.. Agnew’s Theory state that “strains are shaped by various factors, including the nature, intensity, and duration of the strain, the emotions that the strain produces in the individual, the collection of coping mechanisms at an individual’s disposal (Broidy 2001:10).” By measuring these factors, primarily intensity and duration of strain, General Strain Theory can be empirically tested by criminologists.This question would be answered yes by Robert Agnew and can be examined using his General Strain Theory which explores the causes strain, how to measure strain, the relationship between strain and crime, as well as policy implications based directly off his theory.However, General Strain Theory fails to explain why some individuals who ...
2128 words (5.3 pages)
Hirsch also builds on anomie and strain theory to come up with the social control theory.Its theory just like others has its own weaknesses also.Robert Agnew for instance, while not using the terminology of anomie in his discussion under the general strain theory, argues that there are three types of strain namely actual or anticipated failure to achieve positively valued goals (Agnew 51).Merton’s discussion of strain theory also differs from Durkheim’s theory of anomie by giving an outline of the strains produced by anomie.The theory of Anomie also referred to as strain theory or means-ends theory can be traced to the works of Durkheim in 1893.
2596 words (6.5 pages)
His and Liska’s denial of strain theory, though, depended on the assessment of objectives and methods as educational expectations .Agnew and Passas (1997) dealt with the similarities between the macro level of anomie and control theory; however, they claimed that the micro level theory of strain should be judged in a distinct way different from the control theory... Strain theory was created from the work of Durkheim and Merton and derived from the theory of anomie.Up to this stage, strain theory had been related with types of strain as opposed to sources of strain while the stress of one’s surroundings can be shown to involve with the expectations of just and fair results.“Failure to achieve positively valued goals: the gap between exp...
2310 words (5.8 pages)
Agnew’s developed a new theory, general strain theory that defines measurements of strain, the major types of strain, the links between strain and crime, coping strategies to strain, the determinants of delinquent or non-delinquent behavior, and policy recommendations that are based on this theory which introduced a new perspective on the original theory that was written off a few decades ago.Agnew’s general strain theory broadened the scope to include many more variable that were not addressed in the original strain theory as he attempted to explore strain theory for a perspective that accounted for goals other than monetary success and that considered an individual’s position in social class, expectations for the future, and associatio...
2272 words (5.7 pages)
Strain and Juvenile Delinquency: A Critical Review of Agnew’s General Strain Theory.These works showed that there could be other ways that strain can cause deviance, shedding hope for a newer, more encompassing brand of strain theory.As data continues to be gathered, general strain theory is continually refined and further defined, and Agnew still studies, modifies, and writes about his theory (Baron, 2007).An important aspect of Agnew’s theory was that he not only listed manners of strain but also outlined connections between various strains, and the manners through which they might push an individual to delinquency, in new ways that allowed for greater empirical support than traditional strain theory had been able to obtain.Stemming fr...
1434 words (3.6 pages)
Agnew says that strain would occur followed by a criminal act when any of the three types of strain hit an individual.Pressured Into Crime: General Strain Theory.Crime rates in the United States could be defined by strain from Merton because the society of America as a whole agrees that the American Dream is a goal that everyone strives for, however not everyone’s ways in which they reach that goal are normal or legal.I know there are economics classes, but just a simple class about having jobs and participating in society might help to get rid of some strain for making monetary success.He notes that there are three different types of strain, “failure to achieve goals, removal of positive stimuli, and presence of negative stimuli” (Agnew...
2172 words (5.4 pages)
After Agnew came out with the aforementioned statement about not using as much subjective strain research as objective strain research, he became worried that other researches would undermine the integrity of Strain Theory on the basis that objective strains occasionally form minor subjective strains (Agnew, 2001).This last characteristic of criminal coping was the final catalyst for Christopher’s need to relieve strain by means of criminal activity.. Agnew would argue that because Christopher did not have the coping skills to deal with his problem, he resorted to delinquent behaviors in order to deal with his situation.Agnew (2001) stated that almost all of his research on General Strain Theory involved using dealings of objective strai...
