Re-emergence, regrouping and regaining strength of Taliban and Al Qaeda once thought defeated in Afghanistan, is threatening both the reconstruction process and the Coalition forces in Afghanistan.Foregoing in view there was a need to carryout research that help in developing guidelines for the attainment of Pakistan’s Afghanistan policy objectives: peace and a friendly government in Afghanistan, a conducive environment for the repatriation of refugees, getting Afghanistan to accept the legal status of the Durand Line and access to Central Asia.Realizing that landlocked Afghanistan was economically dependent on Pakistan, and given that both countries are Muslim with common historical legacy, Pakistan assumed that Afghanistan will be a na...
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By definition the war in Afghanistan was a proxy war.The Afghanistan conflict (1979) that took place during the Cold War era can be described as a war between the US and Russia by proxy.Assuming that the US involvement in Afghanistan was as official records indicate, funding into Project Cyclone, six months prior to Soviet invasion, the operation could be seen as successful cold war tactics on the US’s behalf.The use of Operation Cyclone as a cold war tactic proved very useful for the US as the Soviet Union shortly after withdrawing their soldiers from Afghanistan in 1998 contributing majorly towards the dissolution of the Union in 1991. .The US involvement in Afghanistan prior to the Soviet Invasion begs question as to wether the Afghan...
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Within the cold war issue, it is reasonable if superpower country like the U. .Following the ending of the Cold War, this relation turned into a major catalyst of the global terrorist group that found its locus in the area.It was called the cold war because real physical confrontation never occurred between the superpower nations.India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan and Definition of their vital security interests In the most common definition, the cold war was political, ideological and economic struggle that emerge between the Soviet Union and the Unites States (and allies) right after the Second World War the struggle occurred between 1947 and 1991.For the majority of Pakistan’s impartial history, relationships with Afghanistan have bee...
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It has now been over a decade since the Taliban government was overthrown, and while many countries have expressed a desire to help rebuild Afghanistan, it will take years and billions of dollars to repair the damage the country has accumulated in its years under the Taliban’s control.(The Taliban’s War Against Women) Women weren’t the only ones to suffer, though.(The Taliban’s War Against Women).The Taliban grew quickly, gathering the support of the people and many, many new recruits.Afghanistan’s bitter civil war shattered the country and weakened the control of the government, dividing the country and forcing its citizens to live in chaos.Iran, India, China, Russia, and the United States have publically expressed their dislike of the ...
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In 1989, before leaving Afghanistan, the USSR selected Dr. Najibullah to be the president of Afghanistan after they left.After nine years of fighting in Afghanistan, the USSR lost the war to the Mujahedeen and were forced to withdraw their forces from Afghanistan.The Civil War in Afghanistan was part of the Cold War.To conclude, during these two phases of the Afghan civil war, which lasted from 1989 to 1992, more than 100,000 Afghans were killed, thousands of Kabul citizens were injured and lost their homes and nothing was seen in Kabul except bombarded buildings and signs of different weapons used during the war.The economy of Afghanistan was very weak in 1989 when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was leaving Afghanistan.<...
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It was a defensive strategy meant to prevent another devastating world war.In Afghanistan, beginning in 2001 and continuing still, NATO has been determined to wipe out terrorism and to establish a stable government even though Afghanistan has never been a particularly stable nation.With a continual NATO presence, smaller countries are able to play a role in the Afghanistan war and a stable multinational headquarters is always present.It has been playing a revolutionary active role in the war on terror even though this is not in keeping with its original purpose, proving how NATO has been able to evolve from a defensive force into a, “global security agency with worldwide reach and influence “.NATO’s involvement in the war in Afghanista...
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The federal Budget fiscal year 2012.This booming dept is disastrous for the economy because for every dollar we are... ... middle of paper ... ...he returning war veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq.Office of the Press Secretary.We have been promised an end to war in Afghanistan by July of 2011, salvation from rising debts and a universal health care.“Afghanistan and Iraq: Where The American Empire Dies” rightsidenews.com.
