The synthesis of practical knowledge, current technology and regulatory requirements results in the most effective wellbore plugging and abandonment possible.Near-wellbore geology should be assessed, and the wellbore and annuli properly cleaned to avoid microannuli and poor cement bonding.Wellbore equipment testing.The design is done based the existing wellbore and reservoir conditions depending on the findings from the review and investigation.A preliminary inspection and survey of the wellhead and wellbore condition is carried out to determine if the valves on the wellhead are in operable condition, if it is found not to be in operable condition they are hot-tapped.
4961 words (12.4 pages)
In Baker Hughes, integrity is the foundation of their individual and corporate actions in honesty, trustworthy, respect and ethical in our actions which drives an organization.Wellbore intervention products and services are to produce the asset, deals with troubleshooting drilling problems, improve maintenance, and restore economical production.This company has built a very high performance culture, based on its Core Values of Teamwork, Integrity, Performance and Learning.These cultures are: Integrity, Teamwork, Performance, and Learning.It’s basically offers wellbore construction, casedhole completion, sand control and wellbore intervention solutions.
3585 words (9.0 pages)
Failures during tripping and drilling operations may be naturally classified into: wellbore related, equipment related and formation related failures .Crooked wellbore .Wellbore washouts .High hydrostatic wellbore pressure .Low hydrostatic wellbore pressure .
4268 words (10.7 pages)
The anchor protects the upper portion of the piston through to the surrounding casing and hence, applies the reaction force that inhibits the drill pipe from moving upward with in the hole since the piston strokes the cone down the wellbore which makes pipe expand along its stroke length.Cementing the completion in the wellbore is regarded as one of the most primitive methods used.Researchers are now concentrating on the interaction between the fluid flows of reservoir and wellbore since the horizontal wells are extensively applied.Reservoir and wellbore hydraulics simulations have been studied for a long time.To maintain such values of pressures, wellbore stability and reservoir depth for the 7 inch production liner, the planners measur...
4617 words (11.5 pages)
The purpose is to follow up the formation damage occurrence due to drilling mud and completion fluids and removal, permeability improvement, and minerals dissolution in the carbonate formation caused by the acidizing process.In acid washing, the purpose is simply tubular and wellbore cleaning.A new laboratory apparatus will be designed and constructed to perform the planned experiments.In 2011, 169 sq.km seismic 3D acquisition was done and interpreted.Figure (1.3) shows the oil field and Badra field location.
860 words (2.2 pages)
The proportionality constant, k, is the permeability of the rock expressed in Darcy units.For a gas well to flow there must be a pressure difference from reservoir to the well-bore at the reservoir depth... For turbulent flow, which occurs at higher velocities, the pressure gradient increases at a greater rate than does the flow rate and a special modification of Darcy’s equation is needed.If the well-bore pressure is zero , the inflow would be a maximum possible i.e the Absolute Open Flow (AOF).When turbulent flow exists, the application of Darcy’s equation can result in serious errors .
923 words (2.3 pages)
In the BP Oil Spill, more than 200 million gallons of crude oil was pumped into the Gulf of Mexico for a total of 87 days, making it the biggest oil spill in U.S. history.To recover from any financial losses sustained due to the BP oil spill in 2010 their options are 1) an individual law suit in civil court, 2) a class-action law suit in civil court, or 3) the court approved settlement.Victims of oil spills have few methods available to them for receiving monetary compensation.BP created a compensation fund, Therefore a $20 billion fund was agreed upon for the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.BP LLP owned the well that blew up, Transocean Ltd owned the rig, and Halliburton Co. conducted the key tests right before the event.
598 words (1.5 pages)
Environmental effects of fracking are contaminated water, increased air pollution, trillions of gallons of wasted water used in the process of fracking, and radioactivity in areas of fracking.All of these cause major health issues and potentially kill people living in areas where fracking exists.The economic benefits of fracking include the high amounts of hydrocarbons that would not otherwise be easily extracted from the ground.Farms and livestock get wiped out in areas with fracking as well.Without fracking, approximately 45% of natural gas that we get domestically will be unattainable.
287 words (0.7 pages)
Both will use fresh water.Properties of water based drilling mud are controlled mainly by the type of clay added to the drilling fluid to change its properties for better wellbore efficiency.One sample will have 35 grams of bentonite, and the either will have 4 grams of Xanthan Gum.Record mud temperature using digital thermometer.The strength of the mud cake formed will help in preventing water from entering the wellbore, as well as the drilling fluid circulating in the wellbore to leak out into a fracture.
1773 words (4.4 pages)
For approximately three months, hydrocarbons escaped from the container through the blowout preventers and the wellbore, resulting in a spill of national significance (Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report).To accomplish its restoration is the most principal challenge now encountering Gulf despite years of unsuccessful approaches to recover from previous damages.According to Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report, a well control incident allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Deepwater Horizon oil rig, causing explosions and fire on the rig.Since Deepwater Horizon rig explosion caused the most serious accidental marine oil spill in history and instantly acquired major political, environmental and eco...
