William Paley and David Hume’s argument over God’s existence is known as the teleological argument, or the argument from design.Hume takes on the approach of arguing against the argument of design, while Paley argues for it.New York: Oxford University Press, Inc, 2008. .Throughout this essay I will be examining arguments with reference to their work from Paley’s “The Watch and the Watchmaker” and Hume’s “The Critique of the Teleological Argument”.He applies the idea that since a designer must have created this stone, this designer must have created other things just like how a watch is created by a watchmaker.
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Rather, each succeeding watchmaker laid his improvements upon the foundations of his predecessor.The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design.Now imagine another watchmaker who always painted his stick before sticking it in the sand.As the evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins wrote: "...however many ways there may be of being alive, it is certain that there are vastly more ways of being dead, or not alive" (Watchmaker 9).in Dawkins Watchmaker 4-5).
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This was the argument that went against the ontological argument that would be further discussed and evaluated in another part of this paper.This was presented as an argument against the argument of Design as the inference from the existence of living organism to the existence of the supreme designer was not seen as parallel to the watchmaker and his watch illustration.Under this argument, the assumption was that God was a perfect being.The argument for a general pattern for order was called the teleological argument (Swineburne 133).The argument of Design or the Watch argument was also offered as a proof for God’s existence.
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Wilks and Taylor, London Owen, H. P. “Concepts of Deity”.This world view is put in an analogy called the watchmaker god, wherein God is the watchmaker and the watch is the entire universe.The watchmaker God analogy is used for explaining the existence of God.“Transcendentalism: And Other Addresses”.An essayist, poet, and a philosopher, Emerson’s argument became popular in the mid 1900s.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY Paley, W. "Natural Theology", Chapters I and II, 1802 Hume, D. "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion", 1779 Dawkins, R. "The Blind Watchmaker", 1986 Sober, E. "Creationism", 1993 Leslie, J."The Evidence of Fine Tuning", 1989 Bibliography: BIBLIOGRAPHY Paley, W. "Natural Theology", Chapters I and II, 1802 Hume, D. "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion", 1779 Dawkins, R. "The Blind Watchmaker", 1986 Sober, E. "Creationism", 1993 Leslie, J.It is attempted in this paper to firstly: show that the argument should be rejected on the grounds of lacking a rationally flowing set of premises and conclusions; and secondly: that the criticisms made by David Hume concerning the argument hold more weight than is generally granted by othe...
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Each team has two speakers and one scribe.In a debate, each team presents a different side of the argument.In policy debate, the rebuttal speeches are the last four speeches.In order to debate an argument, you need to know both the pros and cons of the issue.Rebuttal speeches must address arguments made in the constructive speeches.
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Dawkins presents a completely separate and plausible explanation to the complexity of nature.I believe that Dawkins has stronger, better supported evidence to support his side than Paley has to support his.His explanation of cumulative selections illustrates how a simple organism could develop into the complex structures we see today.The basic idea behind this metaphor is that if you came across a watch on a path and observed the intricate way that that different parts work together, you would assume that it was created by a watchmaker.First, the watchmaker metaphor.
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My rebuttal to this argument is that the number of men and women producing human items are low, ranging from 10 to 20 percent (U.S. News & World Report), plus most of those that are affected with issues of sterility can have something done to help aid childbirth.My rebuttal here is if the guardian (or guardians) allow the clone to thrive and flourish, separately from the cloned individual, then it wouldn’t be raised in the shadows.Third argument for why human cloning is morally impermissible, is that cloned human beings would be raised as shadows to the cloned individual.My rebuttal here is the same as the first, it’ll happen only if we allow it to happen.Now that we explained the side of why cloning is morally impermissible, let’s t...
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Cross-applyarguments you made somewhere else in the debate toanswer it.Duration Constructive Speech: Minimum of five (5) and maximum of seven (7) minutesInterpellation: Five (5) minutesRebuttal Speech: Three (3) minutesSUR- Rebuttal: Three (3) minutes •7.Three Speakers fromeach sideRebuttal of the Team Captainof the Affirmative SideSUR- Rebuttal of the Team Captainof the Negative Side .Rules on Rebuttal SpeechA.What matters is the type of argument that is extended or dropped in rebuttals-this will determine the winner of the round.
