Business Council f Australia, 2011, Water under pressure, Business Council of Australia Press, Sydney Chartres, C., 2006, “Can Australia overcome its water scarcity problems?” Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture, Vol.Generally, a failure to employ appropriate tools to exploit water resources has greatly contributed to problem of water scarcity.Due to scarcity of rainfall, Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Australia are among the regions on our planet that have been hit by a recurring problem of water scarcity (Royal Geographical Society 2008).Usually, ground water sources have low traces of tritium and are more aged than underground water sources (Gonfiantini 2000).Besides, the cleaning of polluted water resources like rivers, and...
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Integrated Concepts in Water Reuse: Managing Global Water .Recycling water can maximise the use of rainfall and other current water resources so that the limited underground water resources can be conserved (Miller, 2005).The United Nations World Water Development Report, 3: Water in a Changing World.Since the underground water is estimated to be able to supply for 320 years, the underground water is still the principal source of water at present (UNESCO, 2009: 100).3) Reclaimed water has low public acceptance, especially for drinking water.
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The human’s activities, technology, and industry in crowded cities change the climate and impose environmental disasters such as cyclones and floods (Mitchell 2012).Other implication is the increase in Co2 emissions by 2.5% per year which driven by annual per capita GDP and annual population growth (Mitchell 2012).The technology used at the beginning of this century caused higher Co2 emissions in developed and developing countries which raise the consumption rate (Mitchell 2012).... middle of paper ... .Further implication to overpopulation harm humans themselves, each individual added to population will consume food, water, and energy.
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In some cases, water may even be a contributing factor in international conflict.” Knowing this issue the UN declared the access to potable water as a human right.All in all the natural water resources are already exhausted in a great extent, so that a carefully organized water management is absolutely essential.Nevertheless there are possibilities as for example the catchments of winter flood water which can also add some amount to the water resources.Gaining potable water through desalination is already a great source of water supply for many countries as Saudi Arabia but it is constraint by its high cost.Another technique adding water resources is “water harvesting”.
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The lack of available drinking water would embark on people finding other sources which could distort their health increasing cholera and other water born diseases, as countries in the Middle East do not have well developed sewerage systems outside of main cities and that people relieve themselves where ever possible⁴.The result would cause crop failure and lead to starvation as basic local food becomes scarce (Saudi Arabia is nearly self sufficient in wheat but without water crops will be lost).The diagram above shows that the Middle East (especially Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Syria) has a very high stress for water availability.Economies are diversifying away from the old crude oil industry into new sectors such as tourism; but even those ...
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Saudi Arabia can import wheat from US in exchange of petroleum products (see Appendix A).In return for such commodities United States of America exporting products to Saudi Arabia are water, wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, corn and fish Saudi’s emerging demand for food and clean water depends on a constant supply of oil revenues from its American trading partner.Like in my previous example consider Saudi Arabia and United States is trading partner.In addition to this argument government intervention has a vital role in the balance of trade for the reason that it is characterized by national saving and investment.Petroleum products with oil and gas represent over 98% of Saudi Arabia’s exports to the U.S.
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When most people think of scarcity they usually think it means not abundant.Even though there is plenty of water the many alternative uses of it makes it scarce.Scarcity can be a powerful thing.Another example of scarcity would be Petroleum in Japan, a country without its own oil fields and without oil reserves.But water that appears plentiful in a large lake or river is scarce nonetheless because it has many different uses including crop irrigation, the production of electricity, a venue for shipping lanes, fish habitat, and many forms of recreation.
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Agriculture is heavily dependent on water withdrawal, and water deficit will bring disastrous impact to irrigated agriculture.As availability of water resources is reduced, countries are obliged to obtain more water resources.They are mainly caused by scarcity of water and inability of peace agreement between countries among water issues.Water shortage will not only lead to starvation, but also hinder economic development as almost all economic activities are dependent on water .Water price goes up as a result of water scarcity.