1518 words (3.8 pages)
While it is true that general strain theory does do the job of explaining both crime and deviance, at the same time general strain theory does include some shortcomings as a criminology theory overall.Many researchers have found that the main type of strain that results in crime occurring is the strain of an individual’s economic situation (Cernkovich et al., 2000), and thus most crime and delinquency to relieve this strain tension is ways in which income can be obtained.This essay looks at the background of strain theory, its explanation of crime and deviance, evaluates the theory and ends with the writer’s opinion of general strain theory.Overall, general strain theory does have its shortcomings, and only further research in more diver...
2807 words (7.0 pages)
This theory is called the strain theory.According to the original strain theory, an increase in goals and a decrease in means to achieve those goals should lead to an increase in delinquency; however, this was not found to be the case.Robert Agnew also introduces the three major types of strain in his theory.Robert Agnew criticized and revised the traditional strain theory.“General strain theory is based on the general idea that when people are treated badly they may get upset and engage in crime” McCluskey 2002 p17 .
2456 words (6.1 pages)
Problem solving competences with self-esteem and self-efficacy guidance may help to reduce and recover from the effects of strain (Agnew, 1992).African-Americans, over years of mental strain, may suffer from and require support rebuilding and coping skills with coping resources and social support (Agnew, 1992).This is a considerable strain upon developing African-American youths.Investigation started by analyzing strains upon the African-American culture detailing afterwards the treatment of mentally ill African-American inmates as observed by the General Strain Theory and current physiological testing.The rational choice theory states ‘criminals make a conscious, rational, and at least partially’ (Schmalleger, 2006, p.118) while the lif...
2447 words (6.1 pages)
The research is showing that there is not one particular aspect of any theory that is completely and totally right to the exclusion of all others.They first focus on failures in psychological development, such as a weak conscience, insufficient moral development or maternal deprivation.The basis for Sociobiological Theory rests in the Positivist and Individual Trait theories propounded by Lombroso, Mednick, Caspi, and Moffitt, but do not limit themselves to the thoughts and findings of those philosophers (Cullen & Agnew, 2002).Each theory has its strong points and its weak points and the more criminals and criminal activity are studied, the more those doing the studies are finding that there is an overlap between theories.Many philos...
1104 words (2.8 pages)
Two of the most common theories on crime include the strain theory and the sub-cultural theory.Unlike the strain theory where criminal behavior is as a result of being pushed to the edge by social goals, Matza (1964) on sub-cultural theory argues that criminal acts can be performed for fun.This is supported by the following quote: “The gap between expectations and actual achievements will derive from short- and long-term personal goals, and some of those goals will never be realized because of unavoidable circumstances including both inherent weaknesses and opportunities blocked by others; and the difference between the view of what a person believes the outcome should be and what actually results increases personal disappointment.From t...
4202 words (10.5 pages)
... middle of paper ... .Agnew’s study suggests that retreatism at the individual level creates structural parallels between Merton’s anomie and political correctness.This evisceration of fact occurred when advocates introduced hyperbole and stereotyping to a form of a social conspiracy theory to create exaggerated social conditions (Morris, 2001).The artfulness of the anomie theory as described by the researcher Baron (2005) in his study is the acceptance of the notion that an individual’s deviance is an independent variable.Merton (1938) described deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory (Merton, 1938).
414 words (1.0 pages)
These variances in motivation across countries and amongst individuals may be explained by the criminological theories of Edgework (Lyng, 1990) ; and the Anomie-Strain Theory (Agnew, 1995) in association with Social Learning Theory (Bandura & Mcclelland, 1977) .When the train is crowded it’s impossible to squeeze inside.This is consistent with the idea of Strain Theory, which posits that individuals engage in criminal activity due to an inability to satisfy conventional goals set by society (Agnew, 1994), and the justification that to attain these ambitions and conform to society, they must partake in criminal activity.However, delving further into the public transport system and ideas about accepted goals versus accepted means, it i...
