According to MacKinnon, pornography is not an example of speech but rather an act.Catharine MacKinnon's Book Feminism Unmodified Catharine MacKinnon, in her book Feminism Unmodified, takes a unique approach to the problem of gender inequality in America.Even according to MacKinnon’s definition of pornography, sexually explicit material could remain legal if it portrayed both sexes equally.Women could become part of the power structure and world on their own terms.If this is accomplished, the male need to view pornography would drastically decrease.
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“Looking to the Future, Feminism Has to Focus”.“Catharine A. MacKinnon: The Rise of a Feminist Censor, 1893-1993”.Feminism Suite.With this being the case, MacKinnon felt that liberal feminism was far less than equipped to handle the job of helping these women, with its greatest weakness being the fact that liberal feminism seeks legal equality for women within a corrupt and tainted legal system; efforts that will never translate from theory into practice.MacKinnon, Catharine.
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From this angle, feminism can be beneficial to liberalism, as it demonstrates to individuals that the private sphere is not clear of political involvement.Gilligan based her work upon the notion of difference feminism.It essentially highlighted that women’s experiences and expectations were not adequately acknowledged by the definitions of law which traditional jurisprudence offered, and thus, it is reasonable to argue that feminism has offered a highly distinctive and coherent approach to legal theory.In her 1982 article, Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: An Agenda for Theory, Mackinnon constructed a theory of women’s oppression where she recognised sex to be the central issue that constitutes such oppression.Catharine Mackinnon...
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These are designed to help females feel safe to be out on the streets alone at night.There are many different opinions on pornography, and there isn’t a right or wrong answer.Once again the highly acclaimed feminist lawyer Catharine MacKinnon says: þIf pornography is an act of male supremacy, its harm is the harm of male supremacy made difficult to see because of its pervasiveness, potency, and success in making the world a pornographic place.Isnþt feminism the idea that a woman should be able to control her body, her self, and her interests?You could even join a local feminist group such as NOW ( National Organization for Women) who will share many of the same views that you probably do.
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So long as sex equality is limited by “sex difference” whether you like it or don’t like it, whether you value it or seek to negate it, whether you stake it out as a grounds for feminism or occupy it as the terrain of misogyny, women will be born, degraded and die.What is Feminism?MacKinnon, Catharine.This is what Angela P. Harrris discusses in her article, in relation to what Catharine MacKinnon discusses in hers.However, it cannot be denied once again, that the struggle of women does not end with the first wave feminism, after all its not apt to call it the first wave if there is no second wave.
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Marxist Feminism The objective of my paper is to examine the connection between Capitalism and women’s both social and economical inequality.Mackinnon, Catharine, “Feminism, Marxism, Method & the State: An Agenda for Theory” Journal of Women in Culture & Society, Vol.Lenin, Pravda No.Hartmann, Heidi “ The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism & Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union” in Lydia Sargent (ed.Ryan, Sally, “The Emancipation of Women” in The Writings of V.I.
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The evidence of female disem... .New York, New York: Henry Holt and, 2005.Sex Roles 44.5-6 (2001): 351-61.... middle of paper ... .Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2012.
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), Take Back the Night: Women on Pornography (pp.New York: William Morrow.MacKinnon, Catharine.Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law.Effects of massive exposure to .
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Paradoxically, Dworkin’s (1990) synoptic treatment of the history of pornography exaggerates the passivity and helplessness of female victims and the violence of male domination to such an extent, that it unwittingly reinforces the very binary stereotypes that feminism has historically fought to uproot.Russell, D. E. H. (2000): ‘Pornography and Rape: A Causal Model’, in D. Cornell [ed], , Oxford Readings in Feminism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 48-93 .Methodological concerns aside, anti-porn definitions of pornography entail positions that appear to contradict the very essence of feminism.Royalle, C. (2000): ‘Porn in the USA’, in D. Cornell [ed], , Oxford Readings in Feminism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 540-550 ... Ba...
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But perhaps these women did not see their lives, our lives, as things worth fighting for.They are not expected to compete with one another or with men, to be good mothers to the children that they bear, to take part in hard labor, to study, to think at all.Isn't this, at some childish level, appealing?The government in this book is not one entirely perpetuated by men.If every woman fought back tooth and nail, Gilead could not exist.
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The colloquia of this association take place every three years, each time in a different European city (Amsterdam, Barcelona, Berlin, Göteborg, Heidelberg, Klagenfurt, Rome, Vienna, Würzburg, Zurich); in 1998 it was organized in Boston in the United States in parallel and in collaboration with the World Congress of Philosophy.It is above all a forum for philosophical work, joint work, theoretical exchange on the relations of domination of sex / gender, on the relation between feminism and philosophy, on the relations between sex, gender and sexuality / s, on the philosophy of la - et du - politique… A forum in which young researchers presenting their work for the first time and older researchers, even new ones, meet, in short: it is a ...