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It is only the rich, especially, the royal family who can access clean water on a daily basis.In order to increase access to clean water, the government has invested heavily in water distribution, treatment of waste water and desalination.In Jeddah, the citizens were able to access clean water only once in every nine days.Additionally, the government finances the provision of water for domestic use.Water is a very important commodity due to its scarcity in Saudi Arabia.
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Agriculture was a great and genius invention made by the ancient people though it was not easy to practice it because of the scarcity of the rainfall, but irrigation was used as support for water supply.By still dealing with Mays’ article on Water Encyclopedia, we got to know that the soil of the empire was full of silt, a major factor of soil fertility but constituted a continuous agent causing problems in the irrigation systems.It consisted of two principal seas such as the Euphrates and the Tigris and was surrounded by many vast seas where they could draw water for additional supply.Despite the arid climate and scarcity of rains in Mesopotamia, they made use of irrigation as principal method to water their crops.Mesopotamia was totall...
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More population does overfishing, opens factories and opens mines that pollute the water with solid wastes and toxic substances and this creates water pollution.Other solution is desalination in order to obtain clean water, this may be used for a more developed and industrialized regions.The fourth effect is global environment problems like scarcity of natural resources.This could reduce the amount of food and water used to feed an extra child and save more money for other necessities.Our government could use laws such as no cutting down trees, closing down factories that pollute the water excessively and protect our endangered animal and plants species.
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Data Protection under Saudi Arabian Law In general, there is no exact data protection law in KSA.In 2008, a noticeable Saudi blogger and reformist Fouad al-Farhan was caged for posting comments online that were dangerous of Saudi business, religious and media figures, signifying a move by the government to step up its censorship polices of the Internet within its limits.Such consequence may include a fine, imprisonment or scarcity of certain rights such as suspension of a practicing license.That’s add a pros to the Saudi Arabia side that they have a right to ask for information.It show that the low in Saudi Arabia does not tolerate any action that against the religion or the security of the country in anyway and allowing a free call like...
1463 words (3.7 pages)
As soils are degraded, clean water supplies are depleted, infrastructure is damaged and lives are lost, migration may seem like the best solution for many people.Not only does water scarcity lead to health issues, a human security issue, but it also can lead to violent conflict if nations are in competition over the resource, thus becoming a national security issue.Insufficient access to safe water resources and inadequate food supply are detrimental to human security .It will bring about increased salinity of fresh water and increased flooding.Nonetheless, in 1999 it was reported that 20% of the world’s population already lacks access to safe drinking water .
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Around one fifth of the world’s population currently live in regions affected by Physical water scarcity, where there is inadequate water resources to meet a country’s or regional demand, including the water needed to fulfill the demand of ecosystems to function effectively.While the concept of water stress is relatively new, it is the difficulty of obtaining sources of fresh water for use during a period of time and may result in further depletion and deterioration of available water resources.Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity; developing water infrastructure in those areas could therefore help to reduce poverty.Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of investment in infrastructure or technology to draw wate...
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Instead, there been bleak picture of economy and undesirable image outside due to the chronic flaws in vision and policies.The lack of vision and policy planning in utilization of water resource is also severely affecting agriculture.Some resources like water and agriculture are essential for survival of inhabitants while others like energy and minerals are secondary in nature but essential for economic development.Despite having one of the largest irrigation systems of the world, Pakistan is facing water scarcity for crops.By surpassing this challenge, Pakistan is destined to have eminence place in the world as a stable, growing and prosperous nation.
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Water Scarcity can be defined as the lack of access to freshwater to adequate quantities of water for human and or environmental uses.The Makindu children said “For one billion us, the water here is scarce” (pg.213) Fortunately, there are a number of organizations such as The Water Project that are picking up the slack of Kenya’s government, and creating health care services and water solutions for their residents.A. Kenya’s natural water resources also do not provide an adequate amount of water for their entire population B. Kenya has a lack of a freshwater resource C. Recent natural disasters has caused major soil degradation and displacement throughout the country V. Sources A. Bran, Edward.Many people in which are mostly the women in...