722 words (1.8 pages)
Alongside this strain theory explains deviance as the outcome of social strains within the way society is structured.The third theory that will be discussed is the strain theory.Cohen also criticised Merton’s theory of strain for being too individualistic in describing the adaptations to strain (Pfohl, 1994: 269).Differential association theory and the strain theory can be used to tackle youth crime.Youth crime is a major issue in society; this essay will discuss three theories, the differential association theory, the labelling theory and the rationale choice theory.
2929 words (7.3 pages)
With the weak empirical evidence in support of the strain theory, the presented arguments were not sufficient to ensure that the convicted was set free.Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency.Examining the links between strain, situational and dispositional anger, and crime further specifying and testing general strain theory.Strain theory argues that when an individual is pressurized by the community or by the factors in his environment, the pressure overwhelms him which forces him to satisfy his cultural inequalities and material requirements by engaging in crime as stated by (Agnew, 2001, p319) The crime, in this case, is a subject to the strain t...
2896 words (7.2 pages)
Crime may be used to reduce or escape from strain, seek revenge against the source of strain or related targets, or alleviate negative emotions.Classic strain theory fell into decline during the 1970s and 1980s, partly because research appeared to challenge it.Robert Agnew developed his general strain theory (GST) in 1992, and it has since become the leading version of strain theory and one of the major theories of crime (Agnew and Scheuerman).“Strain Theories”.Strain theory states that when an individual has goals or has wants that the economic mainstream creates desirable and is unable to achieve the goals set before them in a legitimate way, the individual will find alternative ways of achieving his/her goals, usually turning to crimi...
2058 words (5.1 pages)
Pressured into crime: an overview of general strain theory.ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Delinquency Program.In his “General Strain Theory,” sociologist Robert Agnew hypothesized that the strain and stress exerted on an individual as a result of bullying “can manifest itself in problematic emotions that lead to deviant behavior,” possibly leading to delinquency (Agnew, 2006, pp.This theory stresses the vicious cycle that many teens may go through while being victimized.
1511 words (3.8 pages)
On the other hand, strain can be at the individual level, where it refers to the pain experienced by an individual when he seeks ways to satisfy his needs.According to the authors, strain can either be structural, which depicts the processes at the societal level which filter down and affect how an individual perceives his or her needs.This theory states that deviance is not a quality of the act, since results from personality factors associated with committing deviance.The labeling theory, also known as social reaction theory, was developed by Howard Becker (1963), a sociologist.The structural strain theory was advanced by several sociologists.
971 words (2.4 pages)
Having said that, the strain theory is a relatively new theory that encompasses a broad scope in relation to crime and there is not much data to date to refute or support this theory as yet... Strain may also arise when something valuable or precious is taken away from someone or when there is a negative stimuli present in their lives.In a nutshell, control theory puts forth the idea that people with weak bonds between individuals and the society, has a higher chance of deviating and going astray.Hence, it is vital that in order certain types of crime to be prevented, we should refrain from turning to labelling theory as it will only worsen the situation and promote more crime.According to the general strain theory there are 2 major typ...
2942 words (7.4 pages)
When reading and applying the functionalist theory, it is obvious that this theory assumes that the middle class values are accepted throughout society.He argues how the strain theory can lead to other deviant adoptions.Robert Merton’s (1938) ‘Strain theory’ modified the Durkheim’s ‘Anomie’ to refer to the strain put on individuals when accepted norms conflict with reality.Anti-oppressive social work theory and practice.Robert Merton’s (1938) ‘Strain theory’ modified the Durkheim’s ‘Anomie’ to refer to the strain put on individuals when accepted norms conflict with reality.
2293 words (5.7 pages)
[Adobe Digital Edition XI].The Criminology of White-Collar Crime (pp.Simpson, S. S., & Weisbud, D.If one does not have wealth it puts a strain on the person to gain wealth and commit crime to achieve this.Still, Robert Agnew in the 1990s breathed new life into the general strain theory (GST).
