout of a hot war.Therefore it was more of the misunde...

1226 words (3.1 pages)
Cold War Causes and Effects

That is what makes the Cold War so unique.“As soon as Congress had authorized the Marshall Plan expenditures for the first year, the Administration, with the cooperation of the Republic leadership in the House and Senate foreign relations committees, began to lay the legislative groundwork for the North Atlantic Treaty (Hammond, 1969: 26).” The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, was created as a result of the Cold War and was designed as a defense mechanism against communism.The Cold War probably could not have been avoided since there were too many differences between the United States and Russia.The United States used both economic and military tactics to ensure their security and influence policies against communism.A war witho...

821 words (2.1 pages)
Why the Cold War Started Essay

This war started because they had different political ideologies.This war was between U. S. A and the Soviet Union (Russia).This was called the Cold War.Communism and Truman Doctrine also had big role in starting the war.Straight after WW2, another war has evolved.

405 words (1.0 pages)
Ronald Reagan revolution through Obama Exploratory Essay

The Cold War policies involved expending many resources on the United States’ military and technological improvement (Fitzgerald, 2000).Despite the demerits of the war, this process was advantageous to the nation, as it helped in maintaining and improving its super position for it had the best-equipped and modern military in the world.This attack forced the US to intensify its war on terrorism by invading Afghanistan, which is seen as the home for Taliban.As the Cold War ended, the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union improved and this aspect led to the signing of new arms control treaties in 1987, which helped in regulating nuclear weapons.This treaty is of great importance as it curtails the possibility of a nuclear war, wh...

1248 words (3.1 pages)
Cold War Study Notes

The main economic arm of this policy became known as the Marshal plan formed by Secretary of State George Marshal, it was an offer from the Unites States that they would provide aid to any country which was not communist in Europe trying to rebuild after World War 2.The Truman Doctrine was significant to the origins and the development of the cold war between 1945 and 1991 as it had many effects on the Ideologies of Communism and Capitalism, the Sphere of Influence and Universalism.Truman set about trying to contain communism with his own Doctrine, which was to support European countries financially and militarily in an attempt to prevent communism from taking control.When Czechoslovakia, arguably the most pro-Western of all the East Eur...

1179 words (2.9 pages)

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