Here was the birth of liberalism in order to secure the rise of capitalism, enabled by their invented form of ‘democracy’- representative democracy.S Constitution effectively invented a new form of democracy which is in many ways the antithesis of what the Athenians, the inventors of democracy, practiced.Both are linked with the distancing of civic society from politics while still being a democracy- a representative democracy where participation in politics is indirect and removed from civic life or the economic sphere.So we have a democracy defined by it’s citizens exercising their political power- the demos and a democracy defined by it’s people passing their political power onto a third party, in order to be ‘represented’ in their de...
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A constitutional government has several elements-procedural stability, accountability, representation, division of power, openness and disclosure (Safra, 2002).The U. S. constitution, on the other hand, copied most of its phrases from the British constitutional vocabulary (Safra, 2002).Since democracy sits in constitutionalism, there should exists openness and disclosure in the government.Constitutional government has been practiced by several countries.According to Aristotle, monarchy and aristocracy are good constitution whereas tyranny, oligarchy and democracy are bad constitution (2002).
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The IEC was created to protect people from being intimidated when going to vote and serves to promote Democracy (Heywood, 2007:324).Furthermore, there is an “ombudsman” (Heywood, 2007:397) who is appointed to protect all citizens and their constitutional rights.Elections are a form of democracy which allows civil society to determine their Government, and decisions can often be based of what they have read or heard through the media or from the political organisation’s manifestos.Within a Democracy there is a “Constitutional government” (Heywood, 2007:318) that is obliged to participate and decide on any decisions, whereby, civil society is considered.This essay also discussed and defined the relationship between ‘democracy’ and ‘voting’...
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The fate of Iraq is dim – democracy will not work in a Muslim nation.(Afterword) It is referred to as such because Bush traded American interests for his own interest in oil in Iraq, going so far as to push democracy for this country even though they are not part of the United States and have not requested help in establishing democracy.In order to practice constitutional liberalism, the ideology must remain secular.If a democracy works the way it is intended, it represents the needs of the people.Zakaria defines these conditions as “constitutional liberalism.
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The fact that the document took only three years to create and please everyone to the point of ratification, is a good testament to the speed with which Democracy took shape in Czechoslovakia.The people have proven that Democracy is what they will and the mentioned variables show that is what they are doing.In this constitution, the principles of Democracy were outlined.On January 1, 1993, almost three years after they claimed independence, the first Czechoslovakian constitution was ratified, thus putting the wheel of Democracy into motion.Through examining the oversight power of social institutions, the economy, national and domestic policy and government structure, I will make an overall assessment of Democracy in Czechoslovakia.
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According to an article on the ideal democracy, though democracy is widely considered to bet the most preferable form of government, this conviction alone is not enough to establish its supremacy as the ideal form of government often having flaws when actualized (Coffrin, 2012).The comparison between the beginning democracy and the ideal democracy j. .k. How Do I compare the US Democracy to Dahl’s Ideal Democracy?What is democracy.Introduction – Democracy Definition by Latin roots and suffixes a. Background- Articles about the common topic of Democracy and its different definitions.
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This problem has been difficult to answer because for along time liberal democracy has coincided with democracy.The present scenario is that the spread of democracy is in the world has not always been together with a corresponding spread of liberty.The most crucial matter has always been to differentiate between democracy and constitutionalism.The essence of democracy should be a free and fair election.Democracy has there fore prevailed in the government of most countries especially Africa.
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In addition, since the dynamics of society suggest that the constitution evolves according to the changes in society, which is significant when ensuring that constitutional principles correspond to social conventions.In 508 BC, Athenians established the first democratic constitutional.Greek democracy is defined by five basic principles: consent, participation, rule of law, limited powers of government, and principle of equality.Constitutional principles are a position from which we operate justly.For example, during the time of Greek democracy they considered the law to be inclusive, but it was only inclusive to those who met their standard.
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Between the United States, democracy, and liberalism, I believe that democracy came first, then liberalism and finally the United States.I agree with Zakaria that liberalism and democracy indeed went hand in hand with the development of our American constitution, as it upholds the beliefs of a fair and free government providing civil rights and all which constitutional liberalism stands for.To begin, democracy was first introduced by Plato, a Greek political philosopher who said that democracy was a “rule by the governed” in comparison to other types of government such as monarchy.In Fareed Zakaria’s The Rise of Illiberal Democracy, we can see his point of view on the difference between a liberal and illiberal democracy and how an illibe...
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It has promoted democracy to a great extend especially in the US where by the citizens have been able to participate in free and fair elections as well as enjoying the freedom of movement and speech within the single states.In democracy, the constitution must also guarantee fair and free elections as well as independent law courts.It limits the power that can be exercised by the government and enhance access to the rights by the citizens since it discourages any legislature that wishes to restrict liberties through in access to constitutional power (Elazar 112).Democracy is a form of government whereby the basic personal as well as political rights are guaranteed by the constitution.Federalism enhances democracy and this can well be expl...
