Mechanisms that Lead to Dynamic Self-organization

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The self-assembly of structural motifs and the self-organization of dynamic motifs into highly ordered one-, two-, or three-dimensional patterns with controlled structures have received much attention in recent years, because of their importance in basic research and their potential applications [1,2]. The spontaneous formation of nano-scale patterns represents a significant way to control the structure and morphology of various functional materials [3,4]. This area is of significant interest because of its possible relevance in improving the materials properties. It can be achieved readily by organizing the nanostructure building blocks by reacting chemical systems over a broad spectrum of space and time [5]. The recent application of nonlinear chemical phenomena has been found in the designing of modern materials of advanced functionality [6-8].

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Our research interests are to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of aggregation in macromolecules related to the biological pattern formation. The growth of nanostructured dendritic crystals is also a profound example among a wide range of pattern-forming phenomena in nature and biology. The study of chemical and biological pattern and their shapes have considerable current interest due to its close resemblance with morphology of growing bodies. Irreversible aggregation of small particles to form large clusters is technologically and scientifically important. Far from, equilibrium growth phenomena have been reported in electrochemical deposition, physicochemical and biological systems.

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This chapter elucidates the roles of the various possible factors behind such phase-transformation along with the plausible explanation of the corresponding reaction pathways. furnishes the detailed experimental procedure and analysis for the growth of nanostructured DLA patterns in microemulsion consisting of water, styrene, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), potassium persulfate (PS) and oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reactant. The chapter describes the analysis of formation of a variety of spatiotemporal patterns and in the used BZ reaction system and has employed TEM, XRD and particle size analyzer to study the morphology, crystallinity and particle size of the associated structure formed.

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