The method to measure the water supply depends upon the source of water.5, where the discharge coefficient is calculated by dividing the flow of water in gallons per minute through the sprinkler by the square root of the pressure of water supplied to the sprinkler in per square inch gauge.The measuring process differs in city water systems, water from tank.The maximum water supply is depend upon number of conditions such as length of pipe, the place mere fire catch up, the amount of water pressure.Water flow creates pressure which generates energy that moves water through the pipes.
368 words (0.9 pages)
Besides, those who happen to run out of water have to spend extra money on buying mineral water and laundry service throughout the water rationing period.In SYABAS’ case, when the monopolized water industry cannot afford to supply enough water and causes a water crisis at a certain period of time, the daily routines and budgets of people would be severely affected because we cannot drink, cook, and shower without water.The source of water usually comes from river, lake, wetland, oceans, ground water etc, but without a good filter or water quality controller, we cannot drink water which is unfiltered from the source of water.Terengganu corporatized its water supply industry in 1995, while Selangor, Kuantan and Johor choose to privatize it...
2871 words (7.2 pages)
It then has the ability to recycle the water.This system is capable of charging the piping, discharging water, then cutting itself off.Wet pipe systems are closed water systems attached to a piping system containing pressurized water at all times.Dry pipe systems use air or nitrogen to keep the supply line pressurized at all times.These systems have the dry pipe features with the pre-action features in the event the dry pipe portion fails.
1191 words (3.0 pages)
Doing so would absolve the providers of their responsibility to provide safe drinking water and in effect transfer this responsibility to consumers.People relying on unimproved drinking water sources who apply an appropriate household water treatment method are still not considered to have sustainable access to safe drinking water.The practice of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) can help improve water quality at the point of consumption, especially when drinking water sources are distant, unreliable or unsafe.Strategies include quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), sanitary inspections, the application of health-based targets and water safety plans (WSPs).However, HWTS is a stopgap measure only and does not repl...
939 words (2.3 pages)
Many villages have no piped water supply.3 the problems of the supply of fresh water .People died of thirst after the cyclone in 1999 because their supply of fresh water from irrigation channels was destroyed form tidal waves.It has been suggested that water suitable for industry and agriculture could be provided by treating sewage.All living things on Earth need fresh water in order to survive But human beings become ill and may even die if they cannot get pure or clean and are forced to drink polluted water.
570 words (1.4 pages)
The difference is that, wet pipe sprinkler systems contain water but dry pipe sprinkler systems contain compressed air.The works to modify the wet pipe sprinkler system include shutting down the water supply, draining pipes and making alterations.This kind of problem will not happen on wet pipe system because the water is constantly maintained in piping.Figure 2.1 shows a typical wet sprinkler system where the water supply is taken directly from the water main.The system inside the pipes will be changes by following the climate, when it is dry pipe system then the pipes contain compressed air, and when it is changes to wet pipe system then the pipes are filled with water.
4784 words (12.0 pages)
For example, earthquakes often leave people homeless, without water, or cause death.Other impacts include those caused by water – such as a tsunami; if the earthquake has caused sudden or abrupt movement of large masses of water, and floods; which occur from an overflow of water onto land.So, after building new infrastructure and saving dozens of people, the United States was equipped with enough money and technology for repairs due to the earthquake.Almost all schools were opened after just a week, and all were just after three.Some long-term responses include re-built buildings, re-established water supplies, and tightened building laws to prevent damage in case of future natural hazards.
791 words (2.0 pages)
The advantage of dry pipe sprinkler systems is that it is suitable to be used to protect collections and other water sensitive areas while the wet pipe system does not.Deluge systems are connected to a water supply through a deluge valve that is opened when smoke or heat detection system is activated.To prevent inadvertent water damage caused by any accident mechanical interference with the pipe work or sprinklers; and .Water will immediately discharged onto the fire, at the same time the flow of water activates a hydraulically operated alarm bell outside the building and arrangements can also be made to alert the local Fire Brigade (Hassan, 1996).The system inside the pipes will be changes by following the climate, when it is dry pipe s...
