From the 1978 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case to today’s Hopwood case, the challenge of race-based admissions has been played out in the court system and continues to be a controversial issue.Bowen, W. and Bok, D. (1994) The Shape of the River: Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.For example, in 1996, the University of Texas at Austin stopped using race-based admissions.Four years later Hopwood, along with four other plaintiffs, filed a lawsuit against the University of Texas Law School for reverse discrimination (Savage).The CIR also filed a lawsuit on behalf of three other White students who were denied admission to the University of Washington.
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This is a valid point especially in many urban areas where underpaid teachers teach from outdated school books.William Julius Wilson, a Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at the University of Chicago feels that any economic empowerment program for black youths should follow race neutral policies that draw the support of everyone, not just minorities.The goal of these guidelines was to ensure that the proportion of black high school graduates equaled the proportion of white graduates entering state institutions of higher learning (Moreno 6).Shelby Steel, a Stanford University Professor and black conservative thinks that the federal government should focus on fixing old public school systems instead of giving minorities a leg up late...
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Students can obtain a bachelor’s degree in biochemistry, chemistry, neurobiology, bioengineering, laboratory medicine, and MEDEX, which is for students considering a career as a physician’s assistant.Undergraduate students also have a chance to succeed at UW School of Medicine.Among these required courses, the UW School of Medicine also strongly recommends that a student complete courses in ethics, human anatomy and physiology, and embryology while in their undergraduate studies.The University of Washington School of Medicine is a prime and remarkable institute in which an individual can transform into a bona fide physician.UW School of Medicine, along with its rigorous curriculum and detailed admissions process, has a diverse and superb...
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One example is Dexter Manley, former professional football player for the Washington Redskins.(Dolinsky) The way that a majority of these student athletes gain admissions is through “special admit” programs designed by the school to accept a group of applicants who do not meet the standard criteria.Contrary to what legacy defenders argue, it is doubtful that dropping legacy preferences has any significant impact on donations to a university.(Golden) Legacy students are also thought to better understand the sense of tradition of the university and embody the values that the university has traditionally supported.It is giving an advantage to students who are probably are not in great need of it if their parents attended a prestigious unive...
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Also important are: the character of the school, formal and informal opportunities for joint degrees if the law school is part of a university, library facilities, and placement record.It emphasizes the acquisition of broad and basic knowledge of law, understanding of the functioning of the legal system, and reflects the conviction that such an education is the best kind of preparation for the diverse roles that law school graduates occupy in American life and for the changing nature of the problems any individual lawyer is likely to encounter over a long career.Qualification for Foreign Lawyers and Law Graduates Some US legal study at an ABA-approved law school is required for a candidate with foreign credentials to sit the bar exam in ...
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It is not due to their SAT scores, their involvement in high school activities, or their grade point averages.However, the question that is posed to many college and university leaders is: Does a culturally diverse student body improve the learning environment more than the best possible students would?"Interview with John Yoo."School leaders in favor of affirmative action use racial diversity or economic reasons to support their stance.The heated subject has again come to the forefront due to the recent bans imposed on affirmative action by California and Washington.
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Davenport University Library.It is in use to help minorities get equal treatment in admissions policies for big businesses and higher educational programs.Davenport University Library.Davenport University Library."University of California's Ban on Affirmative Action to be Investigated."
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Instead of blacks being discriminated, the white people are now the ones being discriminated because of racial preferences given to black people in school admission policies and employment opportunities.The same goes for school admission policies where minorities are being given a higher preference over white people in order to maintain a diverse student body.Another issue that rises with affirmative action is that minority groups may gain an image of inferiority since the whites may think that a black student was able to enter the university or a black person is able to get a job only because of affirmative action even if the black person has all the necessary qualifications (Hoffman).The Supreme Court has handed out its decision in the...
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“Affirmative Actions; Colleges Rulings Add Insult to Injury; .“Affirmative Ambiguity.” The Washington Post.Thernstrom, Abigail.Samuelson, Robert.By 1978 the first controversy in college admissions arose in the Bakke v. Regents of the University of California case.
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"Homepage | University of Washington."I have chosen Cleveland University because it is a new place I have not yet explored and the environment is absolutely gorgeous.The schools I have chosen are City College of San Francisco, Cleveland University, and University of Washington Seattle.Also there’re certain courses to take throughout high school; 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 3 years of social studies, 2 years of world languages, and 1 year of performing arts.Cleveland State University.
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As a result of the ruling, the State of Texas implemented a ban on the consideration of race in college admissions.Affirmative action in college admissions remains a necessity.In 1998, State of Washington also implemented a ban on all forms of affirmative action.The initial goal of affirmative action was to mandate employers to take “affirmative steps” to ensure that discrimination was eliminated in the workplace, but affirmative action policies soon carried over into the college admissions process....consideration of race in the college admissions process.