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Essentially, an argument depends on research (evidence) and finding flaws in opposing viewpoints (rebuttal).A simple formula for logos in an argument is claim + evidence = credible argument.Argument and Rhetoric An argument can take many forms.Consensual (Rogerian) Argument The consensual or Rogerian method is based on the notion that many contentious issues, subjects, problems, etc.The structure below is a basic outline of how a classic argument is constructed.
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The teleological argument is also known as the argument from design.years, creatures could of developed muscles that gave them th... .yet replicated the movements of our hands successfully after years of .trying so what are the chances of it happening by chance?mathematical point of view, slim.
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Just the fact that the word legal is used weakens the argument, which should have only spoken about precedents trying to avoid any issue of legality.It should have been built upon to create a stronger argument that legitimized corporations as moral decision-making agents on its own.This argument equaled the moral state of a corporation to that of a mob, who French explicitly said was amoral, thus completely delegitimizing the foundation of the propositions case with the use of the affirmatives team’s own sources.Moreover, mentioning that law does not require companies to weigh in morality of their decisions completely limits any argument the affirming side could say with the exception of the transitive property.The third speaker reiterat...
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Line of Argument 1 .Rebuttal (one paragraph) their definition/opposition and why it’s wrong Conclusion- restate main ideas of argument.Line of Argument 3 .Thesis statement, background, lines of argument, rebuttal, conclusion Classical argument structure = outline .Predict opposition to your argument.
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In the Anglo-Saxon world, the argument of the great watchmaker is developed and popularized by the Reverend William Paley in his Natural Theology (1802).This is the famous argument of the great watchmaker or the great architect that the complexity of nature implies the existence of God in the same way that the existence of a clock implies that of a watchmaker.The irreducible complexity argument is a descendant of the teleological proof of the existence of God.Although it was rejected as a scientific theory in Dover's trial, at the end of which the court ruled that “Professor Behe's thesis on irreducible complexity has been refuted by scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals, and has been rejected by the scientific communit...
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(from The Center for Learning) .The second two-minute period will be used for rebuttal.At the close of the debate, the rating will be collected, added, and the results announced.11-12.RL.1, 11-12.RL.3, 11-12.RL.7, 11-12.W.1, 11-12.W.9, 11-12.SL.1, .In the first two-minute period they will present their argument.
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Bennett takes the arguments of the other side and mostly just dismisses them without analyzing them.Each author 's argument is influenced by either the inclusion or omission of the argument of the opposing side at varying instances.Each author goes about addressing rebuttal arguments in varying ways, providing insight into the strength and validity of his own argument.Bennett 's article focuses on the same specifics of society, such as fidelity and the definition of marriage, as his is written as a rebuttal to Sullivan 's, explaining how legalizing gay marriage would greatly impact society for the worse.The way Bennett addressed the opposition did not refute them with evidence, only claims, so there must be some validity to those counte...
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Explain the notion of sameness and explain why the argument is valid.However, identity theorists disagree with the above statements and may provide a rebuttal to such arguments written above on the basis of different concepts underlying physical states.Then explain a rebuttal an identity theorist could use to object to the argument.Therefore this furthers the dualist argument that physical state of the brain and mental state of the mind are loosely connected and not identical.At first, the notion of sameness seems to provide create a clear distinction of the mental and physical states, but this notion is quickly refuted with the identity theorist argument that multiple concepts coexist within the unitary physical state.
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It is easy to look at Epicurus’s argument and think it to be sensical.Once you break down badness into its intrinsic and extrinsic badness, it is obvious that death can be extrinsically bad for someone.Epicurus’s Death argument is very simple, and thus can be hard to refute.His argument can be reconstructed more clearly as follows: .Death deprived Jim of better things in life, therefore it was extrinsically bad.
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After reading Reagan’s speech, the prospect of stem cell therapy sounded promising and I was left wanting to find out more information about the specifics to his broad claims about “the future of medicine.” Following up with Doerflinger’s rebuttal, however, immediately made me much more skeptical and less optimistic about Reagan’s argument.His argument, caused me to question Reagan’s agenda; it made me realize that there is more to the embryonic stem cell debate than simply treating and curing disease.In all, each piece not only offered separate viewpoints but also exemplified alternate methods of presenting a rebuttal argument.While Doeflinger’s response is concise and piercing, it does fairly characterize Reagan’s argument.Additionally...