406 words (1.0 pages)
Sharp, Brewster & Love (2005) argue that certain types of strain create certain actions which influence delinquent behaviors.Research indicates that gender is a strong predictor of strain-induced deviance with males more overt in their responses than females who tend to internalize strain.GST addresses the interrelatedness of strain and its emotional response, individual coping mechanisms, and deviance.Where the earliest form of this theory hypothesized that anomie results from a failure to achieve positively-valued goals Agnew (2001) expanded upon this theory by including that anomie can also result when positive stimuli are removed and when negative stimuli are applied.Under this theory low self-control is comprised of six personal...
1953 words (4.9 pages)
Strain that is high in magnitude influences the ability to cope in a non-criminal matter.The first review was of the General Strain Theory and how it can be used to explain sovereign citizen extremist’s ideology.The article stated that the reaction to strain is a function of both individual characteristics and the characteristics of the strain that is being experienced.General Strain Theory examines the effects of strain on crime, but since there are many types of strain and stress, it is difficult to pinpoint which strains lead to crime.During the project the analysis should show that sovereign citizen extremists fit into the General Strain Theory of criminology.
5065 words (12.7 pages)
Strain Theory is based on the concept anomie.Strain Theory states that anomie occurs whenever there is a gap between the goals a society expects from persons and the means that exsist to achieve the goals.Almost everybody, most of the time, copes with strain or negative emotion by noncriminal means.Strain Theory was developed by the sociologist Robert Merton in the 1940’s.Although it is categorized as a sociological theory in some texts, differential association theory has such clear links with learning theory approaches to explaining crime that it merits a place in any discussion of this nature.
3090 words (7.7 pages)
Agnew tried to identify the circumstances under what strain might direct to crime.Durkheim based primarily all his work on this theory, the structural functional theory.Lastly, Robert Agnew’s general strain theory suggests that strain causes destructive behaviors and feelings, this has the possibility of leading to multiple negative consequences.Conformity is the first of five modes of adaptation to anomie strain.Although there are many categories of strain, many fall into these groups.
957 words (2.4 pages)
Some of the most considerable theories include the feminist theory, social disorganization theory, strain theory, sub-cultural, and educational theories among others.Gender differences are the main factor used to argue with this theory.This theory is used to explain female juvenile offences and how being female may influence the rate at which juvenile delinquency occur (82).Marxist theory argue that people those who own production chains have the greatest say in making any decisions pertaining that particular line of production.The theory too, seeks to clarify why male commit crimes more than females, and why females commit crime in the general social perspective (Weiher et al.
3543 words (8.9 pages)
It is rooted in rational choice theory, routine activities theory, and crime pattern theory.In their article, Patchin & Hinduja, concluded that general strain theory can be used to explain illegal behavior such as cyber bullying among youth.These theories include social learning theory, low self-control theory, general strain theory, frustration aggression hypothesis, routine activity theory, and situational crime prevention theory.Together, general strain theory and frustration aggression hypothesis, provide an understanding of how people, especially youth, respond and deal with negative strain, whether it may be to bully others or do deviant acts to alleviate the strain.Different aspects of each theory can be used in conjunction to...
2595 words (6.5 pages)
Schmalleger, Frank.Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society.Although we cannot change the past, we can only change how we approach the future.I also believe some of these crimes may be caused because of the individuals strain in their life the time of the crime takes place (Agnew pg.The term non-violent crime mentioned by the FBI may be technically correct but tell that to the millions of victims that have suffered from the corrupt criminals that destroyed their families, homes and even pushed their victims to commit suicide.
980 words (2.5 pages)
Pp 98-104 in Criminological Theory: Past to Present, edited by Cullen, T.F., Agnew, R. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Shaw, C., and McKay, H. (1942) “Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas”.According to Cullen and Agnew (20011) one of the primary arguments in the social disorganization theory is the idea that there are settlement patterns in the development of cities, and how these patterns impact neighborhood characteristics and corresponding crime levels.American Journal of Sociology 94: 774-802.According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) the Social Disorganization theory was developed in the mid 1940’s by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay while they were researchers studying at the Institute for Social Research in Chicago.
423 words (1.1 pages)