1988 How the public see the police: an Australian survey – I.1996 The Police Role: Studies of Male and Female Police (paper presented at the Australian Institute of Criminology Conference: First Australasian Women Police Conference).2002 ‘Australian Aborigines’ to ‘White Australians’.Australian Institute of Criminology .Australian Institute of Criminology 1995. .
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Reinforcing these conditions and helping to express Casey’s (2010) concepts of impacts on police practice and community policing is Skolnick and Bayley, (1988) in ‘Theme and Variation in Community Policing’ as well as the Ontario Ministry Of Children And Youth Services, (2010) in ‘Community Policing Strategies’, Cordner (1995) in ‘Community policing: elements and effects’ and also Tyler (2005) with ‘Policing in black and white: Ethnic group differences in trust and confidence in the police’.Majority of the police in developing countries are highly corrupt as a result of lack of morale, low pay, corruption and many other reasons.Therefore also due to these different conditions within this country such as South Africa for example, there wo...
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Throughout his childhood, Davis had little knowledge of his cultural background; it was only while living on the Brookton Aboriginal Reserve he was introduced the language and culture of his people, the Nyoongah of the South-West of Western Australia.Considering my fortunate upbringing and living in an improved and evolved version of Australian society, in comparison to the one Davis describes, my views have been shaped to accept all and to celebrate living in a country that is extremely rich in multiculturalism.Ironically, after taking away their bond with the land, the government also decided that Aboriginal and half-caste children should be removed from their homes and assimilated into white Australian culture.‘No Sugar’, an Australia...
2275 words (5.7 pages)
The play explores the systemic racism that exists within Australian society and portrays the justice system as corrupt and discriminatory -Throughout the play it is evident that racism is widespread and commonly used, with the people supporting immigrants being the minority.If he’s Australian, or…” and then continues on page 35 “Maria.-After the death of Gino, it is evident that the law system is corrupt and that racism is systemic.-He tried to assimilate into Australian society, Pg 34 “Clarry.Saw most of it happen, she says…”- Police still confident Gino was to blame -Page 97 Clarry “Why the change of face, eh?
767 words (1.9 pages)
As stated by the Western Australian Government’s Office of Crime Prevention, “Our children and young people are the future of our State.Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia (YAC).With the Western Australian State Government’s introduction of the Young People in Northbridge Policy, the issue of juvenile curfews is both current and prevalent within our community.In June 2003, the Western Australian State Government, led by Premier Geoff Gallop, implemented the Young People in Northbridge Policy, which stipulates a curfew to all unsupervised children in the Northbridge entertainment precinct.While reviews of the Young People in Northbridge Policy have revealed positive results, as reported by the Western Australian State Government, t...
4811 words (12.0 pages)
License Hunts gave police the liberty to check a miner’s license at random.The officers’ brutality and unjust behaviour further infuriated the miners and made the Ballarat Gold-Fields’ police subject to much hatred.Corrupt Officialdom was a heady problem on the gold fields.The Eureka Stockade was a bloody but essential part of Australian history.Most of the police were unsatisfactory, as many of them were ex-convicts and guards; because of this many of the officers were inclined to violence and brutality during a License Hunt.
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The following nights saw incidents of retaliatory violence and vandalism by those of Middle Eastern decent; throughout Sydney, and from Wollongong to Newcastle protests of both sides were present.Signs and t-shirts read discriminatory sayings such as “Fuck Allah, Save Nulla”, “Love it or Leave it”, “Wog Free Zone” and “We grew here, you flew here”.the community was shock to see such violence in a quiet neighbourhood.The fight divided many of Sydney, and called for Australians to address their notions of the identity of Australians or more specifically, what is to be Australian?The beachside suburb, known by residents as “God’s Country”, saw the spread of violence in a series of ethnically motivated confrontations in the week of December ...