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Joseph Robinson ends his reflection with something that I believe we all should express and that is, “I only hope that as this perpetual fight to establish a true community continues; and I exhibit similar courage in affirming and securing the rights provided to me and all citizens of this great nation” (2004. p.34).According to Lenneal Henderson, a National Civic Review contributor, “All of these cases addressed the constitutionality of racial segregation in public scho... .... middle of paper ... .Brown v. the Board of Education was finally appealed to the Supreme Court in 1954 after the District Court ruled against the parent’s complaints that the schools were not equal.We live in a country now that is always striving to create equali...
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I have asked our attorneys for their full and undivided support in defending diversity at the University of Michigan” (Lewin).For her part, University of Michigan president Mary Sue Coleman expressed her intention to continue the fight for a diversified campus.After the Supreme Court came out with its ruling, Ward Connerly, a black who formerly served as regent of the University of California immediately announced his intention to place a voter’s initiative on the ballot.The result was a considerable drop in the admissions of minority students at the University of Michigan.They took the university to court for allegedly granting illegal preference to minority students in the undergraduate admissions.
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"Eight states currently ban race based affirmative action at all public universities [they are] California, Washington, Michigan, Nebraska, Arizona, and Oklahoma all passes bans through voter referenda" (California Affirmative Action).If kids had equal opportunities there would be no need for affirmative action.Perhaps one way to fix the problem would be to start before kids go to college.The last possible way to fix discrimination in college would be to take incidents of racial discrimination more seriously on college campuses.It 's something that surely needs to be corrected so that people can have an equal opportunity in college.
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Philadelphia, New Society Publishers: 1996 .Well affirmative action is, in plain text, the consideration of your class, race, gender, color, ethnicity, national origin, and disability when deciding who gets a certain job or admission into a school.Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.________________ .Affirmative Action, UCLA School of Law Affirmative Action Outreach, Education and Organizing Project.
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Publication: Berkeley University of California Press, 2007.With all the data showing that minorities and the fiscally improvised are at disadvantages before they even send an application to a college admission board due to exams like these would in not make more sense to just look at what a student has done over 12 years of school and not what they did in 3 hours of their lives with pencil?The College Board now allows you to choose what set of scores you wish to send to each school.Compass Series (Washington, D.C.) Publication: Washington, D.C. National Academy Press, 1999 Print.Two professors think they have the solution, Dr. Sigal Alon of Tel Aviv University in Israel and Dr. Marta Tienda of Princeton University believe that “eliminati...
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The next case, Gratz v. Bollinger, followed the same lines only dealing with University admissions as opposed to the Law School admission process.The first case, Grutter v. Bollinger, deals with a white applicant who was rejected admission to the University of Michigan’s Law School.She sued on the grounds that the Law School admission process violated the Fourteenth Amendment by using race as a factor; however, the Court held that in fact, the Law School did not violate any Amendment (Rose3).Cornell University Law School, n.d.In other words, the University cannot simply award points based on race when it i... .
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“Lies, Damn Lies and Racial Statistics.” Time.Some people believe that instigating affirmative action in the college admissions process would create a diverse education.Krauthammer, Charles.“Affirmative Actions; Colleges Rulings Add Insult to Injury; Court’s Upholding of Admissions Preference Glosses Over Need for Better Early Schooling.” The Los Angeles Times.Paul Gaston, a university professor who has taught for more than 40 years, witnessed the changes on campus and claimed that “befo... ... middle of paper ... ... affirmative action likes a wheelchair for the un-needing.
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Right after the Hopwood case, the minority population in the University of Texas went down by 90% for blacks and 60% for Hispanics, creating an almost white student filled university.In the case of the University of Texas, the grade point average (GPA) required to enter the school was lower for Blacks and Hispanics as compared to the grade point average required for white applicants.However, after two years, the Appellate court decided to reverse the decision based on the fact that the Supreme Court believed that “the University of Texas School of Law may not use race as a factor in deciding which applicants to admit in order to achieve a diverse student body, to combat the perceived effects of a hostile environment at the law school, to...
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As Lino Graglia, a professor of law at the University of Texas says “It is not possible to compensate for an injury to A, inflicted in the past by B, by giving today a benefit to C at the expense of D.” (Grapes 38) These opponents feel that affirmative action is unconstitutional because while it tries to right disparities between groups, it works (sometimes negatively) on individuals.E. J. Dionne Jr., a writer for the Washington Post sums up the scarcity situation concisely: .Washington Post .April 2, 2003, Washington Post A1.Thomas cites the all-black basketball team at Georgetown University, which is a mostly white university.
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Especially, in the case of the University of Michigan‘s use of Affirmative Action in the acceptance of students.“The university is unapologetic about its use of race in admissions.29 Oct. 2000. .Carl Cohen is the professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan and has been since 1955.The university is going against this amendment all the way in their admission policies.