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Third wave feminism appreciates and views the internet as an important source for opening up lines of communication and support networks for young scholars (Alfonso and Trigilio 7).However, lesbian feminism is limited in that they do not address the power issues may still exist in lesbian relationships just as they do in heterosexual relationships.Contrasting other perspectives, third wave feminism guides their analysis towards a more micro perspective and emphasizes that individual identities are unique and complex.The combination of liberal, Marxist, radical, postcolonial, lesbian, and third wave feminism will allow us to recognize the historical shifts of these perspectives – all these perspectives have risen at certain points in time...
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Michael Kimmel, Diane Diamond, and Kirby Schroeder, “‘What’s This about a Few Good Men?’ Negotiating Sameness and Difference in Military Education from the 1970s to the Present,” in Masculinities and Education, N. Lesko, ed.Thus gender inequality creates a double bind for women–a double bind that is based on the postulation of gender difference and the assumption of institutional gender neutrality.Catharine MacKinnon, Towards a Feminist Theory of the State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989), pp.(Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 1999).Michael S. Kimmel, The Gendered Society, Oxford University Press, 2000 .
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Such social cost is high.An activist named Catharine MacKinnon contributed an amicus curiae brief to the proceedings, and has since stated that the government neglected to raise all the relevant issues in the case.48 Hours, 18 Nov 1992 .www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/Porn/Baker/sc.html, 26 Jul 2001 .The fact that U. S. citizens spend between eight and ten billion dollars on pornography each year(4) should be the final straw compelling us to be more careful individually and take appropriate measures collectively to stop this deadly plague.
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@Epistemic Drift in Foucault@ in the anthology Feminism & Foucault:Reflections on Resistance.(Boston: Northeastern University Press) 1988, 43-58"Genealogical Feminism" in Anti-Apocalypse (London: University of Minneapolis Press) 1994, 33.While feminists are negatively portrayed in the Irving's novel as extreme, anti-male, and apocalyptic, I want to get past a knee-jerk dismissal of the novel and get at Irving's commentary on the feminist movement because I believe that it can provide valuable insights into feminism.Extreme Depictions of Feminism in John Irving's The World According to Garp and Catherine MacKinnon's Sexuality In the classroom, in popular culture and in suburbia, to call someone or something 'extreme' is enough to comp...
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There are also different kinds of feminism, the most common being: Liberal feminism, which seeks equal rights through policy change but does not focus on cultural issues; Radical feminism, which seeks the abolition of gender as we know it; and Socialist feminism which suggests that capitalism along with patriarchy is responsible for the oppression of women and therefore seek to abolish these to prevent female oppression.Comparative views of the law within feminism.Catharine MacKinnon argues that prostitution “isn’t sex only, it’s you do what I say, sex.”These feminists believe that prostitution is harmful to society as it reinforces the idea that women are sex objects which exist for men’s enjoyment.Feminism does indeed support a broad s...
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Thus, since the produce more in society, they are highly regarded and have value before the eyes of the state.On the other hand, topics such as neoliberalism and bio power are terms to consider with thin Marxism and feminism.Marxism holds against feminism is that; feminism is a seen as a theory and practice that only works in the interest of the ruling class.Neoliberalism, in the sense whereby since men are considered to be economic purveyors, as a result they produce more.The readings by Catharine McKinnon “Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State” and Sheila Jeffreys’’ The Industrial Vagina’’ address the topics of Feminism and Marxism.
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... middle of paper ... .Pornography is an eight billion dollar industry.Also, a major shift in language has led to a glorification of a sexual explicit lifestyle.The main issue at stake in the pornography debate is the conflict of individual freedom and social control.Making pornography illegal will further alienate and endanger women sex workers and other minorities.
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Paradoxically, Dworkin’s (1990) synoptic treatment of the history of pornography exaggerates the passivity and helplessness of female victims and the violence of male domination to such an extent, that it unwittingly reinforces the very binary stereotypes that feminism has historically fought to uproot.Anti-pornography writers, such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon -authors of the famous ‘Minneapolis and Indianapolis ordinances’ – advocated the censorship of pornographic material, on account of its role as ‘a practice that is central to the subordination of women’.Following the example of ventures such as ‘Femme Productions’ -launched by former porn-worker Candida Royalle and targeting a couple market- sexually explicit material...
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Therefore feminism has provided a new dimension to liberalist legal theory is; a re-evaluation of its structure; and a consideration of its inherent power and inequalities.Feminism has provided a discourse that has gone farther than just making women equal to men, because in making the law gender-blind it fails to recognize the inherent power of men over women in the legal system, as well as the inherent structural inequalities.The problem with radical feminism is not its findings but the lack to use acceptable academic research from an objective method; it does in fact portray the reality of inequality and control.It will do this by considering Nozick’s entitlement theory and adapt it in respect to feminism to create an inherently indis...
