Calculate the hardness of the prepared water sample from each of the titrations.The comparison shows that unknown water sample #55 ranged in the category of “hard” water, with the calculation sum of 23.3667 gpg.All water hardness values over 200 ppm is considered hard water.This lab will determine the hardness of water through a complexometric titration.Calculating the experimental deviation in parts per thousand (ppt) and recalculating the units to grams per gallon (gpg) allowed the comparison of water hardness to ‘Tempe expected range for municipal water hardness’.
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16) Clean the lab area .– Test tubes, several unknown compounds, conductivity testers, oil, wooden stirring sticks, water, Bunsen burner, test tube racks, goggles.* Test one: Hardness .6) Perform Test Two by getting 4 cups of 20 mL of distilled water .To start-off, the group gathered required materials, performed the tests, listed observations and cleaned the lab.
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Standardize the Na2EDTA solution using calcium ion stock solution: Add 10 mL of calcium solution to a flask, and add 30 mL’s of deionized water.Based on this information I would conclude that my unknown water sample has a high amount of metal ions present.Since the hardness of water arises from the presence of metal ions, we can use disodium salt of EDTA and the indicator Eriochrome Black T to determine the concentration of M 2+ ( Mg 2+ or Ca 2+) metal ion impurities.According to Fairfax Water, a value over 180 ppm is considered “very hard”, and according to the lab manual water with more than 200 ppm is considered hard.This is a large range but is a range that my unknown water sample would fall within.
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Sodium Hydroxide + Ethanoic acid –> Sodium Ehthanoate + Water .Furthermore, this lab helps one enhance their knowledge on the difficulty of setting up a lab.In conclusion, the result of this lab indicates that the concentration of CH3COOH is 0.910 mol dm-3.* Distilled water (to rinse the flask) .To accommodate for the sodium hydroxide that splashes to the sides of the flask, distilled water was used.
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Conclusion: In conclusion the water hardness of a solution can be found by titrating a known solution containing metal ions and using a chelating agent such as EDTA to determine the impurities of each of the water samples.Through the process of titration, carefully adding EDTA to the water sample with the Eriochrome Black T will cause a chemical reaction to occur, slowly changing the water color from pink to violet and then violet to a light blue which will be the end of the chemical reaction.This lab was about determining water hardness.The estimated precision for the unknown was 74.8% and an average water hardness of 204ppm.With the data collected calculates the hardness of each sample, then the average water hardness of all three samp...
1100 words (2.8 pages)
This lab was helpful in understanding how to cook candies, and the importance of consistency when it comes to fondants and fudges.The purpose of this lab is to understand how temperature influences the texture, and firmness of fondant, and fudge.The ingredients that were used for the fondant recipe were 200 grams of sucrose or better known as table sugar, and 118 mL of water.After performing the lab, we noticed how difficult controlled crystallization was to achieve.The 118 mL of water and 200 grams of sucrose was placed in a one quart saucepan on an induction stove top on the highest heat setting of 8, and a thermometer was placed in the pot while stirring the sugar and water with a wooden spoon.
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• Water freezes at 0oC: .By doing so, the following can be learned though the experiment: Chemical properties describe the tendencies of a substance to undergo chemical change and physical properties commonly used to characterize pure substances are color, odor, hardness, density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility in various solvents.One example was the reaction on the litmus paper and the second example was Magnesium oxide’s change into Magnesium hydroxide when introduced to water.Once all water is retracted, you can see that the salt never went through a chemical change.Using prepared lab techniques, we can make qualitative observations on the appearance, smell, and reactions of different substances.
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I believe in the transferring process some of each of the solid was lost, being stuck to the beaker, spilled on the floor or counter top or stuck to the paper towel and therefore being unaccounted for.After weighing each solid and adding the total together we noticed our final total was 5.1g and our initial weight of the mixture was 7.2g.Getting that iron onto the scale and off of the magnet was the hard part though.After reading the introduction I started by making my own flow sheet of how I thought this lab would work.With that being said I came to the conclusions that the salt would need hot water to separate from the mixture, the benzoic acid would need cold water to separate, the sand would settle on its own, and the iron filings co...
528 words (1.3 pages)
When both solutions are mixed, the paper filter that was provided with the lab must be weighed and recorded.By doing the lab and seeing the reaction between the two compounds, it was amazing to see what the reaction would be.Although it had calculations to the lab, it was completely different and required more thinking of figuring out how to solve the equations, but similar to mathematics formulas.Calculations and Errors: During the lab there were some errors that I found that might affect the final solution when trying to find the theoretical, actual and percent yield.Some of the error could be the amount of distilled water because reading the amount in a graduated cylinder is hard to see if you are exactly below or above 25 ml.
