Groundwater Use in Kathmandu Valley


...Start of the Groundwater Use in Kathmandu Valley...

The Kathmandu Valley, bowl shaped of 651 Km2 basin areas, has gently sloping valley floor, valley plain terraces with scrap faces together with the flood plains. The valley has warm temperate-semitropical climate and intended circular shaped drainage basin with only one outlet. The valley is filled with the fluvio-lacustrine sediments of quaternary age, making three groundwater zones. Only one water supply operator, Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL), is serving water supply in 5 Municipalities and 48 VDCs out of 99 VDCs using 35 surface sources, 57 deep tube wells, 20 WTPs, 43 service reservoirs and operating about 1300 major valves. The portion of groundwater contribution in total production is an average of 35% in dry season and 11% in wet season with yearly average of 19% in 2011, and found decreasing to 7%, 4%, and 3% in 2016, 2019 and 2025 respectively.


...Middle of the Groundwater Use in Kathmandu Valley...

It was realized that the poor state of water services in Kathmandu valley was a compounded result of deficiencies in water resources, weaknesses in system capacity, inadequacies in management efficiency and increasing political interferences after 1990 political change. As per agreement made with ADB for Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP), the Government of Nepal restructured the existing only one State owned regulator  and operator , Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC) and establishing three separate entities, each for the role of asset ownership and policy setting (Kathmandu Valley Water Supply Management Board (KVWSMB), operation and management of services (Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) and economic regulation of the services (Water Supply Tariff Fixation Commission (WSTFC).


...End of the Groundwater Use in Kathmandu Valley...

The pumping rate of the private wells in the valley is smaller compared to KUKL’s  tubewell abstraction. The trend of groundwater extraction volume from private wells and gas wells remains almost constant during the last several years. But the production from KUKL wells is increasing greatly. Deeper groundwater is being over-extracted and extraction is unsustainable. It is estimated that there are over 10,000 hand dug well .


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