‘Upper’ class is described as someone who “own and/or manage economic resources (capital)”, ‘middle’ class is referred to someone with skills and qualifications that others need and ‘working’ class is where someone who is not skilled or qualified solely relies on their labour power to gain themselves employment (Germov, 2013, p. 82).The people in the ‘upper’ class have a high level of power, wealth, income and status, therefore, they would have more wealth to pay for better health care services if they end up sick.Germov (2003, p. 82) mentions ‘class’ which it is a system that categorises an individual; upper, middle and lower class, by the level of power, wealth, income, and status.‘Middle’ class people may have a less level of power, w...
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Inequality of opportunities refers to the unequal distribution of life chances across individuals, this is reflected in measures such as levels of education, health status, and the treatment by the criminal justice system for example white upper class males typically have more opportunities for wealth and success compared to lower class black males who have a higher chance of landing in the criminal justice system.There are two main ways to measure social inequality these are inequality of conditions, and inequality of opportunities.Inequality of conditions refers to the unequal distribution of income, wealth and material goods housing for example is an inequality of conditions with the homeless and those living in housing projects sitti...
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Two thirds of children grow up in a home where at least one parent works (Department for work and pensions, 2012) therefore any intervention must ensure that work provides the opportunity to improve the family’s overall wealth situation.The UK experiences a higher proportion of its population in relative low income than most other EU countries (The Poverty site, 2013) and the recent announcement of a 1% increase cap on some benefits will only make inequality in the UK worse.Thus, any intervention to tackle poverty needs to address wealth redistribution though the tax and benefits system .Through enhanced wealth distribution we can create a fairer, more productive society which has endless benefits for this generation and for generation...
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“(World bank organisation) According to sociologists poverty and inequality can be linked to 2 main causes, Cultural and structural.As I work in a drug and alcohol rehabilitation centre all my clients have struggled for years with their addictions and most of them have experienced poverty and inequality.In my placement I am able to witness first hand some of the ways in which poverty and inequality have affected my clients and their life chances.In this essay we are going to look at the causes of poverty and inequality in the UK and the effect that it has on society.Capitalism benefits large, powerful institutions, creating inequalities of wealth in society.
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However, in Melissas case, social stratification which refers to the social class of people who share the same level of wealth.Statistics show that regular alcohol drinkers among the UK population amounts to 58% and in 2012 1,008,850 hospital admissions were related to alcohol.For example, America, the UK and most European countries are among the wealthy, having a wealth, capital of over $50000 each, in comparison to Africa and Asian countries with Capital of just $2000 and under.Cigarette smoking accounts for approximately 100,000 UK deaths, it reduces the quality of health and causes premature death.These statistics show that the concentration of global wealth inequalities is high.
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Thus, the UK should focus on its long-term agenda for challenges problems in the provision of healthcare services effectively.Fig 1: The Health Inequalities Umbrella Table 1: Life Expectancy by Deprivation Deciles, showing the Slope Index of Inequality, Enfield London Borough, Males, 2005-09 Table 2: Aspects of health where ethnicity and health inequality may be Linked (Source, The Health of Londoners Project, November, 1999) Table 3: The extent of health inequalities The last ten years have witnessed large improvements in health for everyone.However, this approach may not solve health inequalities because it lacks the basic agenda of redistributing wealth in a progressive manner.In this regard, the country must reformulate these polici...
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The fact that we all still live in a capitalist society proves he was wrong.Sociologists such as weber countered this prediction and believed that the proletariats would be too distracted with domestic problems amongst each other forcing them to divide as opposed to sticking together.In society there are many different factors which divide us and result in social inequality.They believe that all the wealth within society slowly “Trickles” down to the rest of society.Within the past 50 years, the middle class has massively grown and become the largest social class within the UK.
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Concerns over income inequality have been raised recently.Recent figures from the ONS (2014) shows a comparison of the top economies in the world of the year 1997 and 2012; from the graph (see Appendix 2) it is clear to see that the UK GDP per capita has risen but not as much in value as the likes of the US, Canada and Germany – the UK still however has the 4 biggest GDP per capita in the world.GDP per capita and real wages show some difference in the level of wealth and income inequality but it is methods like the Human Development Index which can be used to determine a more global perspective of living standards, to summarise the more traditional methods are useful for measuring the wealth whereas the alternative and more innovative m...
2567 words (6.4 pages)
Wealth and the Power of Wealth in Classical Athens, (Ayer Co; New York; 1981.)The power that the wealthy had and used was not enough to taint a relatively sophisticated political system and where corruptions of that system occurred, personal power-grabbing was often shrouded in popular support and the use of wealth for personal gain was seen as an inevitable circumstance of self-preservation.Therefore, the wealth inequality was not viewed by the people as un-democratic or damaging to their political power and rights (Ober 199.)The wealthy in society were, to a large extent, prohibited from using their wealth to defile the workings of the state.These actions of the rich could potentially have very negative outcomes in situations where the...