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3.1 Conclusion and Evaluation .Also, enough distilled water so I can wash equipments with it to follow the original instructions given.First of all, in order to follow the written instruction from the instruction sheets given, I had to wash equipments that made direct contact with the solution everytime I’m changing the solution that I will perform experiment upon with distilled water, but due to the lack of distilled water, I washed them with tap water instead.Improvements can be made by providing each candidate, like me, with better lab equipments such as more advanced multimeter.Moreover, this data table shows that all solutions except tap water and distilled water have the concentration of 0.5 M. In this table, some solutions’ amme...
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It is critical at this point that water does not enter the glass tube.Once the compound is secure in the beaker of water, the entire unit is placed onto the burner stand.If the water is heated too quickly, the thermometer may have a hard time keeping up with the temperate, thus displaying an inaccurate measurement.The conclusions drawn from the data found in this lab will aid in the recognition of molecules based on the properties they illustrate.During the experiment, heating the water too quickly would create inaccurate data.
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Do Sunflowers have a faster grow faster when watered with clean drinking water from the tap or with rain water collected outside?With all this evidence, it is clear that the experiment supported my hypothesis and rain water allows plants to grow faster than regular clean drinking water.Another indication is that the error bars that are shown on the graph are not as large in the rain water as they are in the tap water and also the rain water flowers heights where closer to one another than the flowers being watered in tap water.If both plants receive the same amount of water each day, then the plants receiving rain water would have a faster growth rate.Independent: the type of water, either clean drinking water from the tap.
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Placed the “5°C” test tube in an ice water bath.Added 1 ml of distilled water to each test tube.Lab Activity, Student Study Guide.1 1 Egg was solid and clear 1 Egg was breaking down and expanding, clear water .Added 1 ml of distilled water to test tube 2. .
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Some common gases released in chemical reactions include hydrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapor....meant that it contributed to the percent mass loss but it wasn’t water vapor.In the hypothesized reaction, we stated that the burning of hydrated cobalt (II) chloride would produce cobalt (II) chloride and water, in the form of gas (water vapor).We are essentially saying that in the reaction, with the release of water vapor, the final mass of our substance will be less than the initial mass of the substance.The Gravimetric Stoichiometry lab was a two-week lab in which we tested one of the fundamental laws of chemistry; the Law of Conservation of Mass.
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Conclusion: The graph of rate of reaction against concentration Na S O shows an increasing straight line of best fit, this tells us that the rate of reaction increases steadily with almost no curve in the line of best fit when concentration of Na S O is increased.Safety Goggles, to protect your eyes from the harmful chemicals, if something does get in your eye wash it quickly with clean water then report it too the teacher Lab coat, this is in case any chemicals are spilt, this will protect from the harmful ones.Measure out 20cm of Na S O with 20cm of water for the first reading, it will always add up to 40cm so as to keep a fair test, use the 5 cm measuring cylinder for this.I don’t feel the evidence is fully reliable, because there ar...
1207 words (3.0 pages)
This shows how the onion cells had high water potential and moved to the area outside the cell with lower water potential.5) Water will diffuse out of the bag since the water potential is higher in the bag and water moves from areas of higher water potential to areas of lower water potential.The red blood cells would increase in size because water is moving from the area of higher water potential (the distilled water) to the area of lower water potential (the red blood cells) until dynamic equilibrium is reached.10) The distilled water would have a higher concentration of water molecules and would also have a higher water potential.Then, after adding water back to the cells, water would have moved back into the cells increasing turgor pr...
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* One hundred milliliter graduated cylinder/ten milliliter graduated cylinder: measuring water and enzyme amounts.May refer back to background information to help explain the conclusion of the lab.Type of Solution| Positive or Negative Glucose Result| Test tube A: milk and enzyme solution| | Test tube B: milk and water| | Test tube C: milk and denatured enzyme solution| | Test Tube D: sucrose solution and enzyme solution| | Test Tube E: sucrose solution and water| | | Conclusion and Questions: 1.Water: used for dissolving the lactase tablet, dissolving the sucrose and boiling the lactase.In test tube E add two milliliters of the sucrose solution and one milliliter of water.
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Conclusion: In completing this lab, the problem posed earlier can be easily answered.Throughout the lab, there was only one problem experienced.The skills and knowledge gained from this lab enabled us to better understand life’s biological processes.Lastly, to rid the lab of any weaknesses, the procedure would have to be changed to access and outline the wide array of variables that must be controlled to assure the validity of the data.In following the procedure outlined in the AP lab manual, there were no problems stemming from the procedure itself that would have potentially challenged the results gathered.
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HYPOTHESIS: In your own words, write a hypothesis about how the relationships between land surfaces and water influence pollution and the conservation of resources.” Make a prediction about how the relationship between land and water can influence pollution and the conservation of resources.Include observations based on the shape of the paper, behavior of water within your model and overall impressions.In this lab, you will design a model that will help you investigate the relationship between land surfaces and water on Earth.Pollution is never a strictly local problem because water is always moving so it affects multiple areas.In the lab when I sprayed the water on the paper it started to slide down towards the valleys and start to pool...
