El Nino Southern Oscillation Essay

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In the distant past, when people experienced changes in the weather, such as scarcity in rainfall or an onslaught of torrential rains, unexpected increase or decrease in temperature, or other abnormal changes in weather condition for long periods of time, they were predisposed to consign these events to fate and have resolved to accept blindly what impacts these changes in their physical environment may bring. People at that time have no forewarning; and were always caught unprepared, in the midst of these abnormal climate changes impacting on their ecological systems. Archeological evidences featured in National Geographic’s magazines or in cable television’s Discovery Channel revealed that in the ancient uncivilized world it was a prevalent custom to offer human sacrifices. And whenever these ancient tribes experienced drought they attributed it to be the handiwork of their vengeful gods whom they may have displeased unknowingly, and by offering human sacrifices they wished to appease the displeased gods, anticipating that the abnormal climatic changes they were experiencing will revert back to normal.

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This research paper have four objectives, foremost of these objectives is 1) to present the practical uses of the discoveries of science in climatology particularly in the field of ENSO. Scientists usually have the inclination to know why things happen, seeking answers to many questions, and through their exploration make discoveries, amassing a wealth of knowledge about the natural world around them, but they are not necessarily interested in the practical applications of his/her discoveries.

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(1998) concerning impact of ENSO related climate anomalies on crop yields in the United States, the three phases of ENSO were identified and examined in relation with the crops yield. These three phases were known as 1) warm events also known as El Nino a term to describe the abnormal warming of the Pacific Ocean, 2) cold events also known as El Viejo or La Nina a term to describe the opposite of El Nino events and, 3) the neutral or non event. A more comprehensive way of defining ENSO can be found in the glossary of terms of the fifth technical paper of IPCC (Gitay, Suarez, Watson & Dokken, 2002). The paper stated that originally the term El Nino, refers to warm water current that periodically flows along the coast of Ecuador and Peru, and has disrupted the local fishery in the area. It further stated that this warming of the water current event when connected with fluctuations in the Southern Oscillation of the surface pressure pattern and circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans is now called as El Nino Southern Oscillation, or ENSO. It was further described in the technical paper, (Gitay, et al, 2002) that “during an El Nino event, the prevailing trade winds weaken and the equatorial countercurrent strengthens, causing warm surface waters in the Indonesian area to flow eastward to overlie the cold waters of the Peru Current.

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