Water stress Essay

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Water stress, which can also be water scarcity, is a situation where the demand for water exceeds the available water resources. The lack of water in the world is mainly due to the geographical and temporal imbalance between the demand and the availability of fresh water. More than one in six people in the world suffers from water stress, which means that they do not have enough access to safe drinking water. The main causes of water shortage are related to human interference with the water cycle. The countries of the Near East, the Middle East, Africa and Asia are considerably affected by this phenomenon. According to the United Nations, two-thirds of the world's population will live under water stress in 2025. . Water scarcity or water stress is a situation in which the demand for water exceeds the available water resources in a specific geographic area. Water stress can be measured as a percentage, by relating the need for water to the available resources.

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), have a “high” probability of water stress, because 40% to 80% of the available water resource is is taken. More than one in six people in the world suffered from water stress in 2006, which means that they do not have sufficient access to safe drinking water. People suffering from water stress represent 1.1 billion people worldwide and live in developing countries. One third of the population (2 billion people) lives in conditions of severe water scarcity for at least one month a year ,,,. Half a billion people around the world face severe water scarcity throughout the year Half of the world's largest cities experience water scarcity. Globally and on an annual basis, sufficient fresh water is available to meet this demand, but spatial and temporal analyzes of water demand and availability are important, this which results in (physical) water scarcity in many parts of the world during specific times of the year. The scarcity varies over time due to natural hydrological variability, but even more depending on current approaches to economic policy, planning and management. The scarcity can be expected to intensify with most forms of economic development, but if properly identified, many of its causes can be predicted, avoided or mitigated. The UN estimates that by 2025, 25 African countries are expected to suffer from water scarcity or water stress.

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A study published in early 2017 in Nature Climate Change concludes that a warming mountain climate can (counter-intuitively) in some regions slow down the melting of : "Less snow accumulated on the ground" will melt earlier in the season, but also more slowly (instead of lasting until summer and releasing a large quantity of water by melting quickly). Indeed, the thermal inertia of the mass of snow will be less, and earlier in the season the night temperatures are lower while during the day the sun is lower and heats less. However, an early and slowed melting of the snow favors evaporation, to the detriment of the high flows normally generated by the late melting of a large layer of snow which feeds the streams then the water tables and rivers (up to hundreds or thousands of kilometers far downstream). A little earlier and slower snowmelt has already been observed. It affects the quality and timing of the water cycle, especially in the mountains in North America. This phenomenon is expected to continue and increase to the detriment of groundwater recharge, or even at the risk of interrupting the water cycle in some regions. Water stress induces a risk of sharply reducing the carbon sink capacity of forest soils and of degrading these soils and wetlands, while exacerbating the risk of forest fires, and degrading the forest. ecology of watercourses.

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