263 words (0.7 pages)
This shows the interpretation of corruption and violence the police force get away with it but that people do not know about.He is police officer of the ‘old’ police force.Probationary Constable Webber, is created by the composer to be a hard working Police constable who has not been ‘corrupted’ by the ideals of the brotherhood within the police force.The attitudes of male and female members of the police force towards alleged victims of rape is another issue which Scales OF justice rises in its portrayal of a corrupt police force.The composer has used Webber as a means of contrast between the attitudes of the contemporary police force with that of the older police force.
3889 words (9.7 pages)
The various components of the criminal justice system in the name of the name of the police, court and correction process, each plays its part.The fact is that even if all employees of the justice system were fair, just, equitable, unbiased, impartial, objective and dispassionate, the Australian criminal justice process would be unjust still due to innocent bias (Reichel, 2004).There are cases where the police, courts and corrections enforce unfair law unintentionally, the term innocent bias is applied.Law makers at both state and federal government are disproportionately white, male, and more than twenty years older than an average Australian.Because the police probe alleged crimes and are the primary point of entry for cases in the cri...
2575 words (6.4 pages)
Innocent bias to exist does not require dishonest court staff, bad police officers, or unethical correctional personnel.This is the most significant and dangerous form of unfairness, with widespread effects that cannot be rooted out easily, unlike most apparent forms like corruption, police brutality, bribery, and prosecutorial misconduct among others.Law makers at both state and federal government are disproportionately white, male, and more than twenty years older than an average Australian.The fact is that even if all employees of the justice system were fair, just, equitable, unbiased, impartial, objective and dispassionate, the Australian criminal justice process would be unjust still due to innocent bias (Reichel, 2004).Because the...
2556 words (6.4 pages)
Considering the unsubstantiated cases of child abuse and neglect on the year 1999-2000, it is been reported that 7628 came from New South Wales and 1196 are from Western Australia.New South Wales percent of substantiated is 21.3% of 30,398 (total notifications) while it is 44.2% in Western Australia wherein the total notifications is 2,645 according to the new calculation from the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare, 2001.This leads to a ratio of 7.8:1 in favor with the unsubstantiated cases in New South Wales and a ratio of 5.5:1 in Western Australia (Ainsworth, F. 2002).During the year 1998-1989, total notifications of child abuse, by state and territory are as follows: 1) New South Wales- 31,513; 2) Victoria- 34,679; 3) Queens...
6924 words (17.3 pages)
Within the new frame work of suicide prevention the Department of justice in the Western Australian Correctional centers, has made its priority to reduce prison stressors.A report that was released by the criminology unit of the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC), recommends that all Australian prisons should provide cells which are safe for prisoners who risk to commit suicide or who are a threat to themselves.The dislocation of Aboriginal people from their land and culture, and the intrusion of Western society into Aboriginal life have rendered many Aboriginal forms of social control ineffective.A number of cells in Australia for example Australian Capital Territory, Western Australia cells and Northern Territ...
2595 words (6.5 pages)
Various attempts by the policy to eradicate the Aborigines through the imposition of restrictions with regard to their freedom made it impossible for the natives to view it as a noble initiative.Such discrimination made the Aboriginals develop a negative attitude towards the settlers as they realized that the assimilation policy was aimed at eradicating their culture and traditional beliefs so that they would adopt the western culture.As for the police, they viewed the hostility defensively and this fueled the Aboriginal’s anger towards the judicial system and other law enforcement agencies.In addition, the government advocated for interbreeding between the Indigenous Australians and the Whites so as to eliminate the former’s physical ch...
1808 words (4.5 pages)
It is thought that this has been done through ASIO (Australian Secret Intelligence organisation), by using the agency to infiltrate the Timor delegation, and with the use of wire taping and other assimilated technologies to gain information on what the Timor delegation knew about the Timor- Gap treaty and what they didn’t.However as Wiki Leaks states secrecy can promote corruption and weaken all parts of democracies, and damage the very thing it’s trying to keep safe and or secret. Jones, Nicholas.Better scrutiny leads to reduced corruption and stronger democracies in all society’s institutions, including government, corporations and other organisations.Another example of nation State manipulating information for their benefit is the...