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This is why it is unlikely to be done as it wouldn’t be very sustainable and effective however in theory the re distribution of wealth could be done.Wealth is often harder to tax however it is often caused by income so the tax system previously described may be used to reduce wealth and thus stopping inequality.Wealth on the other hand is a stock of assets which have a market value, which may change over time e.g.Their relationship with inequality is also very different with a lot more inequality found in wealth as a fifth of wealth is concentrated among the richest one per cent of households however there is still some in income.This system can also be found in wealth though, with inheritance tax being used progressively.
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The biggest differences in social class within the UK can be seen through a person’s occupation.Despite many adaptions taking place as life continues to change according to the National Equality Panel the UK is still a long way from being a society of equal opportunity.In the UK most people fall into middle class or working class categories.The main factor that affects health inequality in the UK is social class.The biggest inequality that can be seen within the UK would be with income, with the majority of the UK’s wealth being owned by only a small percentage.
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For postmodernists the key to inequalities lies in the development of the post industrial world and the fact that the production of knowledge has taken precedence over manufacturing.(40) Social Inequality refers to any difference between groups or individuals in society which results in one having inferior life chances than the other.Asses the Functionalist explanations of Social Inequality.Within these complex societies social inequality and social difference were an inevitable and important part of maintaining social order and preventing a state of ‘anomie’ or chaos.Functionalists present an over rosy picture of social inequality being a positive force for the society.
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Health inequalities within Scotland and between the west of Scotland and the rest of the UK appear to be widening.Figure 2: Comparison of lung cancer mortality in Renfrew and Paisley with three major cohorts in US and UK.The issue for west Scotland is that greater reductions in disease have been achieved elsewhere and so west Scotland’s health has become worse relatively in comparison to other UK cities.These findings suggest that there are factors at work, other than simply wealth, which are making Scots unhealthier than people in other parts of the UK (Scottish executives 2007).Whether these stress types and levels are more or comparable to what is obtainable in other parts of the UK remains an unanswered question.
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I have used the behaviour-cultural theory of health inequality to give possible explanations for this.Analysis of the available data and findings from previous researches or even policies available dat address the inequality e.g contributing factors, degree of inequality and how it affects lives.BEHAVIOURAL-CULTURAL: this is said to be one of the most widely accepted causes of health inequality.For a fact, a country where wealth is evenly distributed, these kinds of issues of health inequality and in smoking in particular will not be expected.These are factors that are more appreciated in the lives of people living in deprivation as opposed to people in affluence and could be a possible explanation for the inequality gap in smoking betwe...
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This inequality is stronger for women than men and also more among girls ... .And also major risk factors for numerous health conditions including diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer and cardiovascular diseases.As marmot (2010) states: “Reducing Health inequality is a matter of fairness and social justice” .Health inequality affects everyone except those at the very top of the social ladder.numerous studies prove this issues are widely correlated with health inequalities (public health England).
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the UK is still recovering from the recession the Office for National Statistics has estimated in 2011 that 14 million people were are risk of poverty and social exclusion, in 1977 this figure was 3 million people and also that there is a risk that one person in 20 was now experiencing severe material depression also 25% of the population have net financial wealth which is negative, while just over 10 per cent have net financial wealth of over £100,000.The UK household wealth has recently passed the 7trillion mark for the first time , although this is a lot of money everyone has not benefited equally different social classes seem to benefit differently.Religion & ethnicity are another basis of difference in wealth levels, until t...
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Chapter 4 section 2: problem populations, in problem places – such as the black population of new Orleans – tend to be stigmatised, viewed as a source of harm, crime and social disorder .They are also sites of emerging understanding about how slums can be a source of progress and development through self help .This emphasis on statistical investigation has had a profound influence on the subsequent development of social research in the uk and how we come to know about and understand the social world.The darling study for the Joseph row tree foundation shows an increasing inequality of wealth in the uk in the late 20th century when income inequalities grew rapidly.Chapter 5 section 2: global slums are sites of concerns about crime and...
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Trade, technology and U.K. wage inequality.This has resulted in the inequality between the Arabs/Muslims in the UK and other people especially whites.wealth inequalities in the United Kingdom.Educational Inequality and The Expansion of United Kingdom .Moving beyond the gender wealth gap: On gender, class, ethnicity, and .
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Human development index In India is uneven as different social, economic, geographical groups, rural and urban regions have cropped up further increasing the gap between the rich and the poor that enables the rich people to continue keeping the wealth they have and gain more.This will help them curb the mishap which is eating up the essential talents required to device strategies, that will help fight against the dangers caused by climatic change and inequality.Giddens, A., Diamond, P. & Policy Network; Working Group on “Community and Inequality” (2005), The new egalitarianism, London: Polity.This has lead to the uneven distribution of wealth and the countries resources because of the greed, corruption, bureaucracy, urban preference ...
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In the late 19th century, the U.S. had much higher social mobility than in the UK, due to the common school movement and open public school system, a larger farming sector, as well as higher geographic mobility in the United States”(new world encyclopedia) .The wealth would usually be the source power for the class stratification.However, in the 20th and 21st century, half of the social dynamics between the two countries the differences have narrowed, because there are two countries, growing social inequality, especially in the United States.In the long run, from the mid-19th century, the United States with low inequality and social mobility is very high.Official or legally recognized class designations do not exist in modern western dem...