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While the framers and founders of the constitution successfully laid out the necessary tools and principles that allow for democracy to take off in India, the people retain the supreme authority and control to make the necessary changes or amendments to it so that it can be customized to better serve the nation.(India Election Commission) In spite of these obstacles and problems of huge proportions and underlying dilemma extant in an inexperienced and infantile democracy, India was able to pull it through under the headship of Sukumar Sen, Chief Election Commissioner.Beetham, D., Defining and Measuring Democracy, Sage Publications: 1994, pp 6-10 .Amidst the adverse and difficult circumstances that loom around India in quest for indepen...
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In this light, there is an almost exclamatory tone to Madison’s writing and there is, without a doubt, a tone of warning in the following, famous passage: But the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department, consists in giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachments of the others[… Ambition must be made to counteract ambition.This means that the principles of the American Revolution, as the foundation of our constitutional system, have been destroyed and that we have returned to the principles of the British system.Madison means no less than: all citizens of a democracy must put the principles of that democracy,...
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The Romans also experimented with democracy, however it was more a republic, and not a democracy.Later, in the 1700’s, United States of America became a democracy.A democracy is really a form of republic known as a democratic republic.Democracy, as it is used today, means “ the people rule.” A democracy is a form of government ruled by the people of the country through elections and representation.Democracy has been around for almost 2500 years since Athens, Greece became the first democracy.
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The constitutional state, as opposed to the Panopticon/police state, is characterized by democracy, and defined as the following: .The constitutional state is the complete opposite of the police state (“Constitutional State”).[A constitutional state is] any free democracy that positively encourages participation from all sections of society in the creation of political opinion has to be structured in the form of a constitutional state.In any case, most Western nations today, including the U.S., have the right to claim that they are constitutional states as opposed to brutal, police states (the enemies of democracy).Constitutional State.
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Perhaps a more comprehensive definition of democracy is provided by Heywood (2007), who affirms that democracy is “a system of government that serves the interests of the people regardless of their participation in political life.” .Liberal democracy is a conceptual political ideology that combines notions both from democracy and from liberalism.The provisions of the Australian constitutional statutes are entrenched, meaning they cannot be changed by the ordinary law-making process.The topic of liberal democracy is quite controversial and opinions vary.The fact remains that liberal democracy has given Australia a lot of internal stability over the past decades and the political system here is not in any danger of collapsing.
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According to Canovan (1999), democracy as it is known refers to liberal democracy and that populism poses a threat to democracy because it is illiberal.I will begin by stating that the Finnish version of populism constitutes a real challenge to democracy which stands in accordance with the view that populism is a challenge to democracy.Populism is thus an integral part of democracy which might as well be instigated by “broken promises of democracy” which might include amongst others, the confinement of democracy to constricted political spheres and the deficiency of it not being able to spill over into other social arenas for instance the economy, poor results of democracy in the area of the citizen to name a few.Most of which confirm to...
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The key to understanding the purposes, principles, and generalizations called for in the standards is to begin with the question “Why?” For example, Standard One says, “Students will examine the structure and purposes of governments with specific emphasis on constitutional democracy.” The purposes of governments, of course, are the “why” of governments.American citizens need a basic understanding of the structure of different forms of government and a detailed knowledge of a constitutional democracy.Constitutional democracy10 as a structure of government developed from the tension between the need for authority and the need to constrain authority.CIVICS STANDARD ONE: Students will examine the structure and purposes of governments with sp...
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Therefore, let’s find and discuss the causes behind such weak, vulnerable and dented face and status of democracy in Pakistan and try to reach at workable solutions.This Essay attempts to pin point and analyze the reasons behind such fragile and weak nature of democracy in Pakistan and extends recommendations along with identifying various means and players especially youth for strengthening democratic process in Pakistan to make it promising and delivering.Their periods is characterized with dummy and rubber stamped parliaments, abrupt and non democratic dissolutions of assemblies, political intrigues, bickering and quarrelling, inefficiency, abrupt and fast changes of regimes.Despite all this, what he choiced and dreamt for Pakistan ab...
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His defense contrasts those of Hegel who advocated for constitutional monarchy as the ideal form of a state.Karl Marx understanding of true democracy implies that the political state ceases to exist and democracy governs itself.Comparative Democracy and Income Distribution: Shape and Direction of the Causal Arrow.Marx suggests otherwise though, that these constitutional monarchies do not entail participation of every person in the decision making process.Schumpeter on Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy.
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The pro identified pro associated with Egyptian democracy is that there is the process of consolidation going on, to bring the democracy in line with modern democratic norms and values.The US democracy has great respect for the conditional doctrines and public office holders perform their official duties according to the constitutional dictates.(2003), “How Democratic is the American Constitution” In Constitutional Commentary.According to Lipset, cited by Carroll (2005), American democracy is the best of the best, this flow from a stable and continuing democracy and also the additional advantage of a democracy reinforced by the cultural heritage of a Revolution that did not occur in England, Canada or Australia.Hence, legitimacy crises a...