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However, many women found their domestic sphere very confining, and decided that they wanted the same rights as the men of their country.As the century immediately following the American Revolution, the 19th century experienced a rise in feminism as it harbored the first feminist movement in America.Interestingly enough, Angelina Grimke, who married the western abolitionist, Theodore Dwight Weld, in 1838, chose to keep her maiden name as well.Catharine Beecher wrote Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies in 1841, which acted as a guidebook for women, in which she instructed them how to do their household chores.Bloomers were a style of clothing for women that combined a “short skirt over full-length pantalets” (Hippocam...
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These are: Liberal Feminism, Socialist Feminism; Radical Feminism; Post-Modern Feminism; and Multicultural feminism.Susan Wendell, citing the work of Mackinnon (1987) () says that ‘contemporary feminism is committed to major economic reorganization and considerable redistribution of wealth, since one of the modern political goals most closely associated with liberal feminism is equality of opportunity which would undoubtedly require and lead to both.Feminism in its radical sense has it that society is a patriarchy that primarily oppresses women thus radical feminists seek to disband patriarchy.Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminism because it is generally based on women’s ability to assert their equality through their ow...
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Prostitutes are generally made up of women from the lower socio economic classes including poor and uneducated women from the most disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities MacKinnon 1993.The sex industry, like any other worldwide enterprise, has numerous sectors based in various locations which are controlled by various managers and is expanding as the law and public opinion allow.If prostitution is viewed as a legal form of rape then undoubtedly you will agree with the proposition.The radical feminists gender based view that prostitution is a form of male sexual violence against women does not address the fact that male prostitutes exist .MacKinnon also argues that “In prostitution, women have sex with men thay would never otherwise h...
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The Mind’s Mirror.Why We Won’t Stop Global Warming.Monitor on Psychology, 36.Young, H. (2013).), Readings in Ecology and Feminist Theology (172-195).
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Liberal feminism is rooted in the belief that women as well as men are right bearing autonomous human beings.In Gilligan’s difference feminism, the writer argues constructs of morality are formed at an early age and are crucially gender orientated, thus specific to males and females in different ways.Laws regulating pension retirement ages and equally pay opportunities under labour laws have been an issue within liberal feminism.Difference feminism has created an alternative paradigm assessing male and female social structures.In this sense, social feminism is continually evolving  through analytic inquiries to understand female subordination which assimilates issues of class and gender.
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During the 1970s and 80s second-wave feminism movement, the representation of woman have changed considerably.11, Media, Gender and Sexually.MacKinnon, C. (1988) Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on life and law.11, Media, Gender and Sexuality, a balanced approach, p241) .In the mass media, feminism has had strong criticism of the representations of women in visual world, particular advertising industry, along with the feminism movement, more then others, “the emphasis on domesticity, deference and traditional romance”(Hodkinson, P 2013, , Sage, Los Angeles, ch.
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“More Power Than We Want: Masculine Sexuality and Violence.” Reweaving the Web of Life: Feminism and Nonviolence.Socially constructed gender roles have shaped “sexuality as a form of power” (Mackinnon, 2).Catherine Mackinnon further describes these powerful gender roles: “the social beings we know as man and woman are bound by social requirements of heterosexuality, which institutionalizes male sexual domination and female sexual submission” The woman’s identity becomes inexplicably attached to her sexuality, becoming “that which is most of her own, yet is most taken away” (Tong, 111).MacKinnon, Catharine A. Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State.Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II.
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Research, 13(1/2): 5-21. .In a gendered frame analysis, it is clear that there was feminization of the genocide (MacKinnon, 2006 p.18).From a gender based analysis it is evident that the legal framework did not address the sexual violence against women in Bosnia well (MacKinnon, 2006 p.89).According to MacKinnon (2006), sexual violence was used so consciously and cynically in a way that destroyed people.MacKinnon, C., (2006) Are Women Human?
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Oxford, Blackwell Publishers .Unfortunately, there is no single consensus on the definition of feminism and feminist theory, and, therefore, it is unrealistic to portray feminist archaeology as a homogeneous, ideologically-coherent framework.and MacKinnon J.J. (2000) A Feminist Critique of Recent Archaeological Theories and Explanations of the Rise of State-Level Societies.: political feminism, gender theory and historical revision.In contrast to the assumptions purported by other schools of theoretical archaeology, feminism has critiqued and argued against presumed concepts, encouraging the application of epistemological analysis to gender roles.
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For instance, if a black man and a white man are accused of a crime, both have an equal right under the law to a jury of their peers, but depending on the racial makeup of the jury selection pool, they may not have an equal opportunity for the enforcement of those rights.A black man may find himself facing a just or only white Americans and vice versa.In an extreme form of feminism, some believe that the woman’s capability of imbuing life and her propensity for compassion make her superior to the male of the species.Likewise, technically a rich man and a poor man have the same right counsel if accused of a crime, but the reality of access tells us that the rich man will likely hire an independent lawyer and will be less likely to serve t...
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