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IELTS grammar, spelling looking for a “magic wand” 25,24,32, .31 Saudi/Arabic M confident speaker often inaccurate good vocabulary.IELTS lacks formal grammar higher than A1A/2 , fossilised “rules” 25,24,32, ./l/ /r/ /θ/ /ð/ /w/ 27, ,21,24 .19 Japan/Japanese F good vocabulary, personal development Grammar, very Japanese pronunciation 27, 22,23 ....sues /l/ /r/ /θ/ /ð/ /w/ 35, 34,21, .
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Second, although environmental refugees will pose a grave challenge if water scarcity is not solved, conflict between governments ultimately represents the most troubling aspect of water scarcity from a realist perspective.The relationship between humans and water has evolved over time, but it has never deviated from two primary forms: humans have either brought themselves to water or brought water to themselves.On a planet that is 75% water, the term “water scarcity” seems a ridiculous misnomer.Since water is the foundation of all life, the implications of water scarcity are clear.Regulations affecting water use in appliances and incentives to shift from irrigated lawns to ‘water smart’ landscapes are examples.” Unfortunately, outside ...
3756 words (9.4 pages)
My passion for studying this subject has grown due to the scarcity of specialists and experts in my country.I am interested in working with Dr. Linda L. Norton, or with Dr. Veronica T. Bandy, because of their research interests and both of them have experience in teaching Nonprescription therapy and self-care courses, which is the same topic of my graduation project.I worked with Professor Abubaker, who is an Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice division at Taif University, on a project titled “Self-Medication with Antibiotics: A population-based survey in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” This project had a great effect on my desire to continue studying pharmacy in graduate school because it showed me that many patients have low aware...
679 words (1.7 pages)
Water scarcity is the defined as the lack of access to adequate quantities of water for human and environmental uses However, the Water Project (2014) states that water scarcity can be explained in two ways, it is either the dearth of ample water (quantity) or it is the inability to be able to access safe water (quality).Another cause of water scarcity could be the increasing rate of pollution of the water available.Tread softly (2013) explains that the over extraction of freshwater and other human intrusion with the water cycle is the immediate cause of water scarcity.In Africa south of the Sahara, where agriculture is predominantly rain-fed (that is, it relies on rainfall for water), farmers’ access to water is limited based on time (d...
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The total non-renewable ground water confined in deep sand and limestone in the eastern and central parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the total renewable surface water are estimated at 2.2 km3/year each (Library of Congress, 2006).However, to cater for its growing population and the ever diminishing water sources, the kingdom needs to employ efficient and effective strategies and policies to ensure there are sustainable and reliable water sources for agricultural, industrial and metropolitan use.The process of desalination, under the Saline Water Conservation Corporation produced 1.03 km3 of water in 2006 (SWCC, 2006).Secondly, the quality of the water that is mined in fossil aquifers is deteriorating due to the low quality water ...
978 words (2.4 pages)
Water is essential because water can maintain the process of eco-system, supplies the agriculture and human cannot live without water.However, there is the increasing number of water issues are appearing in the modern world and issues tend to be serious, especially the supply of water.Another difficulty to reduce water scarcity is technique problem.2007), this report mentioned the improvement of coping with water scarcity, the workers as a guide to give suitable suggestions to local authority and encourage farmers to use the farming technology (Falkenmark, M et al.Therefore, solve the water scarcity problem should be the priority for some drought countries all around the world.
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The Shoaiba desalination plant on the coast of the Red Sea is responsible for providing 50% of all municipal water to the kingdom.In the past 20 years alone, its leaders have undertaken an immense project of updating, or establishing programs that would enable Saudi Arabia to compete globally in the 19th and 20th century and make Saudi Arabia a country known for technological and scientific innovation.In order to keep scientific and technological progression in Saudi Arabia to its max, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology was opened in Thuwal in 2009.During much of the past 20 years Saudi Arabia has also been increasing the size of their telecommunications infrastructure.Saudi Arabia being a country largely covered in d...