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It is these students who are the first to lose their chances because they are the first to be discarded when kids from affluent neighbourhoods, with their financial opportunities and better school education behind, can win their way into the university of their choice much more easily.The Michigan Bar Journal .In one notorious case, “the University of Michigan denied admission in 1995 to a white undergraduate applicant named Jennifer Gratz” (Liu 2002:B01).University of Michigan’s admission policies have aroused a great deal of controversy.Considering applicants from the viewpoint of their race, University of Michigan treats them unfairly.
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The law does not support racial discrimination, so any denial to be admitted to the university should not be interpreted to mean racial segregation.The top ten percent law is blind to race, socioeconomic status and the educational background of the parents and therefore, it is bound to provide opportunity in practice.This law serves as a transition from a race-based policy that had been in use known as the affirmative action.Every citizen deserves equal protection under the law regardless of their race or their geographical locations.Therefore, the top ten percent law in Virginia is constitutional.
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This training has been provided by the Panthéon-Sorbonne University since 2000, by the University of Lorraine since 2006, by the University of Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-la-Défense since 2009, by the University of Paris-Descartes since 2010, by the Federal University of Toulouse-Midi-Pyrénées since 2011, by the University of Évry-Val-d'Essonne since 2013, by the University Panthéon-Assas since 2014, by the University of Angers as well as that of Paris XIII (Villetaneuse) since 2015 and by the University of Grenoble-Alpes since 2016. .The courses are given in the premises of the Toulouse Capitole law faculty, as well as in those of the Toulouse School of Economics.The double degree in law and economics at the Panthéon-Sorbonne University was es...
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Most commerce colleges in India offer the following subjects: Business economics: This would cover concepts like the laws of demand and supply, law of returns, elasticity, theory of pricing under different market forms etc.Generally admission to this program is offered on the basis of Interview and past academic record.): This is pre doctoral program offered by various university departments.The minimum eligibility criterion for admission into this program is M. .Business law: This subject would discuss the different laws in India relating to, among others, the Companies Act and the Consumer Protection Act.
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At Gonzaga law school, a Christian pro-life group was defunded and forced off campus because it denied non-Christians leadership roles (Gonzaga).This case seems strange for Gonzaga as it is a Jesuit Catholic private university.At Washington State University Ed Swan, a graduate student in the College of Education, was forced to attend diversity training and was nearly forced out of the program due to the conservative viewpoints that he held (Geranios).Gonzaga University: Refusal to Recognize Christian Pro-Life Club.At the University of Colorado, ethnic studies professor Ward Churchill was fired in part for making some extreme comments about the victims of the 9/11 attacks (Morson).
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She sued alleging that the university rejected her based on race to keep the school diverse.Also promoting diversity in the school improves people’s social education so when they go out into the real world they can handle any type of relationships.According to Thomas, “there is no compelling state interest in Michigan maintaining an elite law school, due to the fact that a number of states do not have law schools, let alone elite ones.Basically it is constitutional because the school wanted to promote school diversity, which can improve an individual’s social education, not race discrimination.For example in education, schools are allowed by law, so it is de jure discrimination, to use affirmative action to increase the opportunity of th...
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He claims that there is a vicious circle in regards to university financing.This not only guarantees the student to pick a college based on his own personal preferences not on what school offers him the most money, but it also reduces tuition increases that normally come about as a result of governmental subsidies.As a result of the affirmative action, Vedder would get rid of the admission programs that were entirely based on race; this would help solve the retention problems at some schools because instead of having students choosing schools for the wrong reason, they would attend a school that fit them the best.Washington D.C.Perhaps a look should be done at the secondary level of education in relation to the university studies.
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Bakke had felt that he had been discriminated against and maintained that his rejection violated the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment, so he took the University of California Regents to the Supreme Court of California.Allan Bakke, a white applicant, had been denied admission twice to the University of California Medical School at Davis, while less qualified minority students were being accepted.Jerry Kang, a professor at University of California at Las Angeles, defends affirmative action stating that it “allows for social interaction in an otherwise [racially] segregated world, which in turn allows us to break down our misconceptions and prejudices.” Kang as well as other advocates argue that there is substantial value...
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The court ruled that race was a legitimate factor in school admissions, but quotas were unconstitutional.In one of the cases, a student was denied admission into Michigan’s law school.In the case of the University of California v. Bakke, a white student, Allen Bakke, sued the university for reverse discrimination under the Fourteenth Amendment.In the 1996 case of Hopwood v. University of Texas Law School, the court ruled that the Bakke decision was invalid and that the school’s affirmative action admissions policy was suspended.Where in one situation, such as a being admitted to college as a freshman, affirmative action gives me an upper hand, if I were to take that same argument to get into medical school, affirmative action just might ...
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