...Start of the Methods For Determination Of Heavy Metals Biology Essay...
There are various analysis methods applied by researchers to determine the heavy metal contents of a particular sample. Of the various analytical methods used, atomic absorption spectroscopic methods are the most commonly used methods to determine the amount of heavy metals present in a particular sample. Preconcentration and separation methods have been routinely used to eliminate matrix effects and cope with low metal levels. Different preconcentration technique for heavy metals such as cloud point extraction, solid phase extraction and acid preconcentration were performed by researchers before the samples being analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. .. Chan and Teo (2001) used cloud point extraction (CPE) for the simultaneous pre-concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc after the formation of a complex with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) before the sample undergoing analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) as surfactant. Cloud point extraction is a separation and preconcentration procedure that has been extensively applied for trace metal determination in several different matrices. It is simple, rapid, high extraction efficiency and environmentally friendly. Its major advantages are simple experimental procedures, low cost, high preconcentration factors, and environmental safety.
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Figure 3: Effect of pH on the retention of the metal ions (n=4). (Duran et al., 2007) . Figure 3 showed that the effect of the pH that had been studied in experiment. pH of samples in the range 2 to 12 by adjusting the metal solutions with buffer solutions. Cu and Co were quantitatively recovered more than 95% in the pH range from 2 to 9. Quantitative recoveries were obtained in the pH range 3 to 9 for Ni, 4 to 9 for Cd, 5 to 9 for Pb, and 7 to 9 for Mn. According to the results, the optimum pH for multi-element preconcentration of the metals was 6, except for Mn for which the value is 8. . Figure 4: Effect of ligand quantity on the recoveries. (Duran et al., 2007) .
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( Dimitrakakis et al., 2009) .. For every product that available in the market, there must be a limit of the substances added that will gives the details of the contents of that particular product to ensure the safety of the product to consumer. According to Environmental Quality Act (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulation 1979, the maximum contaminant level of copper, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in waste water are 0.20, 0.01, 0.05, 0.20 and 0.20 ppm respectively. This means that if waste water sample was found to contain either one of the heavy metals mentioned having values exceeding the maximum contaminant level, that particular waste water sample could pose health hazards and environmental pollution to human being. .. High sensitivity of the analysis of the presence of heavy metals present in a waste water sample are needed to give a reliably accurate and precise result in some cases where there is only a slightly difference in the amount of heavy metals. The sensitivity of various heavy metals in F-AAS analysis can be enhanced by several methods. The sensitivity of F-AAS analysis for the detection of Cu, Cd and Pb can be enhanced by performing online sensitivity enchancement method involving the implementation of various designs of quartz tubes of slotted tube atom traps (STAT) system as published by Yaman (2005).
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Razzagh Mahmoudi*1, Karim Mardani2, Bahare RahimiAnalysis of Heavy Metals in Honey from NorthWestern Regions of Iran Journal of Chemical Health Risks (2015) 5(4, 251–256 .For this reason, due emphasis has been given to the determination of the levels of these heavy metals present in honey and some physicochemical properties of honey.Honey is defined as the natural sweet substance produced by Apis mellifera bees from the nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant-sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which the bees collect, transform by combining with specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in honeycombs to ripen and mature.measurements of heavy metal standa...
For more than 100 years, the main focus on standard for testing pharmaceuticals elements has been the Heavy Elements.Pharmaceutical analysis is a critical issue for human beings, not only to verify the effectiveness of drugs, but also for the safety issues.For the patient safety perspectives, the need for the analysis of elements in pharmaceuticals to qualify product is becoming more important.focused on repairing conventional solvent extraction methods for isolating environmental pollutants with solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques, which applied prior to spectrometric determination.Both of the techniques can be applied for variety of sample types and capable of rapid, multi-element analyses.
Kengara F.O, 2004: Analysis of organo-chlorine pesticides in Nyando catchments of Lake Victoria and fate studies of atrazine and glyphosate in soil using the radioisotope tracer technique: MSc Thesis-Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Maseno University, Kenya.Some of these metals are stored in the mother’s bones and are extracted from her to provide calcium for the development of the child’s bones.Animals can tolerate elevated levels of these metals though at certain levels clinical signs of toxicity manifest which can be acute or chronic when there is low exposure for a long time since these metals bio-accumulate in the body (IARC, 1997) and (Allcroft R, 1951).The presence of heavy metals in cow’s milk may be attributed to con...
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