1319 words (3.3 pages)
The Australian workforce is approximately 10 million and is highly trained; many senior managers and technical staff have a university, trade or diploma qualification.In Australian Bureau of Statistics.It offers a Western business culture with a workforce capable of operating in Asian and Western business environments, since it has a wide range of native Asian language skills in the region.In the 2006 census, the most common ancestry was Australian 37.15%, followed by English 32%, Irish 9%, Scottish 8%, Italian 4%, Germany 4%, Chinese 3%, and Greek 2%.Australian Government Infrastructure Australia.
2157 words (5.4 pages)
In today’s Australian social platform, gender issues are a delicate form of political activity.Schaffer, K. 1998, Women And The Bush: forces of desire in the Australian cultural tradition, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.This is echoed by Anne Summers, Damned Whores and God’s Police, in which she concludes that the “whole idea of an Australian woman…is a national joke (Schaffer, 1998; Summers, 1994).This mythic man is representative of Australia’s cultural codes, he is both “western and specifically Australian” (Schaffer).In western countries, such as Australia, it is upon men that “autonomy, control over the world and mastery of others” (Porter, 1998, p. 27) has been placed.
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Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003.Youth Suicide in Australia: Prevention Strategies, Department of Employment, Education and Training & Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra .Population by age and sex: Australian states and territories 2003.States like; Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland have enacted the criminal codes.2002, Homicide in Australia: 2000-2001 National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) Annual Report, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
3504 words (8.8 pages)
The Australian federal police has been running trials of shaming conferences in ACT since 1992 and these schemes have been established in Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria and Queensland- but still evaluating the options.This researcher has demonstrated that a young person(s) dependency is still sustained with their former parent(s).Thus creating a barrier to give them full responsibility as a young person and an evidential proof that shows why young people must be treated differently- having said young people are still dependent with their former parents shows the lack of incentives to take on the legal system which is not indulged by parents, but it’s a turmoil structural system of the Australian Constitution.All of the obje...
1428 words (3.6 pages)
Australian organization of Criminology, Canberra.Australian administration: Australian institution of Criminology, .States like; Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland have enacted the criminal codes.Mason, G, ‘Odium offence as ethical Category: Lessons from the Snowtown Case’ Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 40(3) 249-271 (2007) Recorded crime: victims, Australia 2003.Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003.
3509 words (8.8 pages)
Police used “tear gas” to separate the rowdy groups but this only angered them more because they were unable to express their pain (The Guardian: David Batty) .Western can be defined by “living in or originating from the west, in particular Europe or the U.S.” while Liberalism is defined as “a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution” (Google Web).After the explosion, hundreds of Christians and Muslims raged came to the streets of Egypt “clashing” with one another and the police “pelting each other with rocks” wrathful by the events that left their loved ones dead.Due to the protest from these nations, transformations have been established in the Arab World by Western Libe...
1638 words (4.1 pages)
Patapan, H 1999, Separation of Powers in Australia, Australian Journal of Political Science, Queensland, Vol.Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives are elected by the Australian population.Their function is “to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth” (Australian Government ComLaw, 2003).Pembroke, M Thomson, J Sarre, R 2006, Introduction to Law, Lexi Nexus Butterworths, New South Wales, pp.Word count: 1073 .
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Pessimistic words like “cruel city” or “tortured silhouettes” are used to make reader aware that western society is cruel, and will only harm Johnny.Johnny has become trapped in this type of Western society, being considered an outcast.Living in a world dominated by non ethnic and non coloured members of society will only mean that people other than that will be marginalised and rejected.These two characters, being portrayed as powerless and downtrodden, leave readers to believe that race and ethnicity are unfavourable in society.Western society has constructed a generalisation that Aborigines commit crime and are considered as common trouble makers.
799 words (2.0 pages)
New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia have created separate victim compensation courts.South Australia adopted a different receipt date, as did Western Australia.Influenced by contemporary ideas of international law, fallacy, and private property, the British viewed the Australian Aborigines as too primitive to have possession of the Australian continent.Common law is, along with civil law in continental Europe, part of the western legal tradition.All jurisdictions except Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory have an intermediate trial court - called a county court in Victoria and a district court in the other states.