674 words (1.7 pages)
The panel set consists of 20 MENA countries for the time period between 1961 and 2009 including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.Second group is countries that have low levels of renewable water resources and highly dependent on non-renewable groundwater sources and supplies by desalination of sea water like Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.In a similar way, Sowers and Weinthal (2010 ) argued that since most of the MENA region is arid and hyper-arid, slight changes in water accessibility and arable land have substantial...
1918 words (4.8 pages)
Physical water scarcity is due to the uncontrolled natural water supply to peoples demand such as overpopulation, climate change and other natural calamities where in economic water scarcity is the outcome of poor management of the sufficient water available to the people such as the factories polluting the biodiversity and people wasting or over using the water.Water scarcity has been a problem to the nation and fresh water is decreasing.Lack of fresh water also means less water to plant the crops causing the food supply to decrease that result to constant huger.Water scarcity can cause poverty for the clean water decreases and the price or the value has also increased which can lead people to poverty (National Geographic).“Water Scarci...
1838 words (4.6 pages)
A further problem is water scarcity, which also leads to dryness, which causes dust and sand storms that can shut down transportations.Saudi Arabia gives focuses on the sport sector by allocating 12,5 % of their national budget to health and social affairs in 2010, which is the second biggest portion after education expenditures, in order to establish numbers of sport clubs to increase the welfare of society (US-Saudi Arabian Business Council, 2013) Saudi Arabia aims to steadily increase investments in sport industry in order to create opportunities especially for the younger population.These feasible entry modes will be analyzed, taking into account influencing factors like the risk a company is prepared to take and the desired degree o...
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I provided information on the increased demand for water due to population growth, economic growth and the industrial consumption of water.1.0Introduction This report is about the increase in demand for water, and its’ purpose is a twofold, firstly to examine and explore some of the causes of the ever increasing issue of the scarcity of water due to industrial, agricultural and consumer demand in society, and secondly to analyse the solutions of this concern for the Premier of Western Australia, Mr Colin Barnett.This is because of the material that is being extracted; they are mined in those areas and those areas alone, and therefore the large volume of water that is needed to extract them is adding to the concern of water scarcity.5.0Re...
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Half a billion people around the world face severe water scarcity throughout the year Half of the world's largest cities experience water scarcity.In several regions of the world, the pressure on water is increasing, due to the withdrawals made by humans in surface water or groundwater, which are increasing, but also in due to global warming which disrupts the water cycle.The most cost-effective way to decouple water use from economic growth (according to the panel) would be for governments to create comprehensive water management plans that take into account the entire water cycle: from its source to its distribution, economic use, treatment and recycling, reuse and return to the environment.The UN estimates that by 2025, 25 African cou...
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In Saudi Arabia, a poor culture among the low-income members of the society predisposes this group to obesity.The paper then proceeded to demonstrate that Saudi Arabia faces the same link between poverty and obesity.135-144, .. Tarek, TA 2008, ‘Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’, Eur J Nutr, vol.Al-Hazzaa, H Nada A, Hana, A, Qahwaji, D & Musaiger, A 2011, ‘Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region’, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol.The poor in Saudi Arabia also lack adequate recreational fac...
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Any resource crisis that does occur, its impact will be felt ï¬rst and foremost by the poorest sectors of the population, for instance should a water crisis occur its impact would fall upon those that are dependent for their livelihoods on rain-fed or irrigated water in arid and semi-arid regions, where 52% of the world’s population lives (UNESCO-WWAP, 2006).This issue exists all over the world but is most apparent in countries like Pakistan where due to lack of water management systems, a lot of water is lost in transit and there are major issues of over-irrigation in some areas.UN World Water Development Report 2, New York: UN.From Lopez-Gun and Llamas point of view thanks to virtual water, many water scarce countries have avoided a w...
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