Central building cooling options include water chillers and direct-expansion (DX) A/C units.Input (Energy Consumed – KW) • (KW1) Compressor Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts, or KW • (KW2) Condenser Water Pump Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts or KW • (KW3) Cooling Tower Fan Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts or KW • (KW4) Chiller Control System Feeder Circuit – Amps @ Volts or KW • (KW5) Transmission Oil Pump Motor and Oil Heater– Amps @ Volts or KW (Note: Chilled water pump drive motor is not considered apart of the power input) Output (Cooling Capacity Delivered – Tons) • (TS) Chilled Water Supply Temperature – °F • (TR) Chilled Water Return Temperature – °F • (FCW) Chilled Water Flow Rate Gallons/Minute – GPM Chiller Performance = Total KW Input/Tons Outp...
1183 words (3.0 pages)
Poor Î” T performance at cooling coils means lost cooling capacity, wasted energy, extra cost and added complexity for a thermal utility, its chilled water customers, or both.Outcome of diversity in cooling load among buildings can be taken advantage of by using district cooling plant to serve groups of buildings.Water and chemical requirements are not applicable for air cooled chiller package, since cooling tower is removed and chilled water system being a closed system the makeup water requirements are irrelevant to consider in costing.But in the industrial sector, commercial cooling systems are expanded to comprise of process cooling and function on two shifts or around the clock... High cooling load demand and density are predominan...
4152 words (10.4 pages)
Performance can be described by varying flow conditions of the sealant water and cooling water supplied to the liquid ring pump and taking pressure and temperature measurements accordingly.As the behaviour of inlet air mass flowrate, sealant water flowrate, suction pressure, compression work and pumping speed showed almost identical trends for different cooling water flowrates, an average of the four measurements were used.To calibrate the air flowrate across the orifice plate, the cooling water flowrate was kept constant and the pressure drop across the manometers were taken for 10-70 number of turns on Valve 11.6 for varying cooling water flowrates.Figure 8: The average inlet air mass flowrate for varying cooling water flowrates was pl...
4956 words (12.4 pages)
Ceiling radiant cooling panels as a viable distributed parallel sensible cooling technology integrated with dedicated outdoor air systems.Therefore, the correlation for the natural convection heat transfer coefficient can be used to estimate panel cooling capacity instead of the mixed convection correlation for low velocities.DIN 4715, Cooling surfaces for rooms; Part 1: Measuring of the performance with free flow.Consequently, engineers have been underestimating the panel cooling capacity in mechanically ventilated spaces by from 5% to 35%.Standard testing of cooling panels and their use in system planning.
2121 words (5.3 pages)
Solar tracking systems and heating and cooling systems are defined in this report.This system provides both heating and cooling for the houses.In addition to this, this system is very efficient for our solar tracker with use in heating and cooling systems in the houses.It has been found some sources for the literature survey about the solar tracker systems and heating & cooling systems.The whole system is driven by the microcontroller.The water pump sends the water from the water tank to the boiler.
2564 words (6.4 pages)
All the pre-checks of the engine are conducted such as SAE 20w40 oil is filled in the oil sump up to needed level using a stick that is made specially for this purpose, data cable is connecting unit of interfering with the computer, flow of water is set accordingly through rota-meters.Water is made to flow against in indirect contact with gas that comes from exhaust and there is a rota-meter and valve to control the rate of flow of this water.Another major advantage it gives over gasoline engine is by producing low waste in exhaust and cooling .Different rota-meters has been arranged to calculate flow of water to calorimeter of exhaust gas and to the engine jacket.It has specific heat capacity of 1.267 J/kg (gas) and of 2.619 J/kg (liqui...
3186 words (8.0 pages)
By controlling the engine cooling system in a flexible way as compare to the conventional cooling system, it will improve the fuel consumption rate of spark ignition (SI) engines .If this rust become denser, it can interfere the passage of cooling liquid in the car cooling system.Air cooling system is a system that uses air as a cooling agent.Engine cooling system is a system that responsible for cooling the engine by releasing heat through the cooling fins so that the carâ€™s engine is not too hot or not too cold.The coolant in the cooling system starts to initiate by picking up heat at the water jackets.