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A rebuttal of this point might simply note that the majority of climatologists still subscribe to global warming as a viable theory, and Patterson is still yet to present any evidence to support his assertions.By framing the argument so dramatically, Patterson draws a visible distinction to whom his intended audience may be: those who already agree with his position and are looking for solidarity in their own opinions, as well as those on the fence or who have a neutral opinion on the validity of global warming.The author’s argument continues on to present this perceived hysteria of global warming as not only a potentially viable threat to humankind and the institutions that have enabled it to thrive, but one that is evidently on the dec...
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REBUTTALS NEGATIVE .When people feel happy, they tend to feel confident, optimistic, and energetic and others find them likable and sociable.” .Professor Sonja Lyubomirsky, of the University of California, Riverside reviewed questions And studies such as “Are happy people more successful than unhappy people?Don’t take the wrong side of an argument just because your opponent has taken the right one.Lyubomirsky suggests “this may be because happy people frequently experience positive moods and these positive moods prompt them to likely work actively toward new goals and build new resources.
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Boston: Thomson- Heinle.This argument is based upon untrue facts .Peter Brimelow’s “Thank You for Smoking” is a misleading argument which has very little precise evidence and illustrates a weak argument.His rebuttal to this is comparing smoking with driving.Brimelow’s rebuttal talks about the Surgeon General and how he has determined smoking is not at all dangerous to your health.
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The argument does not show that all various causal series in the universe ultimately merge, thus they never really rule out the notion of a plurality of first causes.Ontological Argument The Ontological Argument, which argues from a definition of God’s being to his existence, is the first type of argument we are going to examine.Teleological Argument The next type of argument is called the Teleological Argument, or the argument from design.This discovery caused defenders of the Teleological argument to reform their argument focusing now on probability.Critics of the causal argument criticize it on other points as well.
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main point that the Design Argument claims is the fact that everything .The Design Argument for the Existence of God .The basis and structure towards the Design Argument is all about a .Unlike the cosmological argument, the Design Argument .abilities, however the reason why is the subject of another essay.
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controversial as the argument can not fully grant us a link between .The argument says that things in the world move .The teleological argument is .conclude that it was made by a watchmaker because of its obvious .The Design Argument for the Existence of God .
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In his work on logic and argument, The Uses of Argument, Stephen Toulmin indicates three major, necessary parts of an argument, along with three additional, optional parts.Rebuttal: When making an argument, you must take into consideration other conflicting viewpoints and deal with them fairly.You need to answer questions and objections raised in the minds of the audience; if you fail to do so, your own argument will be weakened and subject to attack and counter-argument.Not every one of these is used in every argument, but only as need arises.These additional elements of argument may be added to our visual representation as follows: Appendix H.02 .
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However, the amorous connotation of "sport" in line two fits well with the romantic couplet, which serves as a rejection of the suggestions of the rest of the sonnet, and instead seems to suggest that the young man be content to restrain himself for the love of the poet.New York: Norton, 2000."Perhaps this implies that Shakespeare is among the people who "say [his] grace is youth and gentle sport" (2)."""The Norton Anthology of English Literature."26 Feb." 2001."
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Likewise, the evidences and arguments of Lomborg were too general for the particular situations he has included.Place of publication: Publisher.Last name of author, initial of first name.There were different concerns raised to support this basic argument where it evolved mainly on the population growth, food shortage, land conversion, deforestation, and extinction of species.He took on general examples and applied this to situations that warrant a deeper understanding for the experience may not be the same.
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world and merely observe it from a distance (like a watchmaker winding .Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) had a version of the Cosmological Argument .The Cosmological Argument attempts to prove that God exists by showing .called the Argument from Motion.Cosmological Argument .
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Rebuttal: It is important to realize that most opposite-sex marriages are not monogamous.The brief by Hawaii’s Future Today, also stated that the government has a compelling interest in “the historical and time-honored protection of traditional marriage as the fundamental structure in Hawaiian society that advances basic societal goals and values.” Rebuttal: The status quo in North America has shifted since 2003-JUN-10.Rebuttal: While it is true that conservative religious groups condemn homosexual behavior, refuse to conduct union or marriage ceremonies for same-sex couples, and refuse to ordain active homosexuals to the clergy, this is not true of all faith groups.Rebuttal: With a divorce rate approaching 50%, a large minority of child...
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