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Emphasizing the deep historic, religious, spiritual, cultural and commercial bonds among Afghanistan and Pakistan, IPAR focuses especially on the treatment of terrorism, extremism and militancy, bilateral cooperation in political and economic fields, and regional and international issues of common concern.Improving bilateral relation between Pakistan and Afghanistan culminating into a perennial strategic partnership carried forth to coming generations; .Since the end of the Cold War, Pakistan continued its “forward policy in Afghanistan mainly through the support of the Hizb-i-Islami of Gulbadin Hikmatyar and, later, through the Taliban.Though the historical, geographical, cultural, religious, ethnic, security and economic affinities and...
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15 This project had been stymied through the 1990s because of the civil war that had been going on in Afghanistan since the Soviet withdrawal in 1989.Some may say that this war was a war of necessity while others may say it was a war of choice.A historical point that impacted our current culture was the bombing of the World Trade Centre September 2001 this was considered to be the gravest attack of international terrorism to be committed against America, and indeed the roots of America’s current War on Terror were born in this.before the snows started falling in Afghanistan, by the middle of October at the latest.” And, indeed, given the fact that the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon occurred when they did, the US milit...
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Afghanistan is currently in a war with the United States.Political Scientists Ravlo, Gleditcsch, and Dorussen expand upon the colonial war aspect of opposing the Democratic Peace Theory in “Colonial War and the Democratic Peace” in 2003’s The Journal of Conflict Resolution.In fact, the War in Afghanistan began on 7 October 2001, as the armed forces of the United States, the Kingdom, France, Australia, and the Afghan United Front launched Operation Enduring Freedom following the September 11, 2001 terror attacks.Given this information, China maintains relationships with many of it’s neighbors so that the two nations never reach the point of war, but cannot be classified as non-violent wit neighboring countries Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, ...
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Its history traces back to the Soviet War, when Pakistan’s intelligence agency, ISI was funded by USA to train mujahidin to fight the Soviet forces.War on Terrorism The Global War on Terrorism started after the Twin towers in USA were attacked on 11th September, 2001.Later on after the defeat of Soviet Union, Afghanistan was left on the mercies of war lords which led to the development of mujahidins later forming into an alliance.Moreover, President Bush consistently referred to the Iraq War as “the central front in the War on Terror”, and argued that if the U. S. pulled out of Iraq, “terrorists will follow us here”.Regardless, it has proved to be pivotal for America in this war.
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He has proposed sending over an additional 30,000 U.S. troops to aid the long war against Afghanistan, centering in on the Al-Quada and denying them a safe haven (news.bbc.co.uk, 2010).As a result of all of these factors, Afghanistan is a country with a poor economy, a high unemployment rate and the people in it live every day with the threat of war and violence.Starting with the Mongolian invasion, war after war has followed.At the present, NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization) have 34,000 troops in Afghanistan but many have said that in order for them to be effective, more are needed and they must commit to helping Afghanistan in the long term.War, The Taliban.
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Most of the forests of the country have been burnt during the war, various kinds of chemicals and heavy arms have been used on our lands.Using Afghanistan as an ideal transit state for gaining access to rich resourced central Asian markets, Pakistan’s Pashtun population showed empathy with Pashtuns (Sunni Muslims) on the other side of Durand Line, and mean while Iran started supporting non-Pashtun population of Afghanistan (Shitte Muslims).However air pollution is not a major issue in Afghanistan, but reliance of air pollution on inexpensive energy surely has generated some issues.In conclusion, five variable introduced by Mohammad Ayoob has been clearly used and noted in the history of Afghanistan.These chemicals polluted the air and wa...
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On the other hand, the Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld defended his viewpoint of military transformation at the adverse of war by giving an example of German experience during the second world war, that has he asserted indicated that a partly transformed military was able to revolutionize war.In addition it includes the military strength of that country and its ability to wage war, the social, cultural as well as political aftermaths of a war.Some other realities at the same time have come up, for example the Iraq in this current war the Iraqis were more experienced than in the first war of 1991, though not experienced (Petraeus, 2006).This essay has argued that it is important that military professions need to learn war or military...