4793 words (12.0 pages)
The design works in the same way as other hydropower plants but it does not require any reservoirs like dams, rivers or stream flow, instead it utilizes the water supplied by the general water supply network i.e.Water from Water Supply Network stored in a tank at a height (Head) is utilized for power generation.Water from tube will directly go to storing tank through proper channel of supply pipes.Utilizing the present continuous water supply network we will generate the required power.Water flowing through penstock pipe starts the turbine which converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy which in turn is converted into electrical energy by the coupled Generator.
3899 words (9.7 pages)
In our paper we will focus on the Water treatment plant in the water supply system which considers an important part in the water supply system.Water treatment plant is the most important facility in a water supply system to remove contaminants in raw water, disinfect treated water, and produce drinkable water to consumers.A general water supply system is composed of water sources, raw water transmission pipes, water treatment plants, and water distribution networks.Hierarchical Risk Assessment of Water .A questionnaire was designed for assessment for all possible risks that may occur in the water treatment plant projects in EGYPT which some of these risks are general risks that may happen in all infrastructure projects and some are spec...
3516 words (8.8 pages)
water is essentially the same in either system; however, drainage theory holds that considerable air travels downward with the water flow.Two separate water supplies are required for the sprinkler/standpipe system.When the water in a pipe flows to a lower area, air must be added to replace the water, or a negative pressure zone will occur.This theory asserts that water flowing in a vertical pipe tends to adhere to the pipe’s walls, acting very much like a sleeve of water with a hollow core of air, all sliding down the pipe’s walls until it reaches a ratio of approximately 6/24 full of the pipe cross-sectional area.Otherwise, the cold water friction losses may be at a minimum where the hot water friction losses are at a maximum.
4700 words (11.8 pages)
Goose tank * A curved pipe of a flexible material forming a flexible connection between the water main and the service line.Measuring water pressure * Screw a water pressure gauge on to a cock outside of the house.* Used to supply water to the building from the water main.Corporation stop * A valve installed in the house service at the street water main.House service It is that part of water supply system that runs from the street water main to the water meter that is usually inside the house.
1259 words (3.1 pages)
Another form of managing water is Water harvesting.Not only does this prevent erosion, but this water can then be used for agricultural purposes instead of fresh river water.Agricultural sectors can reduce the amount of fresh water they use by using grey water from areas such as drain pipes to water crops and gardens.In agriculture, which uses 64% of South Africa’s available water, water is used for irrigation and livestock.Because of this huge inequality, water in South Africa is very scarce and not readily available, causing us to import water from other countries such as the aforementioned Lesotho.
1212 words (3.0 pages)
The Solar Water Heater raises the temperature of water before it enters the water tank.Solar Water heater used in the homes for supplying domestic hot water are typically installed with some form of back-up heating system such as electricity to ensure a hot water supply during the night time and cloudy conditions.‘To compare the initial cost, price, durability, and environment impact for solar water heating system and electric water heater’ .Solar Water Heater avoids nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and other air pollutants created when electric water heater is used to heat water.Literature review is going to determine the pros and cons for solar water heating system, and also to compare the cost of operation, price, dura...
4603 words (11.5 pages)
Grey water decomposes at a more rapidly rate than black water and if stored for as little as 24 hours, the bacteria in it use up all the oxygen and the grey water becomes anaerobic and turns infected.If the facility water comes from a source other than Public water utility, maintaining water quality becomes the responsibility of the hospitality manager.The Central Water Authority established under the Central Water Authority Act of 1971 is responsible mainly for the treatment and distribution of potable water to domestic, industrial and commercial consumers while ensuring that the quality of treated water conforms to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards.The WRU is responsible for the assessment, development, management and conse...
5043 words (12.6 pages)
The physician John Snow proved that deaths were being caused by people drinking water from a source that had been contaminated by a nearby cesspit which was used by people who were infected with cholera.According to The Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 by the World Health Organization, 40% of the global population does not have access to “good” ‘excreta disposal facilities’–they live mostly in Asia and Africa.Infected water supplies can be treated to make the water safe for consumption and use.Diseases, including cholera which still affects some 3 million people each year, can be largely prevented when effective sanitation and water treatment prevents fecal matter from contaminating waterways, groundwater and drinking w...