397 words (1.0 pages)
Secondary recovery methods applied to the field’s productive life generally by injecting water or gas to displace oil and drive it to a production wellbore, resulting in the recovery of 20 to 40 percent of the original oil in place.This process not only helps in producing more oil but also stood as an environmental friendly system which helps in eradicating the green house gases.The U.S Department of energy estimates that there are approximately 240 billion barrels of oil that can be recovered with next generation enhanced oil recovery methods.It is expected that the governments and local treasuries would make $280 billion in profit in the form of taxes and royalties from the produced oil.Although the advantages of the Enhanced oil recov...
2041 words (5.1 pages)
At present efforts are being made to design nano-sensors for reservoir characterization and monitoring and to produce nano-fluids for improving EOR processes.The present approach being discussed is, for creating nanorobots to monitor individual pores and channels and hydrocarbon flow, exchange information and identify zones which intensify the extraction or the injection of water.Promising results have been obtained from laboratory experiment, but field tests are still in progress..The future of nanotechnology applications is remarkable.However, a suitable tool to reliably describe coupled phenomena is still missing.Some applications are already available,while others could come from Complementing the solutions developed for the biomedic...
1587 words (4.0 pages)
Establish effective environments 5.Utilize a “To-Do” List .Use a calendar 3.List 5 of the top 10 Ways to Reduce Stress, according to Reuben Parrish (5 points) 1.Flow from a pressured “zone” (interval of porous rock) encountered while drilling is controlled when the mud weight in the wellbore provides a pressure that equals or exceeds the pressure of the zone.
697 words (1.7 pages)
In order to investigate and record the conditions of microbes at high salinities and high temperature it is better to know about the bacteria which can withstand on these conditions.(Hitzman 1983) .. Gas injection is the most commonly used EOR technique, here, gas such as carbon dioxide is injected into the reservoir whereupon it expands and thereby pushes additional oil to a production wellbore, and moreover dissolves in the oil to lower its viscosity and improves the flow rate of the oil.Thermophilic (heat-loving) organisms are organism with an optimum growth temperature of 50o C or more, a maximum of up to 70 .Gas injection is the most commonly used EOR technique; here gas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas, or nitrogen is inj...
4153 words (10.4 pages)
The risks of fracking, Everything you ever needed to know about fracking, 35 comments on twitter, 2011. .Moniz et al., (2011) The Future of Natural Gas: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY MIT STUDY, Executive Summary, USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[email protected] .Kargbo et al., (2010) Natural Gas Plays in the Marcellus .Moreover it can be used to remove natural obstacles to the flow of fluids by million gallons of water with various chemicals and sand with an ultimate pressure injection to the wellbore.
1946 words (4.9 pages)
Hence I discover that this process is very economical as compared to other EOR processes but it is very risky as injection of gas should be done at correct place and ignition should be controlled then this process acts as magic recover the oil to 65%.I was successful in recovering the oil but the simulation problem was a main constraint of this working model as that requires a whole laboratory for its working.There were many challenges during the modeling.It suffers from depth limitation because of wellbore heat losses, but when the conditions are right it can be a very simple and effective method for ignition.These challenges were faced according to the need, economy and the factors available.
4516 words (11.3 pages)
A drilling fluid is any fluid which circulates through a well in order to remove cuttings from a wellbore.Once mud, being pulled up from the drill site, shows signs of oil residue, the drill is removed and testing is done.Core samples are taken as well as pressure and gas tests.As the drill goes down, more piping is added, and when a drill wears out, it is pulled up and replaced.The hole is then capped off to avoid spillage and a pump is set up to pull the oil out of the ground.
1999 words (5.0 pages)
Appendix F has the output from the various methodologies The interpretation of these results is that wells without emulsion have > a 2x increase in their P50 run life than wells with emulsion.Example 3: Of the variables collected by the JIP, which most describe the survival function?The introduction of Stepwise variable selection to that regression allows the preferential fitting of the model by minimizing the AIC.Looking at the plots, it is apparent that the fit is poor in the tails.Do the variables collected in the dataset capture the variation in the survival function?
2870 words (7.2 pages)
In essence, suitable uncertainty product is able to identify nonintegrability, which is often difficult to establish analytically or numerically.This feature has been found to be able to identify nonintegrability in many other models that have been studied.According to a new definition introduced by Braak, This definition does not involve the existence of constants of motion, though all such cases are covered by this definition.Within the scope of the Braak’s definition of integrability, this model is integrable only when ε is an integral multiple of ω/2.While this definition is based on a sound mathematical footing, the situation in quantum dynamics is not very clear, essentially arising from the difficulty in defining or identifying D...
1203 words (3.0 pages)
To get the exact area then we take the limits as ‘n’ that go till infinity, to fulfil the definition of definite integrals ..This looks a lot like the definition of the integral of a function of .The definition of a definite integrals for functions of single variable, while working with the integral of single variable is as below, .are very important.Here is the official definition of a double integral of a function of two variables over a rectangular .