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The borders of Afghanistan were extended to all Pashto speaking areas of modern day Pakistan.Although it has diverse ethnic and cultural landscapes, Afghanistan still is a border between South and Southwest Asia.Changing the status of Afghanistan, that it has acquired over centuries, is like denying a universal truth.Afghanistan and Pakistan: Comparative Analysis of Geo-Strategic and Geo-Political Significance, 2009.Although Afghanistan has been included in the South Asian region and there are even formal contracts, including SAARC, that cements its position in South Asia, the whole exercise looks out of context and misplaced.
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Charlie Wilson’s War is a fun and historically accurate movie that shows the difference one man can make.Every film has good moments and bad moments, although Charlie Wilson’s War is not exempt from this, it is one of the movies that almost perfectly shows the true story.I give Charlie Wilson’s War four and a half stars for the ability to stick to the truth and still keep the audience involved.The war in Afghanistan 19 years ago resulted in opposing political views in the United States each having valid reason for helping or not helping the situation in Afghanistan.In the year 1979 the Soviet Union took over the Afghan capital city of Kabul and started a war that devastated the people and land of Afghanistan.
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The withdrawal of Soviet Union from Afghanistan once again altered the geopolitical and geo strategic importance of Afghanistan.The history of Nineteenth century is consequently a history of moves and counter moves on the part of the Russians and the British Empire, which ultimately resulted in the emergence of the land locked Afghanistan as a buffer state in the demarcation of frontiers.Afghanistan with a noticeable sizeable chunk of geometrically regular territorial configuration lies at the intersection of the Indian Sub-Continent (Pakistan), the Middle East (Iran), Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) and China (The Wakhan Corridor).Â In terms of International borders, the details are Pakistan (2430 km); Iran (936 k...
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In response to the attack on World Trade Center, the USA launched war against the terrorism on Afghanistan.Roger Burbach, BenClarke, (2002), September 11 and the U.S. War: .Roger Burbach, BenClarke, (2002), September 11 and the U.S. War: Beyond the Curtain of Smoke, City lights books, 176 pages.The IBRP states the reason and safety of the United States on war with Afghanistan.The main objective of the USA was to detain Osama and also to destroy the regime of terrorists from Afghanistan; the war on Terrorism began during the reign of Bush, the President of USA.
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• Parliament must debate Pakistan’s present relationship with the US, with particular reference to the American war in Afghanistan and operations in Pakistan.After 9/11 incident, Pakistan supported the war on terror in Afghanistan.The war has spread to every nook and corner of Pakistan.• Nonetheless, for their on global and regional interests, US-led western allies must not only increase the military and economic aid of Pakistan but also provide direct market access to Pak products on zero rate duty to help stabilise the country’s bleak economy in the wake of the war against terror.Pakistan has sacrificed the most in the ongoing war on terror; criticizing Pakistan’s efforts at national/international forum will be counter-productive to th...
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On its war against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the USA made some surprise alliances.The Gulf War demonstrated the power and influence of the USA in the global arena and it opened a new chapter in the world history.“Ironically, it was the same Laden who received full support from the USA to fight against the Soviet troops during the Cold War when Afghanistan was occupied by the USSR.People of America may have forgiven him by electing him for a second term, but history will never forgive him for his high-handedness and stubbornness, which devastated Afghanistan and Iraq beyond repair.He forced the country into a civil war, which is still going on.
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They used their communist influence in liberating nations of Eastern Europe after World War I.The Soviet Union tried to make peace with the rest of Eastern Europe even though they had been invaded by some of the Eastern Europe nations in both World War I and World War II.The 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, the Cold War, and disagreements among leaders of different countries played a role in the boycott of these Olympic Games.It is unknown how long the war lasted.Although much has changed between the United States and Russia it is not hard to see how the tension of a Cold War and a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to a boycott of the Olympics.
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Even the soil appears to be the perfect place to host something as horrible as the Afghanistan war.The detachment was maybe the only way to survive, the only way to remind himself that the War was not his reality, that his permanence in Afghanistan was just temporary, unlike reality for the Platoon.Personally, I believe that war is part of human beings and cannot be avoided, as neglecting it would imply neglecting the human nature itself.A terrible love for war .It is indeed scary, but war is natural, and I feel confident in claiming this as empirical history shows us war constancy.