501 words (1.3 pages)
Water supply management for remaining 51 VDCs are under Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Government of Nepal.Pumping Stations:There are 31 water supply pumping stations in the system that are used to draw water from sump wells to treatment plants or service reservoirs, and to fill up reservoirs located on higher ground or overhead tanks.Water Treatment Plants: At present, there are 20 water treatment plants (WTPs) in the system with a total treatment capacity of about 117 MLD treating surface water and groundwater due to high iron content... Water demand is usually derived from the population within service area, population growth, domestic water consumption level assumptions, and a provision for non-domestic water consumption.O...
4073 words (10.2 pages)
Generally, the sources that may affect the water hammer attenuation, shape and timing would be the pressure in pipe, velocity flow in pipe, and sudden change of velocity flow.where ΔH is the pressure increase due to the water hammer in terms of column of water in meters and g is the gravitational acceleration in m/s2.The first to successfully investigate the water hammer problem was the Italian engineer Lorenzo Allievi which Water hammer can be analyzed by two different approaches, rigid column theory which ignores compressibility of the fluid and elasticity of the walls of the pipe, or by a full analysis including elasticity .The parameter tested would be the area of pipe, material of pipe and the length of the pipe.Apparatus that i...
3241 words (8.1 pages)
They are designed to adequately satisfy the water requirement for a combination of domestic, commercial, industrial and fire fighting purposes.A good distribution system should provide adequate water pressure at the consumer’s taps for a specific rate of flow.If a particular pipe length is under repair and has been shut down, the water to the population living in the down-stream side of this pipeline should be available from other pipeline.The introduction of the Hardy Cross method for analyzing pipe flow networks revolutionized municipal water supply design (Pdhengineer.com, 2014).Moreover, distribution system of purified water should be completely water-tight and the purity of distributed water should be maintained.
650 words (1.6 pages)
The sewerage system is designed to collect wastewater or foul sewage generated from residential, industrial and commercial areas through sewer pipes and discharges it to the treatment plants or facilities to ensure the sewage is released to the natural water bodies in an appropriate condition and quality (Geoffrey, 2004).IWK decided to divide the underground pipe into two sections, public pipe and private pipe (Figure 2.1) to make sure that all underground pipes operate without any problem.Public pipe is under the responsibility of IWK and the private pipe is under individual responsibility.A minimum at 3 m horizontal and 1m vertical separation from the water main should be provided to avoid the sewage from entering the water main.For ex...
3539 words (8.8 pages)
This is because its increasing water out flow was restricting production because pipelines and surface facilities do not have the capacity to transport and handle the extra water being produced in increasing amounts by the well stream.Normally, the export oil will contain between 2% and 10% water, while the reinjection water will be cleaned to 50-100 parts per million (ppm) of oil and might contained 2-10ppm sand.Deep water conditions, or even ultra deep water conditions, can used a subsea production system, since traditional surface facilities such as on a steel-piled jacket, might be either technically unfeasible or uneconomical due to the water depth.They offer flexibility in the location and size of the host facility and can reach in...
3136 words (7.8 pages)
We are already in the process of installing a desalination plant in a boat, so that in emergencies we can supply water by travelling between islands,” he said.The NDMC has spent an estimated US$60,000 to supply water to the 12 islands.In [the capital] Male, 100 per cent of the population has access to piped desalinated water.The NDMC has supplied 763 tons of water to eight islands, but four more islands [… ] are in desperate need of water, he said.On another island, Gulhi, Ahmed Ibrahim, the island office assistant director, said islanders had been importing bottles water from the capital as well as in jerry cans.
369 words (0.9 pages)
Basing on this background, it is therefore the objective of this paper to center on the problem of water supply in India.Into the same bargain are authors Siegfried, Brown, Heikkila and Lall who recommend the idea of recycling waste water as well as harvesting of rainwater as part of the solution (2008).However supply of clean water in India remains to be insufficient despite the measures that have been taken by major institutions in India in curbing the problem.Most of the cities in India, though densely populated, do not have continuous access to clean water supply on a daily basis.Some of the authors highlight the possibility of an imminent danger facing India due to the conflicting figures in relation to the rising demand for water a...