5186 words (13.0 pages)
Also, conversion of the existing air-cooled chiller plant to water-cooled chiller plant takes up more spaces as the additional air-conditioning equipment including cooling towers, condensing water pumps, water tanks, condensing water pipes, etc.The system COP under the optimal control could increase by 1.4% to 16.1% when compared with the equivalent system of fixed temperature and flow rate control for the cooling water leaving the cooling towers.For conventional operation of cooling towers, the fans are cycled on and off, or controlled at variable speed to maintain the temperature of cooling water leaving the tower at its set point.Appropriate cooling tower system design, regular and proper maintenance including water treatment to the c...
2023 words (5.1 pages)
What’s more, electric fans require less power to operate (for improved fuel economy and performance), they’re quieter, and they allow more precise control over cooling.-Radiator hoses must be the correct size,material,and be kept in good repair.The upper and lower radiator hoses must be large enough to handle the maximum flow of coolant when the thermostat is fully open.The smaller heater hoses divert a portion of the coolant to and from the heater core.Additionally,the hoses must be of the specified type of material for high pressure,high temperature systems.Always inspect the hoses for any sign of damage when you service a cooling system.The rubber material of hoses becomes brittle and cracked form the severe heat of engine compartment...
2503 words (6.3 pages)
These elaborate cooling systems are nevertheless economical because they enable a much greater output from the transformer of a given size and weight.As the power rating increased, external radiators are added to increase cooling surface of the tank contains oil.Free water and solid particles, especially the latter in combination with high levels of dissolved water, tend to migrate to areas of high electric stress and dramatically reduce the breakdown voltage.The type of transformer cooling is designated by the following symbols: .For transformers in the megawatt range, cooling can be effected by the oil-water heat exchanger.
3373 words (8.4 pages)
To study the effect of water cooling on thermoelectric device in terms of peltier cooling.In spite of this cooling application are expensive and do not easy for use / fabricate, example, air conditioner, refrigerator, cooling device are produce one device and the size is not much small.The thermoelectric cooling (Peltier cooling), are generally much less performance than the mechanical refrigerant.Photo record for experience result (Water cooling for metallic conductor on Peltier Module) ..Refer to the cooling performance curve, the best of the material types is the copper metal, it can provide the high cooling capacity by means the heat energy is absorbed that is transfer to the thermoelectric device.
3920 words (9.8 pages)
Critoph, Y. Zhong, R. Thorpe (January 2009): Carbon-Ammonia pairs for adsorption refrigeration applications: ice making, air conditioning and heat pumping (14) M. Clausse, F. Meunier, J. Coulié, E. Herail (January 2009): Comparison of adsorption systems using natural gas fired fuel cell as heat source, for residential air conditioning .We could, theoretically, use any heat source to provide cooling for any cooling space.Two domes at each end of the cylinder provide the space for cooling water and exhaust gases to disperse properly and flow through each tube uniformly.This project report presents a revolutionary silica gel – water adsorption system for air conditioning in automobiles.Hence, cooling is obtained for more than half of the to...
3277 words (8.2 pages)
Cooling towers and evaporative condensers cools the warm water by allow direct contact between atmospheric air and the water.The chilled water loop, which operates both internally and externally, to the chiller should be considered as being a closed cooling water system which has a negligible amount of make-up.In air conditioning systems, chilled water is typically distributed to heat exchangers, or coils, in air handling units, or other type of terminal devices which cool the air in its respective space(s), and then the chilled water is re-circulated back to the chiller to be cooled again.Fig 2.1 Cooling Tower Operation .. Cooling tower systems reduce the temperature of water by conduction and evaporation.Inhibitor dosage systems there...
4834 words (12.1 pages)
The crystals were collected on a watch glass and allowed to air dry.Acetic Anhydride and p-Aminophenol were heated in a vial attached to an air condenser to synthesize crude acetaminophen, resulting in 0.097 grams (47.48% yield).Cooling the mixture in an ice bath ensures that all crystals have formed, and drying removes any remaining solvent.Acetaminophen crystallizes slowly, so cooling the mixture adequately is necessary.The crude acetaminophen was then recrystallized in a solvent of water and methanol over heat resulting in 0.082 grams (39.61% yield) of pure acetaminophen.