2305 words (5.8 pages)
Besides its various interpretations, use of the term “interaction” in the definition of the Noordwijk draft of ESDP can also be seen as conveying some implicit ideas through its etymology.The Noordwijk project of ESDP introduces in its definition the concept of “willingness to co-operate”, as a basis for spatial integration.Taking into account the ESDP definition, its global approach as well as the history of the criterion, it seems that “interaction” must be understood here as a rather comprehensive concept, that cannot be directly limited to some domains of relationships, nor even to spatial interaction as it is generally understood.After the evolution of Noordwijk, 1997, the next version of ESDP was produced in Glasgow in 1998 which c...
2456 words (6.1 pages)
Whereas integration is similar to the medical model of disability where they have acknowledge that the child has a needs and have labelled them that they need help and do nothing to encourage them.And also they have similar ideas that have been focus on as they too have a definition of what they believe.Similar to the social model of disability that society should try to make them feel part of the society and not outcast them.Another definition of inclusion is from Florida University 2002, who also give an understanding to inclusion, although it is taken from Florida University and that the states have different meaning, this one was similar to the ones that the UK uses.This is also supported by Dennis and Gardner who also stated that In...
943 words (2.4 pages)
This is also supported by Dennis and Gardner who also stated that Inclusion and Integration are similar to the social and medical models.And also they have similar ideas that have been focus on as they too have a definition of what they believe.Both inclusion and integration explain that the child needs help.Yet one put the child and expects to do the work themselves and the other term supports them and encourages them so that they can go into the world without depending on other people’s help.Another definition of inclusion is from Florida University 2002, who also give an understanding to inclusion, although it is taken from Florida University and that the states have different meaning, this one was similar to the ones that the UK uses...
971 words (2.4 pages)
in opposition tohypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs.A value system’s abstraction depth and range of applicable interaction may also function as significant factors in identifying integrity due to their congruence or lack of congruence with observation.Integrity can For other uses, see Integrity (disambiguation) Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes.As such, one may judge that others “have integrity” to the extent that they act according to the va...
606 words (1.5 pages)
Is a community has no integrity, it brings down the whole area around it.Without integrity on a military bases, you have anarchy, because there are very few consequences in most situations.The dictionary describes it as “Unimpaired, unadulterated, or genuine state; entire correspondence with an original condition; purity.” I enjoy Harold’s definition more than the official definition, however, the “genuine state” part of the dictionary definition is also really good.Now the same principal of basic integrity goes for barracks life.Another friend gave a similar response: “morality, high standards.” Yet another friend from my high school, gave a longer, more unique assessment of the term: “Integrity is the idea of forcing yourself to adhere...
1039 words (2.6 pages)
Existing literature on global integration have not been able to arrive at a consensus on the definition of global integration.After discussing the definition and rationale for integration, the succeeding discussions look into the integration challenges experienced by the multinational firms.This definition fits the requirements of the study in investigating the perspectives of subsidiaries on global integration that involves a subsidiary and headquarters as the units of data collection and analysis.This definition of global integration provides a limit to the scope of the concept to cover only business units forming part of a multinational corporation.Although, there is no clear consensus on the definition of global integration, Schweige...
4552 words (11.4 pages)
captures the idea that integrity requires a degree of moral reflectiveness.” The essay begins with the claim that “discerning what is right and what is wrong .It is important to remember that “[w]hen [he] refer[s] to integrity, [Carter has] something very specific in mind.” “Referring to integrity” is something that is important to [Carter].“When I refer to integrity,” I have something specific in mind, states Carter.At the beginning of his essay “The Insufficiency of Honesty,” Stephen L. Carter establishes a definition for integrity: “discerning what is right and what is wrong; acting on what you have discerned, even at personal cost; and saying openly that you are acting on your understanding of right and wrong.” At the beginning of hi...
1833 words (4.6 pages)
Developing a consistent curriculum in-line with advanced manufacturing technology strategy is also very important in FET engineering programmes.A representative definition for CIMS is given by : .This definition represents the more narrow view of what constitutes CIMS.A specific definition for CIMS that all interested parties can agree upon has been elusive.This definition allows some flexibility in determining whether a specific facility constitutes CIMS.
2588 words (6.5 pages)
Schulz and Schulz (1998) introduced a new definition which in the opinions of others includes both the current and future features of IMC.Creative Integrity .Revisiting the IMC construct: a revised definition and four pillars.Tynan, K. (1994) Multi-channel Marketing: MaximisingMarket Share with an Integrated Marketing Strategy,Probus, Danvers, MA.(2005) Towards a new definition of integrated marketing communications (IMC).
4164 words (10.4 pages)
Although this definition is successful Kliatchko believed that for it to be complete it must not ‘limit the scope of IMC to the strategic management of multiple audiences or markets, multiple channels and financial results,’ as it is therefore leaving out crucial content which is obtained and delivered through the IMC process.It was established that due to a lack of understanding, and the rest of the barriers, this is the reason why companies only implement at the lower levels.The difficulty of IMC makes organisations reluctant however in the future if it is the path they must take to develop their company then IMC will evolve.This new definition also implements the term ‘business process’ which was previously introduced by Schultz and S...
3251 words (8.1 pages)