631 words (1.6 pages)
Some of these pipelines may be required to operate for more years beyond their design life as the North Sea continues to supply oil and gas.API Specification 5L provides standards for pipe suitable for use in conveying gas, water and oil in both the oil and natural gas industry.Special tools – metal cleaning and cutting wheel, air grit blasting system, water jet system and hydraulic steel brush, Ultrasonic test, Magnetic particle test etc .Anchor drag during construction and supply boat activity, trawl board/net drag could also seriously damage the pipeline in later life.Vibration as a result of poorly installed pump or compressor leads to cyclic loading on pipe flange connections and with time this cause fatigue and eventual cracking or...
4265 words (10.7 pages)
3 water trucks and 3 tippers are required to operate at any time.In the event of a fire on the mine, the water trucks may be used to extinguish the fire by use of a nozzle mounted on the front .The spray nozzles then project a jet of water at a small obstruction which again changes the direction of travel causing the water to disperse .Spray water on the mine roads to reduce the amount of dust caused by the passing of trucks and mine machinery .A centrifugal pump system is used at the back of the truck to pump water from the tank to the spray nozzles.
5681 words (14.2 pages)
Desalination of sea water will obliterate the need to set up newer projects that require transporting water from 100km at a high capital cost; it will also make that resource available to other needy water scarce areas.Rainwater harvesting by capturing runoff from the rooftops / terraces and surrounding surface water will not only increase ground water recharge and stop ingress of sea water but will get Mumbai out of its monsoon floods problem.Mumbai can make use of abundant availability of seawater, desalinate for potable water and thus, augment water supply instead of going in for complex method of constructing dams & reservoirs and supporting that system .Even if water from bore-wells is used for toilet flushing (50lpcd) and clean...
2195 words (5.5 pages)
The actuators are actuated by compressed air (pneumatic valve), water or oil (hydraulic valve) ), electricity (electric servomotor of a solenoid valve).In automation applications, all-fluid valves are distinguished by the following characteristics: fluid control, conventional fluids, for dry air, for air and water, direct operated 2/2 way valves, valves for high purity application, process pumps, electro-pneumatic positioner.The guillotine valve is a shut-off valve on a charged or pressurized water network.The ball valve is used in central heating or domestic water installations.Other valves intended for particular uses are also referred to by specific names: overflow valve, irrigation valve, water intake valve, vacuum valve, etc.
2142 words (5.4 pages)
The varied water sources result in consumers spending many hours waiting for water or carrying water to their homes.Similarly, the long time and distance spent in obtaining water from streams reduces the quantity of stream water supply.However, the cost of water from boreholes and tankers led to the reduction in volumes of water obtained from boreholes and water tankers.This study assess the problem of rural water supply in Delta slate with the main aim of examining the factors responsible for the incidence of ineffective water supply to the rural communities of Delta state, Nigeria.Another identified factor of inadequate water supply is indiscriminate wastage arid careless use of water.
2105 words (5.3 pages)
For the safe passage of the seeping water and forbid the passage of the soil particles, protective filter layers and designed.Even for the presence of artesian water at a significant depth, this technique is very beneficial.By using the “principle of gravity water flow”, the water in the slumps are collected from slopes.From any saturated soil mass, the expulsion of the surplus water is the dewatering which is very essential for any underground excavation work.For this method, a trench of nearly around 25 cm is formed nearby the well point, and with the help of enough pressure by spurting water through the riser pipe.
1801 words (4.5 pages)
In Blessing when the pipe bursts, the children all run out of their huts and start to play in water.The metaphor ” liquid sunshine ” suggests that the water is warm as the sun is heating it up.While we take water for granted, the villagers have to work hard for what they get, and most of the time it is not enough for their families.The poem ‘Blessing’ describes one day when a water pipe bursts in the middle of the town.This quotation shows that the people see water as a gift from god that is blessed.
880 words (2.2 pages)