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(which) gives natural waters chemical properties”, hard water has always been a curse to both animals and man 1 .To avoid such problems, it is important to understand ways that commercial businesses and homeowners can test for hard water.7 Van der Leeden , Frits; Troise , Fred L.; Todd, David K. The Water Encyclopedia .My hypothesis stated that the water from Little Chickies Creek would be the hardest because it is located by several limestone quarries, which deposit calcium and magnesium into creeks and streams 5 ... .They include: AA spectroscopy, which measures a water sample's absorption of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , and EDTA titration, which uses a titration's end-point to determine the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ present in a water s...
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There will be no change when bromine water is added to the gas jar filled with methane.Some instructors require the lab report be included in a lab notebook, while others will request a separate report.The colour of the gas is colorless and insoluble in water.It is not soluble in water.A few drop of bromine water was added to the gas jar filled with methane.
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Fill hot water tub 3/4 full with water .Wait until water is completely full of water and then turn tap water off\ .Fill graduated cylinder with water .d. Place Water tub on table .b. Plug hot water tub in .
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Assume the intial temperature of the metal was the same as the temperature of the water it was boiled in.The temperature of the boiling water, the temperature of the water in the calorimeter without the metal, and the temperature of the water and metal in the calorimeter were also collected to help determine the mystery metal.What was the temperature change for the water in the calorimeter (ΔTwater)?This would ensure that no direction has been skipped or skimmed, and the lab will run smoothly.One last solution is to read the procedure thoroughly multiple times before starting the lab.
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Finally water was able to withstand ___ pennies before overflowing when rubbing alcohol only held ____ pennies.Also it was proven that it was able to withstand a paper clip’s weight and maintained a compacted shape after putting a drop of water onto a wax paper.The purpose of the lab was to investigate and demonstrate hydrogen bonding and London dispersion bonding in water and rubbing alcohol.* Fill a cup or jar with water and another with rubbing alcohol.After completing the lab I was able to conclude water has the greater surface tension compared to rubbing alcohol.
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I’m pretty sure that the green water will just drop completely into the yellow water.A- Salt water is more dense than fresh water, and therefore sinks under fresh water – which is exactly what happens in estuaries, which are areas near the mouth of a river where fresh water and salt water do mix.Obviously the green water was much more dense than the yellow water because the green water mixed immediately with the yellow water, clearly proving the green water to be more dense.A-The majority of the water freezes because water is the only molecule that doesn’t sink, so the water becomes ice.The blue water did slowly enter the red water.
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All post lab questions for “Lab 4: Energy Sources and Alternative Energy” should be completed on the Lab 4 Reporting Form.Perform “Experiment 1: Modeling the Water Cycle” using your eScience lab manual and kit.Read through intro material and record your hypothesis for “Experiment 1: Modeling the Water Cycle” on the Lab 5 Reporting Form.g. Complete “Experiment 3: Drinking Water Quality” using your eScience lab manual and kit.All post lab questions for “Lab 3: Biodiversity” should be completed on the Lab 3 Reporting Form.
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This would, however, have the disadvantage of making the lab take longer, and steps might need to be added to ensure that all of the compound has a chance to dehydrate.It gives a vague estimate of how much water there is, but little more.If the water of hydration could nearly have been 2 or 6, does this lab truly reveal anything?While the compound had a water of hydration of 5, the lab results said that this value should be 4.For example, it is possible that simply not all of the water was removed from the compound.
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A study to assess water source sanitation, water quality and water related practices at household level in rural Madhya Pradesh.The billion dollar bottled water industry suggests that bottled water is the best option however in my personal opinion and after performing experiment #3 I don’t think it’s worth it to buy bottled water.When I tried to filtrate the water to remove the contaminants, I am not completely successful because the water is not 100% contaminant free since the water has a rancid smell.When bottled water Fiji showed to have more contaminants then tap water with a higher phosphate, ph, alkalinity, hardness and the same amount of chlorine as tap water I knew that my hypotheses was wrong.In this experiment I tested the wate...
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The thermometer should maintain position in proportion to the BHT, but the test tube should be out of the water bath beaker.The percent error came from the difference in the molar mass of the unknown substance as experienced in the lab, and in the accepted data.When the temperature of the BHT is 80° Celsius or higher, remove the thermometer and test tube from the water bath.Once it exceeds 80° C, remove the test tube from the water bath but maintain the thermometer position in proportion to the mixture.Heat the water bath to about 90° Celsius.
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The type of transport that took place in this lab was active.Evaluate the lab and data collected.Be sure to answer the following reflection questions in the conclusion of your lab report: .Conclusion: .And, of course, handle the egg very carefully!)
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