1499 words (3.7 pages)
This use requires that no one has a negative net wealth.Over time, wealth condensation can significantly contribute to the persistence of inequality within society.Related to wealth condensation are the effects of inter generational inequality.Gini coefficient can also be used to measure wealth inequality.Here we say that countries with low levels of development have relatively equal distributions of wealth.
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By the end of the 1990s, income inequality was four times greater.A significant rise in income inequality was witnessed in the 1980s and 1990s, as wealth was redistributed away from working class to the rich.The ‘breadwinner’ and the increase participation in women’s labour force, the national enterprise negotiation structures and the decrease of trade union’s influence, and changes in the taxation and benefit are main factors that have influenced the rapid growth of income inequality in Britain(Chills 1996).9 A report by the Office for National Statistics includes evidence of the increase of social inequality in Britain over the last few decades.China has the similar situation but more problems,the most typical example is the inequality...
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Inequalities of power and wealth, and a lack of political will to put the fight against poverty top of the agenda, underpin the reality of continuing poverty in countries all over the world.It now becomes a problem that is passed on from generation to generation because power and wealth is more often than not, passed on only among families.Causes of Poverty in the UK .The public in the UK has tended to be more judgmental about those living in poverty than people in many other countries – being more likely to say, for example, that poverty is due to ‘laziness and lack of will-power’, rather than to ‘injustice in our society’.The existence and persistence of poverty and income inequality is the result of a complex series of economic and s...
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The fact that there is much greater need for uncertainty avoidance within Saudi Arabia implies that the manager should ensure that he is always taking decisions and directing his employees and subordinates to a much greater extent than he was used to in UK.They are also highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society.Also there needs to be greater clarity about who does what unlike in the UK where employees can be expected to take decisions as well as add value in decision making of their own accord.It is quite clear that for a manager from the UK working within the culture of Saudi Arabia wil...
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Thompson (1998:115) acknowledges the considerations of an ideological concept of health, and states that this ‘has wide ranging implications with regards to inequality, discrimination and oppression’.These particular divisions are not explicit in social inequality, as disability and age are also indicated, however they are the most commonly documented.There are a number of consequences related to social inequality, and the report indicated that one determinant of mortality is poverty.Capitalism indicates that stratification is a result of a capitalist system that favours those with wealth (Moon and Gillespie, 1995), and in Thompson’s opinion, this ideology only serves to ‘justify, protect and reinforce’ these social divisions, thus legit...
3051 words (7.6 pages)
By the loss of land or other resources such as income or services available to them, this induces a more stressful environment, leading to more smoking and increasing the inequality present.The last example discussed that helps the understanding of inequality is historical context.In order to understand this inequality, we need to understand the trends that occur due to this inequality.World Health Organization.This inequality between various groups leads to a social gradient where health outcomes improve as your SES increases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).
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Functionalists have a positive view about inequality, since it is seen to motivate the less well off to aspire to the income and status enjoyed by the rich and wealthy.Inequality is therefore beneficial to society and the existence of a class structure becomes functional in providing that inequality.It is certain that the rate of inequality in British society has been growing so that a reduction in the growth of inequality is now seen as a government achievement!The New Right believe that inequality is inevitable in society.The term social inequality describes a condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
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Evidence-based patient empowerment.In conclusion, this essay has looked at the issue of tuberculosis in the UK, finding that whilst there is a policy framework in place aimed at reducing the incidence of tuberculosis, this is not wholly effective.Tuberculosis in primary care.White, V. (2002).There are many organizations that collect data on various diseases that are present in the UK, and who then relate this data to socioeconomic factors.
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Some economists do argue that the inequalities in wealth and income provide incentives for us to work harder, conversely some believe governments should intervene more.In conclusion the UK has a mixed economy, developed through free market and global economy, which is regulated by the Governnment to prevent market failure.The government also intervenes to help regulate problems created by a free market such as monopolies and wealth inequalities.The financial global crisis has presented numerous challenges to the UK economy that the increase in the libor rate and the uncertainty of the climate meant many banks were not lending money, amongst themselves and amongst consumers.But in times of recession into also intervenes to solve challenge...
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The most astonishing figures showing that the top 0.1 receive 4.3% of all income – the highest in the UK since the 1930’s (Wilkinson and Pickett, 2009, 2).Kennet M. and Heinemann V. (2006) ‘Green Economics: setting the scene’, International Journal of Green Economics vol 1 nos 1/2 pp68-102 2.It is, as Bennis and Slim claim, the leader that inspires the change; ‘leadership is of the spirit’ (Bennis 1992, p.8) and therefore leaders become more essential and indispensable in order to endure the twenty first century.This is also reflected through the amount of income the UK public earn; with the top 10% earning 40% off all personal income with the other 90% only receiving 60%.We need new leader to a inspire a change in the economy, to ensure...
1167 words (2.9 pages)