Scarcity of Water in Saudi Arabia, Africa and Australia Cause and Effect Essay

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Among the major challenges that have continued to threaten the existence of man on planet earth is the decreasing availability of water. Water resources are now being used for generating electricity and manufacturing industrial products among other uses that have recently emerged (Business Council of Australia 2011). Rainfall remains the major source of fresh water. Regions that receive adequate rainfall are often rich in water resources. Often, such regions produce high agricultural yields, and have abundant fresh water sources such as rivers and lakes. On the other hand, regions that receive very low rainfall (such as deserts) have scarce water resources (IBG 2011). With an average annual rainfall that falls below 200mm, deserts are the driest regions on our planet. Due to scarcity of rainfall, Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Australia are among the regions on our planet that have been hit by a recurring problem of water scarcity (Royal Geographical Society 2008).

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A negative effect of climate change is a decrease in the amount of available precipitation. Usually, precipitation is often reduced as a result of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Sadly, like most other parts of the world, the trend in Africa, Australia, and Arabia has been a decrease in rainfall and an increase in temperatures. Diagram 1.1 shows how surface temperatures have been rising at Lake Tanganyika; an indication of rising temperatures in the region. Here, droughts are now increasingly common; hence, resulting in water shortage. Such a direction has been observed in worst affected regions like Ethiopia in Africa. Here, temperatures have been increasing by an average of about four degrees in the past decades. Lake Tanganyika, East Africa Source: UNDP Generally, deserts (like the Sahara) have been increasing in size over the years. The current trend where the ice caps of major mountains like Mt.

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Other useful approaches that can be employed to tackle the problem of water shortage include employing water recycling techniques and desalination of sea water (Shaw 2008). So as to stem the water scarcity challenge in Africa, Saudi Arabia and Australia, a good management policy is required. While some of the measures that can be undertaken to tackle the water challenges here are required to operate at the local level within the areas that have been affected, some of the measures that are needed will require an integrated global approach. While measures like planting of trees and cleaning of rivers require a more local based approach, tackling the challenge of greenhouse effect (as it was realised in the Kyoto protocol) requires an integrated global approach. Business Council f Australia, 2011, Water under pressure, Business Council of Australia Press, Sydney Chartres, C., 2006, “Can Australia overcome its water scarcity problems?” Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 17-24 Gonfiantini, R., 2000 investigating water resources of the desert: How isotopes can help, IAEA, vol. 126 IBG, 2011, The Geography of the Middle East, IBG press, New York IFAD, 2008, Desertification, IFAD press, New York Issar, S., 2006 Climate Changes in the Levant during the late quaternary period, Cambridge University Press, New York.

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