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The survival of this democracy has been challenged before and it will be again.In the first 100 years the American democracy suffered some severe growing pains.Jeffersonian, Jacksonian democracy and reconstruction served to either stem the tide of overreaching federal power or ensure the rights of those previously dispossessed.In the first 100 years survival of the democracy was hardly a given.Jacksonian democracy is a continuation of the see-saw between Federalism and Populism that is a hallmark of our democracy.
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The liberal democracy is seen by its critiques as operating in such a way that condones and facilitates economic exploitation.Modern democracy has been criticized several times as being a dishonest farce that is used so as to keep the masses from realizing its irrelevance in the political process.Most of liberal democracies today are in the form of participatory democracy and/or direct democracy (Wiredu & Abraham, 2006).When we talk of a liberal democracy we are referring to a constitutional democracy.Nevertheless not all the democratic countries of the world are ruled by liberal democracy parties, rather by none-liberal democracy parties while upholding social democracy, Christian democracy, some form of socialism and conservatism b...
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’10 This leads us to accept the constitutional conception of democracy, ‘… that collective decisions be made by political institutions whose structure, composition, and practices treat all members of the community, as individuals, with equal concern and respect.My arguments in support of the necessity of judicial protection of fundamental rights in a democracy are based on a deliberative view of democracy, although not in the sceptical sense depicted by Posner, but in the sense of a political system which respects diversity and the need to protect diverse interests of fundamental importance.11 Dworkin in A Bill of Rights for Britain12 argues, using a public opinion poll in favour of his assertion, that the British people want constitutio...
2443 words (6.1 pages)
Its decision to take this unconventional path and follow the federal political system with a consensus democracy demonstrates that sovereignty may not always be the answer; homogenising such a large country with different regions and practices would be impossible.Other factors such as economic conditions after 1949 might also explain why democracy succeeded.It is institutional stability and every day practices, coupled with the politics of consensus, which established democracy successfully in Germany.With democracy stabilising around the 1950s, Germany also experienced full employment.The Constitutional Court, for instance, exemplifies the separation of powers by upholding the Basic Law and defending civil liberties, in contrast to Weim...
1593 words (4.0 pages)
Often not only the judicial independence in a democracy is the case, but the external pressure can sometimes take place.The key feature of judiciary in a democracy is its complete independence from government.Judges expounding the law and constitution have a very important role in a democracy.Some people have mixed feelings about the way how judges are elected in a democracy.As it is seen from Heywood, judges are not always neutral and therefore in a real democracy can influence the final decision in both ways.
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Cranami (2008) has argued that in a liberal democracy there is a consideration of political commitment to core values and to democracy.Modern democracy has been criticized several times as being a dishonest farce that is used so as to keep the masses from realizing its irrelevance in the political process.The liberal democracy is seen by its critiques as operating in such a way that condones and facilitates economic exploitation.Liberal democracies may take the form of a republic such as in France, India and the United States, a constitutional monarchy such as Spain and United Kingdom.The liberal democracy and the governing system in Saudi Arabia seem to have some features in common in that the rich and the powerful are favored by the po...
3495 words (8.7 pages)
The answer to the question varies based on ones perspective.Democracy involves political participation, voting, and citizen participation.Addressing the questions is a difficult task.Democracy is relevant to who governs because it shows that one individual does not govern and although “the people” may elect someone, the process of getting there and the process of staying there involves other institutions that prevent too much power.However the Constitution enables us to understand what institutions govern and what powers aren’t entitled to those who govern and those who are governed.
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However, public opinion & the freedom of it is not necessarily enough to constitute an un-authoritarian state; the limitations of the Reichstag highlighted the lack of ‘true’ democracy being the ‘democracy in the Undemocratic State’ as the Reichstag is limited in its power.True democracy must involve ‘the people’, rather than just the bureaucrats, having a strong influence & active part in how the country is run, as only then is everyone’s interests given a fair chance to be considered.The issue is whether or not in practice the state was totally authoritarian and how far Germany was stuck in authoritarianism, or in other words; how much potential for advancement towards democracy there was.Therefore, the public outcry to these e...
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The media needed to be watched by independent “watch dogs”, but giving power over the media to the government does not assist in media being protectors of our democracy.People within the media such as Jonathon Shapiro, although sometimes causing uproar, contribute to our democracy in initiating debates, opinions and free thinkers.A democracy requires this transition as the people hold the power in a democracy.It can therefore be said that the media in South Africa post-1994 have an enormous role to play in society and is to a great extent safeguarding our democracy.Jonathan Shapiro (Zapiro), a well-known satirist in South Africa, could be argued as someone within the media whom does not, to a minor extent, protect our democracy.
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Tocqueville Alexis de, Democracy in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1996) .Sisk Timothy D., Islam and Democracy (Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1992) .Levine Andrew, Liberal Democracy: A Critique of Its Theory, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981) .Some argue that the form of Islamic Republic is just a “theocracy” and some others has recognized the “constitutional theocratic character of the regime.” Some argue that theocracy as “the kingdom of God on earth” has not fully realized yet and thus prior to this full realization, theocracy can coexist with any transitory system of human government.Free election of government bodies under (eventual) universal suffrage, competition for office through organi...
4472 words (11.2 pages)