1069 words (2.7 pages)
Newer high-efficiency window units use the condensed water to help cool the condensing coils (warm side) by evaporating the water into the outdoor air, while older units simply allowed the water to drip outside.The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration.When the temperatures are the same, no net evaporation of water in air occurs, thus there is no cooling effect.In an interior space cooling unit, the evaporated water is introduced into the space along with the now-cooled air; in an evaporative tower the evaporated water is carried off in the airflow exhaust.Since the saturation vapor pressur...
4179 words (10.4 pages)
Yuill, David, Andrew, Coward, Gregor, Henze, 2010, Performance comparison of control methods for tankless water heaters, HVAC & R Research 16.5: 677 .Bourgeois, Matt, et al, 2010, Tax incentives of going green, The CPA Journal, 80.11: 18+ .UN Environment Programme, 2011, Advanced Materials & Processes 169.8:17 .Although it is hard to establish a universal system design due to the differences in building design, HVAC (heating ventilating and cooling) units are becoming more efficient then they were in the past.Modern day systems can intelligently pump air into rooms based on occupancy, thus eliminating the need to cool or heat an unoccupied room and dramatically reducing the cost of cooling and the demand on the power grid (Demetr...
433 words (1.1 pages)
When sun is shining the water is released from the ground and it cools the surface and also the air by providing humidity.Radiative cooling is “the process by which a body releases heat”  .Consequently, the air temperature in the city during night is maintained at a high level while in suburbs it is cooling down.A coastal city may experience cooling of urban temperature as well as cities in cold or temperate climates.Clouds reduce radiative cooling as they increase humidity level and also bring precipitations.
2291 words (5.7 pages)
At night, radiation cooling take effect to cool the air temperature and fog forms again.As you step outside into the humid, warm and moist air, water vapors condenses onto the glasses forming fog.When the air is polluted, water vapors condenses upon hygroscopic particles when the relative humidity is lower than 100%.Once the fog stops forming the amount of water vapor will begin to decrease which will also decrease dewpoint.Moist air from your mouth meets the cold air outside and mixes with it.
1641 words (4.1 pages)
This has dual advantage: it functions as a low running cost for air cooling, and (if ground water is relatively stagnant) it cranks up the temperature of the ground source, which improves the energy efficiency of the heat pump system by roughly 4 percent for each degree in temperature rise of the ground source.For example, when an air cooling need can be matched to a water heating load, a single heat pump can serve two useful purposes.hybrid (or twin source) heat pumps: when outdoor air is above 4 to 8 Celsius, (40-50 Fahrenheit, depending on ground water temperature) they use air, when air is colder, they use the ground source.Domestic hot water (DHW) and radiators require high water temperatures, affecting the choice of heat pump techn...
4817 words (12.0 pages)
With good thermal properties, they provide better engine cooling and less variation in viscosity.Very few water-cooled engines use just water as the cooling fluid in the water jackets; this is because the water has a freezing temperature of 0°C which is unacceptable as coolant in colder regions, so additives are usually used for better performance.Some of the water vapor in the exhaust products condenses in the crankcase, and the resulting liquid water adds to the contaminants.Although water has very good heat transfer properties, but when used alone, it causes rust and corrosion in many of the pipes of the cooling system.This is because if there is no air flow through the air conditioning condenser, the air conditioner will not be able ...
5184 words (13.0 pages)
All skin temperature observed significant change throughout the cooling experimentation, as shown in Figure 2, suggesting that in order to inhibit further heat loss, peripheral vasoconstriction and convection occurred as blood was redirected internally in maintaining core and vital organ temperature.Cooling: Significantly different from cooling value to 40min mark of control period.Extra Test The control period for the extra test commenced immediately after the completion of the cooling period during which relevant parameter values were recorded and baseline data was established, while the subjects’ legs were still immersed in water and the fan still blowing cold air.During the 40 minute cooling period immediately following the control p...
4786 words (12.0 pages)
In water conservation, hotels can use a gray water system, or a purification system to reduce water waste and reuse sewage water.If hotels use water cooled chilling units instead of air cooled chillers, they will consume a large amount of water.Among them are the three most important elements -energy conservation, water conservation and indoor air quality.Another way to improve cooling system efficiency is installing variable-frequency drives on chillers, pumps and cooling towers (Fypower).With the help of these drives, cooling system power loads can be controlled to fit hotels’ specific needs; for example, the cooling load in summer could be much high than in autumn, the cooling load could also be different between day and night.