2543 words (6.4 pages)
Corruption in its well established context is understood to mean as the use of public authority by police officers for their personal and private gain (Goldstein, 1997) while noble cause corruption largely differs in its motivation.As succinctly stated by Kleinig (2002), there is inability to provide rules in every situation and every exigency and for which reason the police are called upon to use discretion.This conduct of the police is considered within the purview of the meaning of ‘noble cause corruption.’ .There are police crisis teams and crisis centers for pre booking and for post booking, the services in jails and the community.Disciplinary mechanisms against police misconduct must be set in place.
2633 words (6.6 pages)
The editor’s further alliteration, in conjunction with emotive language, emphasises the ignorance of police authorities “embarrassing ease”, and persuades responders to critic not only the Chaser’s stunt but as well as the Australian Police, for their ignorance, hence influencing the reader’s judgment.Geoffrey Robertson’s nonfiction text, The Justice Game and David Braithwaite’s feature article “Chaser Comic Convoy beats summit security” highlights the expected conflicts in perspectives through the issues of corruption of the law and obscenity accompanied by the overarching theme of “truths”.The conflict between both parties is evident in this chapter, highlighting the discrepancies between society’s expectations and the message represen...
1369 words (3.4 pages)
His language is also full of clichés including sexual references; ‘your trusty weapon, a mob of little yellows’.Dawe’s techniques provide a very distinctive and strong voice for the poem.The dramatic quality used also helps to create a distinctive voice within the poem.Harry is a powerful man who has built his fame on an empire of corruption.Some of the colloquialisms used, such as ‘you’ve copped the bloody lot’ or ‘worse luck’ are specifically Australian.
1231 words (3.1 pages)
To focus on drug problems in Australia, it is pertinent to refer that records indicate that 22% of Australian population during 1998 took drugs at least once a year which is five times more than the global average.Drugs corrupt people and undermine society.There is more harm resulting from prohibition which overshadows the gains from efforts by police to curb the criminal drug industry.Based on the factors that the Australian drug policy has been shaped by a national strategy around three pillars, the requirements are to look into accountability part of the supply side by “supply reduction to reduce the availability of drugs through legislation and law enforcement”.Review of Australian initiatives by amending drug policy indicates that d...
2755 words (6.9 pages)
Captain Cook landed in Australian with instruction from the British government which introduced British laws in the country.Colonization of Australian by British changed many other aspects of Australian way of life.Consequently Tasmania, Victoria, Queens Land, South Australia and Western Australia became trusted colonies (Australian Government, 2008).Australian way of life was greatly changed by British colonization.The consequential policies and enactment into the Australia constitution changed the Australian social, political and economical life.
1042 words (2.6 pages)
Allegiance to and camaraderie with one’s fellow police officers is essential for successful and safe police work.Police culture can also refer to the intense devotion and solidarity with fellow police officers, feelings of which are beyond those normally experienced among employees of other professions (Walker, 1992, p. 92).Other early groups of police included the Massachusetts State Police and Rangers from other Western states.It can refer to the “us-versus-them” mind-set that is a quality of police forces nearly everywhere – where “them” includes the society in general, miscreants, offenders and police management.Police unions (like the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) and the International Conference of Police Associations (ICPA), cit...
2202 words (5.5 pages)
This is corruption within the police force.Being an undercover police unit, most scenes are shot in the offices, so there are always things around the setting of the rooms showing the theme of ridding corruption.Peter Church, an undercover operative for the Australian Police, goes in disguise to gather inside information about crime groups and use the information to rid society of the groups’ evil deeds.Things such as corrupt police officers, and even whole police forces in some countries, make the running of society a harder job for the people responsible for the smooth running of a society than it already is.This setting will usually show a contest between good and evil (police and criminal) and a majority of the time, it will be the g...
3700 words (9.3 pages)