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Studies have also confirmed that prior to the war migrants from Northern Afghanistan travelled to Pakistan during the winter, illustrating that seasonal migration occurred between the two countries (Stigter, 2006 from CSSR, 2005).Research on trafficking in Afghanistan is difficult due to the lack of data inherent in all areas of Afghanistan, but increasingly so due to the fear of reporting trafficking related crimes and the shame associated with such .The result of the London Conference was the Afghanistan Compact, which identified a five-year plan for Afghanistan.Economic progress in Afghanistan is occurring through the reconstruction effort, however, Afghanistan continues to be one of the least developed and poorest countries in the wo...
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In particular, he provides his unique evaluation of the situation during the war in 1989.Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History.What is more important, a comparative evaluation of the discussed book has disclosed that the history of Afghanistan is mostly unveiled through the prism of pro-Western orientation, which significantly hampers the objective evaluation of the historical facts.In particular, Being former fighter mojahedin, he expressed his original appraisal of the jihad against the Soviet Union: “[t]his was no longer a jihad, a war of liberation against the godless Soviets; it had degenerated into a conflict manipulated by outsiders, each with very different ambitions” (Farivar, 2009, p. 5).The origins of conflicts in Afgh...
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Mankind is simply an instinct-driven species and war is the consequence of our desires.Firstly, a war that is currently plastered all over the news.With issues such as climate change and population growth it is very clear that war will arise, not for greed or pride, but for survival; making it all the more brutal, it really will be ‘kill or be killed’.Not unless you assume the attacks were staged by America in order to produce ample reason for invading Afghanistan.Within the nations the people will turn on their government resulting in anarchy, civil war would not be far behind.
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If this is true than why should we and the international community continue to make commitments to a war that by some ‘iron laws of history’ is ultimately destined to end up in defeat?Broadly, therefore, the seminar on peace and stability in Afghanistan and the way ahead is built around four themes of security, governance and examination of likely future scenarios and offering recommendations for policy and strategy choices which can be made now so as to move towards a better and brighter future for Afghanistan and in effect for rest of the international community.BRIEF HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN POST 9/11 .Chapter III Brief history of Afghanistan post 9/11 .NATO and Afghanistan have recently agreed to fix 2014 as the deadline for troops wit...
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The real reasons of the war can be divided into two groups.Soviet Union’s loss in that war was one of the reasons for the following disintegration of the country.Despite the real reasons of the war, NATO, as one of the parts of the conflict, is forced to face significant challenges in the country.A lot of experts, including Chossudovsky, Griffin and Brown, believe that terrorist attacks 9/11 were only a justification for the war.War with terrorism was only a legal justification of such decision (Chossudovsky).
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Research Study on IDPs in Urban Settings – Afghanistan.Areas at lower elevations maintain an average over 100o F in the summer (“Afghanistan Profile” 6).Afghanistan: A Modern History.The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is located in southern Asia.The nations that boarder Afghanistan are Pakistan to the East and South, Iran to the West, and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the North.
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At the time of the cold was, Afghanistan being neutral, the prime minister of Afghanistan Mohammad Daud Khan plead for financial assistance from both the United States (US) and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) believing that without brisk economic growth, the country will be segregated into sever political fragments which will completely destroy the hopes of reviving an already broken country.When Afghanistan achieved independence from the British rule in 1919, Afghan leaders started modernizing Afghanistan in a very rapid and uneven pace which, to much extent, wasn’t going towards the right direction.The war economy was devastatingly informal and highly decentralized.Looking at Russia influencing Afghanistan, US started alloca...
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The basics of this ideology stem from Madrassas founded during the Soviet – Afghan war.This chapter will cover various aspects of Taliban history, highlighting the influence of ancient tribal warrior culture, the invasion by USSR leading to rise of Mujahideen, relevance of Madrassas and their religious ideology, civil war following withdrawal of USSR forces, Rise of Taliban, the downfall of Taliban and current insurgency in the Afpak region.The ISI has already drawn distinction between extremist groups focused on destabilising Pakistan and those primarily concerned with war in Afghanistan.The Communist reform package, which included drastic changes in land ownership, new taxes, compulsory education for women, and participation of ...
4987 words (12.5 pages)