Methods For Determination Of Heavy Metals Biology Essay

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There are various analysis methods applied by researchers to determine the heavy metal contents of a particular sample. Of the various analytical methods used, atomic absorption spectroscopic methods are the most commonly used methods to determine the amount of heavy metals present in a particular sample. Preconcentration and separation methods have been routinely used to eliminate matrix effects and cope with low metal levels. Different preconcentration technique for heavy metals such as cloud point extraction, solid phase extraction and acid preconcentration were performed by researchers before the samples being analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. .. Chan and Teo (2001) used cloud point extraction (CPE) for the simultaneous pre-concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc after the formation of a complex with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) before the sample undergoing analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) as surfactant. Cloud point extraction is a separation and preconcentration procedure that has been extensively applied for trace metal determination in several different matrices. It is simple, rapid, high extraction efficiency and environmentally friendly. Its major advantages are simple experimental procedures, low cost, high preconcentration factors, and environmental safety.

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Figure 3: Effect of pH on the retention of the metal ions (n=4). (Duran et al., 2007) . Figure 3 showed that the effect of the pH that had been studied in experiment. pH of samples in the range 2 to 12 by adjusting the metal solutions with buffer solutions. Cu and Co were quantitatively recovered more than 95% in the pH range from 2 to 9. Quantitative recoveries were obtained in the pH range 3 to 9 for Ni, 4 to 9 for Cd, 5 to 9 for Pb, and 7 to 9 for Mn. According to the results, the optimum pH for multi-element preconcentration of the metals was 6, except for Mn for which the value is 8. . Figure 4: Effect of ligand quantity on the recoveries. (Duran et al., 2007) .

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( Dimitrakakis et al., 2009) .. For every product that available in the market, there must be a limit of the substances added that will gives the details of the contents of that particular product to ensure the safety of the product to consumer. According to Environmental Quality Act (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulation 1979, the maximum contaminant level of copper, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in waste water are 0.20, 0.01, 0.05, 0.20 and 0.20 ppm respectively. This means that if waste water sample was found to contain either one of the heavy metals mentioned having values exceeding the maximum contaminant level, that particular waste water sample could pose health hazards and environmental pollution to human being. .. High sensitivity of the analysis of the presence of heavy metals present in a waste water sample are needed to give a reliably accurate and precise result in some cases where there is only a slightly difference in the amount of heavy metals. The sensitivity of various heavy metals in F-AAS analysis can be enhanced by several methods. The sensitivity of F-AAS analysis for the detection of Cu, Cd and Pb can be enhanced by performing online sensitivity enchancement method involving the implementation of various designs of quartz tubes of slotted tube atom traps (STAT) system as published by Yaman (2005).

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