2266 words (5.7 pages)
Figure 2.4 Heating / Cooling Curve of Oil (Ahmad Norhakimi bin Ibrihim @ Ibrahim, 2010) ..the forced circulation of oil accompanied by forced-air cooling (FOA) for 32000 kVA.The main function of transformer oil is insulating and cooling of the transformer.The type of transformer cooling is designated by the following symbols: .For still higher levels, cooling fans blow air over the radiators.
4893 words (12.2 pages)
Before putting the water in the jug the pressure inside and outside the jug were equal because the jug was at room temperature.As the water inside the jug cooled more and the air pressure lessened it created extra space as the molecules cooled.Air pressure is the force exerted on you by the weight of tiny air particles(air molecules).After the hot water was pored into the jug, it was difficult to put the lid on because it was extremely hot.After 15 minutes, I turned the can upside down and put it in the cool water.
1389 words (3.5 pages)
The chilled water is pumped through the circuit to air coolers, while the evaporated water from the ejector is recovered in separate condensers and returned to the cooling circuit.Single-effect absorption system is using neither ammonia or water while double-effect absorption system uses lithium bromide or water.Steam jet refrigeration system working start with the steam passed through a vacuum ejector of high efficiency to exhaust a separate, closed vessel which forms part of a cooling water circuit.The application of steam jet refrigeration system also including cooling a hot corrosive liquid efficiently to any desired temperature and the cooling of fruit juices instantaneously.Note that a steam jet refrigeration system is not suitable...
2854 words (7.1 pages)
Stabilize the water used by placing a gallon jug of tap water in the testing room for 3 days so it adjusts to the room temperature and humidity.The amount of evaporation depends on the temperature in the water and in the air, and the humidity and velocity of the air above the surface.Independent variables – the value being manipulated or changed in this experiment was the water temperature of the water contained in the 3 glass glasses.Since the world is made up of approximately 75% water, there is a desire to understand how increases in water temperature impacted the evaporation of water and if Global Warming could impact the world’s water base.Controlled variables – the controlled variables were the air humidity, the air speed, the room...
2702 words (6.8 pages)
A fan then blows air across the cooling coil and into the room.Water gets to be less thick as its temperature is raised hence warm water will dependably dislodge colder water whether in a shut or open circuit.The outdoor unit uses a compressor and air cooled condenser to provide cold refrigerant to a cooling coil in the indoor unit.The outside unit utilizes a compressor and air cooled condenser to give cool refrigerant to a cooling loop in the indoor unit... Part aeration and cooling system have two principle parts outside units and indoor units.
1218 words (3.0 pages)
Cumulonimbus clouds are caused by the cooling of air and volcanic eruptions are caused by built-up pressure being released.The rate unsaturated air cools is 10°C for every kilometer it rises.If air movement is generally vertical, clouds grow upward and are cumuliform clouds.Both situations also involve something hotter cooling off.The dry-adiabatic lapse rate is when the cooling is caused merely by the air’s expanding.
461 words (1.2 pages)
This reduces the demand on large water reservoirs such as rivers, lakes and oceans and saves people and communities money.Orographic rainfall Orographic rainfall is when a parcel of air containing water vapor gets to a mountain, it is then forced upwards (the mountain blocking its way).When the temperature of the rising air falls to the dew point, water vapor shrinks into thick clouds and forms convection rain.Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can come and go, in and out of theatmosphere.Human civilization has always tended to thrive near these bodies of water because of their clear advantages in transportation, drinking water, food sources and recreation.
1611 words (4.0 pages)
* A ‘wet field’ or ‘charged’ rainwater collection system allows for pipes between gutters and tank inlet to be permanently full of water and hence, keeping system moving efficiently and a domestic pressure pump pushes water along pipes and into house.* Provides regular supply for irrigation water and is not limited by water restrictions.* This technique means that when there is no grey water to be pumped into irrigation, bore water from storages are discharged when irrigation controller indicates valve-blocking water to open and allow bore water to go through pipes.* It reduces heating and cooling requirements significantly as sunlight is not directly striking rooftop and storm/rainwater runoff is slowed, allowing higher percentage of wa...
3887 words (9.7 pages)